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Association between high-mobility group box 1 levels and febrile seizures in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Biofluorescent sexual dimorphism revealed in a southern Appalachian endemic salamander, Plethodon metcalfi

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Full C-band wavelength-tunable, 250 MHz repetition rate mode-locked polarization-maintaining fiber laser

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Risk factors associated with limited functional status among out-of-hospital patients 30 days and one year after a diagnosis of COVID-19: a cohort study

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Determination of orally administered 1,8-Cineol in nasal polyp tissues from chronic rhinosinusitis patients using gas chromatography: mass spectrometry

Effect of Vitamin D analog supplementation on levator ani strength and plasma Vitamin D receptor expression in uterine prolapse patients

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Machine learning classifiers for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in general adults

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Successful induction of pseudopregnancy using sonic vibration in mice

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Effects of additive interactions among obesity, visceral adiposity, and sarcopenia on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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Synthesis and characterization of calcium and magnesium based oxides and titanates for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B: a comparative study

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Primary ILM peeling during retinal detachment repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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Room-temperature bonding of Al 2 O 3 thin films deposited using atomic layer deposition

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Strata temperatures and geothermal resource evaluation in the Dongpu Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, North China

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A mathematical model for COVID-19 considering waning immunity, vaccination and control measures

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Feature augmentation based on information fusion rectification for few-shot image classification

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An edge communication based probabilistic caching for transient content distribution in vehicular networks

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Management of mung bean leaf spot disease caused by Phoma herbarum through Penicillium janczewskii metabolites mediated by MAPK signaling cascade

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Comparison of clinicopathological and genomic profiles in anal squamous cell carcinoma between Japanese and Caucasian cohorts

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Technical assessment of different extraction methods and transcriptome profiling of RNA isolated from small volumes of blood

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Significance of pulse pressure variability in predicting functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective, single-center, observational cohort study

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The top list of academic search engines

academic search engines

Academic search engines have become the number one resource to turn to in order to find research papers and other scholarly sources. While classic academic databases like Web of Science and Scopus are locked behind pay walls, Google Scholar and others can be accessed free of charge. In order to help you get your research done fast, we have compiled the top list of academic search engines.

Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let's you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.

Search interface of Google Scholar

It's Microsoft answer to Google Scholar. Microsoft Academic takes a different approach and generates for each paper that is indexed an overview page that allows to easily explore top citing articles and references of the article.

Search interface of Microsoft Academic

BASE is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany and that's where it name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).

Search interface of Bielefeld Academic Search Engine aka BASE

CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open access research papers. For each search result a link to the full text PDF or full text web page is provided.

Search interface of the CORE academic search engine is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need any more to query all those resources separately!

Search interface of

Semantic Scholar is the new kid on the block. It's mission is to provide more relevant and impactful search results using AI powered algorithms that find hidden connections and links between research topics.

Search interface of Semantic Scholar

Although Baidu Scholar's interface is in Chinese it's index contains research papers in English as well as Chinese.

Search interface of Baidu Scholar

RefSeek searches more than one billion documents from academic and organizational websites. Its clean interface makes it especially easy to use for students and new researchers.

Search interface of RefSeek

Google Scholar is an academic search engine, and it is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let's you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.

BASE , as its name suggest is an academic search engine. It is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany and that's where it name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).

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21 Legit Research Databases for Free Journal Articles in 2022


Written by  Scribendi

Has this ever happened to you? While looking for websites for research, you come across a research paper site that claims to connect academics to a peer-reviewed article database for free.

Intrigued, you search for keywords related to your topic, only to discover that you must pay a hefty subscription fee to access the service. After the umpteenth time being duped, you begin to wonder if there's even such a thing as free journal articles .

Subscription fees and paywalls are often the bane of students and academics, especially those at small institutions who don't provide access to many free article directories and repositories.

Whether you're working on an undergraduate paper, a PhD dissertation, or a medical research study, we want to help you find tools to locate and access the information you need to produce well-researched, compelling, and innovative work.

Below, we discuss why peer-reviewed articles are superior and list out the best free article databases to use in 2022.

Download Our Free Research Database Roundup PDF

Why peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are more authoritative.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Determining what sources are reliable can be challenging. Peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are the gold standard in academic research. Reputable academic journals have a rigorous peer-review process.

The peer review process provides accountability to the academic community, as well as to the content of the article. The peer review process involves qualified experts in a specific (often very specific) field performing a review of an article's methods and findings to determine things like quality and credibility.

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in peer-reviewed article databases and research databases, and if you know that a database of journals is reliable, that can offer reassurances about the reliability of a free article. Peer review is often double blind, meaning that the author removes all identifying information and, likewise, does not know the identity of the reviewers. This helps reviewers maintain objectivity and impartiality so as to judge an article based on its merit.

Where to Find Peer-Reviewed Articles

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in a variety of research databases. Below is a list of some of the major databases you can use to find peer-reviewed articles and other sources in disciplines spanning the humanities, sciences, and social sciences.

What Are Open Access Journals?

An open access (OA) journal is a journal whose content can be accessed without payment. This provides scholars, students, and researchers with free journal articles . OA journals use alternate methods of funding to cover publication costs so that articles can be published without having to pass those publication costs on to the reader.

Open Access Journals

Some of these funding models include standard funding methods like advertising, public funding, and author payment models, where the author pays a fee in order to publish in the journal. There are OA journals that have non-peer-reviewed academic content, as well as journals that focus on dissertations, theses, and papers from conferences, but the main focus of OA is peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles.

The internet has certainly made it easier to access research articles and other scholarly publications without needing access to a university library, and OA takes another step in that direction by removing financial barriers to academic content.

Choosing Wisely

Features of legitimate oa journals.

 There are things to look out for when trying to decide if a free publication journal is legitimate:

Mission statement —The mission statement for an OA journal should be available on their website.

Publication history —Is the journal well established? How long has it been available?

Editorial board —Who are the members of the editorial board, and what are their credentials?

Indexing —Can the journal be found in a reliable database?

Peer review —What is the peer review process? Does the journal allow enough time in the process for a reliable assessment of quality?

Impact factor —What is the average number of times the journal is cited over a two-year period?

Features of Illegitimate OA Journals

There are predatory publications that take advantage of the OA format, and they are something to be wary of. Here are some things to look out for:

Contact information —Is contact information provided? Can it be verified?

Turnaround —If the journal makes dubious claims about the amount of time from submission to publication, it is likely unreliable.

Editorial board —Much like determining legitimacy, looking at the editorial board and their credentials can help determine illegitimacy.

Indexing —Can the journal be found in any scholarly databases?

Peer review —Is there a statement about the peer review process? Does it fit what you know about peer review?

How to Find Scholarly Articles

Identify keywords.

Keywords are included in an article by the author. Keywords are an excellent way to find content relevant to your research topic or area of interest. In academic searches, much like you would on a search engine, you can use keywords to navigate through what is available to find exactly what you're looking for.

Authors provide keywords that will help you easily find their article when researching a related topic, often including general terms to accommodate broader searches, as well as some more specific terms for those with a narrower scope. Keywords can be used individually or in combination to refine your scholarly article search.

Narrow Down Results

Sometimes, search results can be overwhelming, and searching for free articles on a journal database is no exception, but there are multiple ways to narrow down your results. A good place to start is discipline.

What category does your topic fall into (psychology, architecture, machine learning, etc.)? You can also narrow down your search with a year range if you're looking for articles that are more recent.

A Boolean search can be incredibly helpful. This entails including terms like AND between two keywords in your search if you need both keywords to be in your results (or, if you are looking to exclude certain keywords, to exclude these words from the results).

Consider Different Avenues

If you're not having luck using keywords in your search for free articles, you may still be able to find what you're looking for by changing your tactics. Casting a wider net sometimes yields positive results, so it may be helpful to try searching by subject if keywords aren't getting you anywhere.

You can search for a specific publisher to see if they have OA publications in the academic journal database. And, if you know more precisely what you're looking for, you can search for the title of the article or the author's name.

The Top 21 Free Online Journal and Research Databases

Navigating OA journals, research article databases, and academic websites trying to find high-quality sources for your research can really make your head spin. What constitutes a reliable database? What is a useful resource for your discipline and research topic? How can you find and access full-text, peer-reviewed articles?

Fortunately, we're here to help. Having covered some of the ins and outs of peer review, OA journals, and how to search for articles, we have compiled a list of the top 21 free online journals and the best research databases. This list of databases is a great resource to help you navigate the wide world of academic research.

These databases provide a variety of free sources, from abstracts and citations to full-text, peer-reviewed OA journals. With databases covering specific areas of research and interdisciplinary databases that provide a variety of material, these are some of our favorite free databases, and they're totally legit!

CORE is a multidisciplinary aggregator of OA research. CORE has the largest collection of OA articles available. It allows users to search more than 219 million OA articles. While most of these link to the full-text article on the original publisher's site, or to a PDF available for download, five million records are hosted directly on CORE.

CORE's mission statement is a simple and straightforward commitment to offering OA articles to anyone, anywhere in the world. They also host communities that are available for researchers to join and an ambassador community to enhance their services globally. In addition to a straightforward keyword search, CORE offers advanced search options to filter results by publication type, year, language, journal, repository, and author.

CORE's user interface is easy to use and navigate. Search results can be sorted based on relevance or recency, and you can search for relevant content directly from the results screen.

Collection: 219,537,133 OA articles

Other Services: Additional services are available from CORE, with extras that are geared toward researchers, repositories, and businesses. There are tools for accessing raw data, including an API that provides direct access to data, datasets that are available for download, and FastSync for syncing data content from the CORE database.

CORE has a recommender plug-in that suggests relevant OA content in the database while conducting a search and a discovery feature that helps you discover OA versions of paywalled articles. Other features include tools for managing content, such as a dashboard for managing repository output and the Repository Edition service to enhance discoverability.

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: Yes

Advanced Search Options: Language, author, journal, publisher, repository, DOI, year

2. ScienceOpen

Functioning as a research and publishing network, ScienceOpen offers OA to more than 74 million articles in all areas of science. Although you do need to register to view the full text of articles, registration is free. The advanced search function is highly detailed, allowing you to find exactly the research you're looking for.

The Berlin- and Boston-based company was founded in 2013 to "facilitate open and public communications between academics and to allow ideas to be judged on their merit, regardless of where they come from." Search results can be exported for easy integration with reference management systems.

You can also bookmark articles for later research. There are extensive networking options, including your Science Open profile, a forum for interacting with other researchers, the ability to track your usage and citations, and an interactive bibliography. Users have the ability to review articles and provide their knowledge and insight within the community.

Collection: 74,560,631

Other Services: None

Advanced Search Options:  Content type, source, author, journal, discipline

3. Directory of Open Access Journals

A multidisciplinary, community-curated directory, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) gives researchers access to high-quality peer-reviewed journals. It has archived more than two million articles from 17,193 journals, allowing you to either browse by subject or search by keyword.

The site was launched in 2003 with the aim of increasing the visibility of OA scholarly journals online. Content on the site covers subjects from science, to law, to fine arts, and everything in between. DOAJ has a commitment to "increase the visibility, accessibility, reputation, usage and impact of quality, peer-reviewed, OA scholarly research journals globally, regardless of discipline, geography or language."

Information about the journal is available with each search result. Abstracts are also available in a collapsible format directly from the search screen. The scholarly article website is somewhat simple, but it is easy to navigate. There are 16 principles of transparency and best practices in scholarly publishing that clearly outline DOAJ policies and standards.

Collection: 6,817,242

Advanced Search Options:  Subject, journal, year

4. Education Resources Information Center

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) of the Institution of Education Sciences allows you to search by topic for material related to the field of education. Links lead to other sites, where you may have to purchase the information, but you can search for full-text articles only. You can also search only peer-reviewed sources.

The service primarily indexes journals, gray literature (such as technical reports, white papers, and government documents), and books. All sources of material on ERIC go through a formal review process prior to being indexed. ERIC's selection policy is available as a PDF on their website.

The ERIC website has an extensive FAQ section to address user questions. This includes categories like general questions, peer review, and ERIC content. There are also tips for advanced searches, as well as general guidance on the best way to search the database. ERIC is an excellent database for content specific to education.

Collection: 1,292,897

Advanced Search Options: Boolean

5. arXiv e-Print Archive

The arXiv e-Print Archive is run by Cornell University Library and curated by volunteer moderators, and it now offers OA to more than one million e-prints.

There are advisory committees for all eight subjects available on the database. With a stated commitment to an "emphasis on openness, collaboration, and scholarship," the arXiv e-Print Archive is an excellent STEM resource.

The interface is not as user-friendly as some of the other databases available, and the website hosts a blog to provide news and updates, but it is otherwise a straightforward math and science resource. There are simple and advanced search options, and, in addition to conducting searches for specific topics and articles, users can browse content by subject. The arXiv e-Print Archive clearly states that they do not peer review the e-prints in the database.

Collection: 1,983,891

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: No

Advanced Search Options:  Subject, date, title, author, abstract, DOI

6. Social Science Research Network

The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a collection of papers from the social sciences community. It is a highly interdisciplinary platform used to search for scholarly articles related to 67 social science topics. SSRN has a variety of research networks for the various topics available through the free scholarly database.

The site offers more than 700,000 abstracts and more than 600,000 full-text papers. There is not yet a specific option to search for only full-text articles, but, because most of the papers on the site are free access, it's not often that you encounter a paywall. There is currently no option to search for only peer-reviewed articles.

You must become a member to use the services, but registration is free and enables you to interact with other scholars around the world. SSRN is "passionately committed to increasing inclusion, diversity and equity in scholarly research," and they encourage and discuss the use of inclusive language in scholarship whenever possible.

Collection: 1,058,739 abstracts; 915,452 articles

Advanced Search Options: Term, author, date, network

7. Public Library of Science

Public Library of Science (PLOS) is a big player in the world of OA science. Publishing 12 OA journals, the nonprofit organization is committed to facilitating openness in academic research. According to the site, "all PLOS content is at the highest possible level of OA, meaning that scientific articles are immediately and freely available to anyone, anywhere."

PLOS outlines four fundamental goals that guide the organization: break boundaries, empower researchers, redefine quality, and open science. All PLOS journals are peer-reviewed, and all 12 journals uphold rigorous ethical standards for research, publication, and scientific reporting.

PLOS does not offer advanced search options. Content is organized by topic into research communities that users can browse through, in addition to options to search for both articles and journals. The PLOS website also has resources for peer reviewers, including guidance on becoming a reviewer and on how to best participate in the peer review process.

Collection: 12 journals

Advanced Search Options: None

8. OpenDOAR

OpenDOAR, or the Directory of Open Access Repositories, is a comprehensive resource for finding free OA journals and articles. Using Google Custom Search, OpenDOAR combs through OA repositories around the world and returns relevant research in all disciplines.

The repositories it searches through are assessed and categorized by OpenDOAR staff to ensure they meet quality standards. Inclusion criteria for the database include requirements for OA content, global access, and categorically appropriate content, in addition to various other quality assurance measures. OpenDOAR has metadata, data, content, preservation, and submission policies for repositories, in addition to two OA policy statements regarding minimum and optimum recommendations.

This database allows users to browse and search repositories, which can then be selected, and articles and data can be accessed from the repository directly. As a repository database, much of the content on the site is geared toward the support of repositories and OA standards.

Collection: 5,768 repositories

Other Services: OpenDOAR offers a variety of additional services. Given the nature of the platform, services are primarily aimed at repositories and institutions, and there is a marked focus on OA in general. Sherpa services are OA archiving tools for authors and institutions.

They also offer various resources for OA support and compliance regarding standards and policies. The publication router matches publications and publishers with appropriate repositories.

There are also services and resources from JISC for repositories for cost management, discoverability, research impact, and interoperability, including ORCID consortium membership information. Additionally, a repository self-assessment tool is available for members.

Advanced Search Options:  Name, organization name, repository type, software name, content type, subject, country, region

9. Bielefeld Academic Search Engine

The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) is operated by the Bielefeld University Library in Germany, and it offers more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 sources. Sixty percent of its content is OA, and you can filter your search accordingly.

BASE has rigorous inclusion requirements for content providers regarding quality and relevance, and they maintain a list of content providers for the sake of transparency, which can be easily found on their website. BASE has a fairly elegant interface. Search results can be organized by author, title, or date.

From the search results, items can be selected and exported, added to favorites, emailed, and searched in Google Scholar. There are basic and advanced search features, with the advanced search offering numerous options for refining search criteria. There is also a feature on the website that saves recent searches without additional steps from the user.

Collection: 276,019,066 documents; 9,286 content providers

Advanced Search Options:  Author, subject, year, content provider, language, document type, access, terms of reuse

Research Databases

10. Digital Library of the Commons Repository

Run by Indiana University, the Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) Repository is a multidisciplinary journal repository that allows users to access thousands of free and OA articles from around the world. You can browse by document type, date, author, title, and more or search for keywords relevant to your topic.

DCL also offers the Comprehensive Bibliography of the Commons, an image database, and a keyword thesaurus for enhanced search parameters. The repository includes books, book chapters, conference papers, journal articles, surveys, theses and dissertations, and working papers. DCL advanced search features drop-down menus of search types with built-in Boolean search options.

Searches can be sorted by relevance, title, date, or submission date in ascending or descending order. Abstracts are included in selected search results, with access to full texts available, and citations can be exported from the same page. Additionally, the image database search includes tips for better search results.

Collection: 10,784

Advanced Search Options:  Author, date, title, subject, sector, region, conference

11. CIA World Factbook

The CIA World Factbook is a little different from the other resources on this list in that it is not an online journal directory or repository. It is, however, a useful free online research database for academics in a variety of disciplines.

All the information is free to access, and it provides facts about every country in the world, which are organized by category and include information about history, geography, transportation, and much more. The World Factbook can be searched by country or region, and there is also information about the world’s oceans.

This site contains resources related to the CIA as an organization rather than being a scientific journal database specifically. The site has a user interface that is easy to navigate. The site also provides a section for updates regarding changes to what information is available and how it is organized, making it easier to interact with the information you are searching for.

Collection: 266 countries

12. Paperity

Paperity boasts its status as the "first multidisciplinary aggregator of OA journals and papers." Their focus is on helping you avoid paywalls while connecting you to authoritative research. In addition to providing readers with easy access to thousands of journals, Paperity seeks to help authors reach their audiences and help journals increase their exposure to boost readership.

Paperity has journal articles for every discipline, and the database offers more than a dozen advanced search options, including the length of the paper and the number of authors. There is even an option to include, exclude, or exclusively search gray papers.

Paperity is available for mobile, with both a mobile site and the Paperity Reader, an app that is available for both Android and Apple users. The database is also available on social media. You can interact with Paperity via Twitter and Facebook, and links to their social media are available on their homepage, including their Twitter feed.

Collection: 8,837,396

Advanced Search Options: Title, abstract, journal title, journal ISSN, publisher, year of publication, number of characters, number of authors, DOI, author, affiliation, language, country, region, continent, gray papers

13. dblp Computer Science Bibliography

The dblp Computer Science Bibliography is an online index of major computer science publications. dblp was founded in 1993, though until 2010 it was a university-specific database at the University of Trier in Germany. It is currently maintained by the Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz Center for Informatics.

Although it provides access to both OA articles and those behind a paywall, you can limit your search to only OA articles. The site indexes more than three million publications, making it an invaluable resource in the world of computer science. dblp entries are color-coded based on the type of item.

dblp has an extensive FAQ section, so questions that might arise about topics like the database itself, navigating the website, or the data on dblp, in addition to several other topics, are likely to be answered. The website also hosts a blog and has a section devoted to website statistics.

Collection: 5,884,702

14. EconBiz

EconBiz is a great resource for economic and business studies. A service of the Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, it offers access to full texts online, with the option of searching for OA material only. Their literature search is performed across multiple international databases.

EconBiz has an incredibly useful research skills section, with resources such as Guided Walk, a service to help students and researchers navigate searches, evaluate sources, and correctly cite references; the Research Guide EconDesk, a help desk to answer specific questions and provide advice to aid in literature searches; and the Academic Career Kit for what they refer to as Early Career Researchers.

Other helpful resources include personal literature lists, a calendar of events for relevant calls for papers, conferences, and workshops, and an economics terminology thesaurus to help in finding keywords for searches. To stay up-to-date with EconBiz, you can sign up for their newsletter.

Collection: 1,075,219

Advanced Search Options:  Title, subject, author, institution, ISBN/ISSN, journal, publisher, language, OA only

15. BioMed Central

BioMed Central provides OA research from more than 300 peer-reviewed journals. While originally focused on resources related to the physical sciences, math, and engineering, BioMed Central has branched out to include journals that cover a broader range of disciplines, with the aim of providing a single platform that provides OA articles for a variety of research needs. You can browse these journals by subject or title, or you can search all articles for your required keyword.

BioMed Central has a commitment to peer-reviewed sources and to the peer review process itself, continually seeking to help and improve the peer review process. They're "committed to maintaining high standards through full and stringent peer review." They publish the journal Research Integrity and Peer Review , which publishes research on the subject.

Additionally, the website includes resources to assist and support editors as part of their commitment to providing high-quality, peer-reviewed OA articles.

Collection: 507,212

Other Services: BMC administers the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry. While initially designed for registering clinical trials, since its creation in 2000, the registry has broadened its scope to include other health studies as well.

The registry is recognized by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), and it meets the requirements established by the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.

The study records included in the registry are all searchable and free to access. The ISRCTN registry "supports transparency in clinical research, helps reduce selective reporting of results and ensures an unbiased and complete evidence base."

Advanced Search Options:  Author, title, journal, list

A multidisciplinary search engine, JURN provides links to various scholarly websites, articles, and journals that are free to access or OA. Covering the fields of the arts, humanities, business, law, nature, science, and medicine, JURN has indexed almost 5,000 repositories to help you find exactly what you're looking for.

Search features are enhanced by Google, but searches are filtered through their index of repositories. JURN seeks to reach a wide audience, with their search engine tailored to researchers from "university lecturers and students seeking a strong search tool for OA content" and "advanced and ambitious students, age 14-18" to "amateur historians and biographers" and "unemployed and retired lecturers."

That being said, JURN is very upfront about its limitations. They admit to not being a good resource for educational studies, social studies, or psychology, and conference archives are generally not included due to frequently unstable URLs.

Collection: 5,064 indexed journals

Other Services: JURN has a browser add-on called UserScript. This add-on allows users to integrate the JURN database directly into Google Search. When performing a search through Google, the add-on creates a link that sends the search directly to JURN CSE. JURN CSE is a search service that is hosted by Google.

Clicking the link from the Google Search bar will run your search through the JURN database from the Google homepage. There is also an interface for a DuckDuckGo search box; while this search engine has an emphasis on user privacy, for smaller sites that may be indexed by JURN, DuckDuckGo may not provide the same depth of results.

Advanced Search Options:  Google search modifiers

Dryad is a digital repository of curated, OA scientific research data. Launched in 2009, it is run by a not-for-profit membership organization, with a community of institutional and publisher members for whom their services have been designed. Members include institutions such as Stanford, UCLA, and Yale, as well as publishers like Oxford University Press and Wiley.

Dryad aims to "promote a world where research data is openly available, integrated with the scholarly literature, and routinely reused to create knowledge." It is free to access for the search and discovery of data. Their user experience is geared toward easy self-depositing, supports Creative Commons licensing, and provides DOIs for all their content.

Note that there is a publishing charge associated if you wish to publish your data in Dryad. When searching datasets, they are accompanied by author information and abstracts for the associated studies, and citation information is provided for easy attribution.

Collection: 44,458

Advanced Search Options: No

Run by the British Library, the E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) allows you to search over 500,000 doctoral theses in a variety of disciplines. All of the doctoral theses available on EThOS have been awarded by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.

Although some full texts are behind paywalls, you can limit your search to items available for immediate download, either directly through EThOS or through an institution's website. More than half of the records in the database provide access to full-text theses.

EThOS notes that they do not hold all records for all institutions, but they strive to index as many doctoral theses as possible, and the database is constantly expanding, with approximately 3,000 new records added and 2,000 new full-text theses available every month. The availability of full-text theses is dependent on multiple factors, including their availability in the institutional repository and the level of repository development.

Collection: 500,000+

Advanced Search Options:  Abstract, author's first name, author's last name, awarding body, current institution, EThOS ID, year, language, qualifications, research supervisor, sponsor/funder, keyword, title

PubMed is a research platform well-known in the fields of science and medicine. It was created and developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). It has been available since 1996 and offers access to "more than 33 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books."

While PubMed does not provide full-text articles directly, and many full-text articles may be behind paywalls or require subscriptions to access them, when articles are available from free sources, such as through PubMed Central (PMC), those links are provided with the citations and abstracts that PubMed does provide.

PMC, which was established in 2000 by the NLM, is a free full-text archive that includes more than 6,000,000 records. PubMed records link directly to corresponding PMC results. PMC content is provided by publishers and other content owners, digitization projects, and authors directly.

Collection: 33,000,000+

Advanced Search Options: Author's first name, author's last name, identifier, corporation, date completed, date created, date entered, date modified, date published, MeSH, book, conflict of interest statement, EC/RN number, editor, filter, grant number, page number, pharmacological action, volume, publication type, publisher, secondary source ID, text, title, abstract, transliterated title

20. Semantic Scholar

A unique and easy-to-use resource, Semantic Scholar defines itself not just as a research database but also as a "search and discovery tool." Semantic Scholar harnesses the power of artificial intelligence to efficiently sort through millions of science-related papers based on your search terms.

Through this singular application of machine learning, Semantic Scholar expands search results to include topic overviews based on your search terms, with the option to create an alert for or further explore the topic. It also provides links to related topics.

In addition, search results produce "TLDR" summaries in order to provide concise overviews of articles and enhance your research by helping you to navigate quickly and easily through the available literature to find the most relevant information. According to the site, although some articles are behind paywalls, "the data [they] have for those articles is limited," so you can expect to receive mostly full-text results.

Collection: 203,379,033

Other Services: Semantic Scholar supports multiple popular browsers. Content can be accessed through both mobile and desktop versions of Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, and Opera.

Additionally, Semantic Scholar provides browser extensions for both Chrome and Firefox, so AI-powered scholarly search results are never more than a click away. The mobile interface includes an option for Semantic Swipe, a new way of interacting with your research results.

There are also beta features that can be accessed as part of the Beta Program, which will provide you with features that are being actively developed and require user feedback for further improvement.

Advanced Search Options: Field of study, date range, publication type, author, journal, conference, PDF

Zenodo, powered by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was launched in 2013. Taking its name from Zenodotus, the first librarian of the ancient library of Alexandria, Zenodo is a tool "built and developed by researchers, to ensure that everyone can join in open science." Zenodo accepts all research from every discipline in any file format.

However, Zenodo also curates uploads and promotes peer-reviewed material that is available through OA. A DOI is assigned to everything that is uploaded to Zenodo, making research easily findable and citable. You can sort by keyword, title, journal, and more and download OA documents directly from the site.

While there are closed access and restricted access items in the database, the vast majority of research is OA material. Search results can be filtered by access type, making it easy to view the free articles available in the database.

Collection: 2,220,000+

Advanced Search Options:  Access, file type, keywords

Check out our roundup of free research databases as a handy one-page PDF.

How to find peer-reviewed articles.

There are a lot of free scholarly articles available from various sources. The internet is a big place. So how do you go about finding peer-reviewed articles when conducting your research? It's important to make sure you are using reputable sources.

The first source of the article is the person or people who wrote it. Checking out the author can give you some initial insight into how much you can trust what you’re reading. Looking into the publication information of your sources can also indicate whether the article is reliable.

Aspects of the article, such as subject and audience, tone, and format, are other things you can look at when evaluating whether the article you're using is valid, reputable, peer-reviewed material. So, let's break that down into various components so you can assess your research to ensure that you're using quality articles and conducting solid research.

Check the Author

Peer-reviewed articles are written by experts or scholars with experience in the field or discipline they're writing about. The research in a peer-reviewed article has to pass a rigorous evaluation process, so it’s a foregone conclusion that the author(s) of a peer-reviewed article should have experience or training related to that research.

When evaluating an article, take a look at the author’s information. What credentials does the author have to indicate that their research has scholarly weight behind it? Finding out what type of degree the author has—and what that degree is in—can provide insight into what kind of authority the author is on the subject.

Something else that might lend credence to the author’s scholarly role is their professional affiliation. A look at what organization or institution they are affiliated with can tell you a lot about their experience or expertise. Where were they trained, and who is verifying their research?

Identify Subject and Audience

The ultimate goal of a study is to answer a question. Scholarly articles are also written for scholarly audiences, especially articles that have gone through the peer review process. This means that the author is trying to reach experts, researchers, academics, and students in the field or topic the research is based on.

Think about the question the author is trying to answer by conducting this research, why, and for whom. What is the subject of the article? What question has it set out to answer? What is the purpose of finding the information? Is the purpose of the article of importance to other scholars? Is it original content?

Research should also be approached analytically. Is the methodology sound? Is the author using an analytical approach to evaluate the data that they have obtained? Are the conclusions they've reached substantiated by their data and analysis? Answering these questions can reveal a lot about the article’s validity.

Format Matters

Reliable articles from peer-reviewed sources have certain format elements to be aware of. The first is an abstract. An abstract is a short summary or overview of the article. Does the article have an abstract? It's unlikely that you're reading a peer-reviewed article if it doesn’t. Peer-reviewed journals will also have a word count range. If an article seems far too short or incredibly long, that may be reason to doubt it.

Another feature of reliable articles is the sections the information is divided into. Peer-reviewed research articles will have clear, concise sections that appropriately organize the information. This might include a literature review, methodology, and results in the case of research articles and a conclusion.

One of the most important sections is the references or bibliography. This is where the researcher lists all the sources of their information. A peer-reviewed source will have a comprehensive reference section.

An article that has been written to reach an academic community will have an academic tone. The language that is used, and the way this language is used, is important to consider. If the article is riddled with grammatical errors, confusing syntax, and casual language, it almost definitely didn't make it through the peer review process.

Also consider the use of terminology. Every discipline is going to have standard terminology or jargon that can be used and understood by other academics in the discipline. The language in a peer-reviewed article is going to reflect that.

If the author is going out of their way to explain simple terms, or terms that are standard to the field or discipline, it's unlikely that the article has been peer reviewed, as this is something that the author would be asked to address during the review process.


The source of the article will be a very good indicator of the likelihood that it was peer reviewed. Where was the article published? Was it published alongside other academic articles in the same discipline? Is it a legitimate and reputable scholarly publication?

A trade publication or newspaper might be legitimate or reputable, but it is not a scholarly source, and it will not have been subject to the peer review process. Scholarly journals are the best resource for peer-reviewed articles, but it's important to remember that not all scholarly journals are peer reviewed.

It’s helpful to look at a scholarly source’s website, as peer-reviewed journals will have a clear indication of the peer review process. University libraries, institutional repositories, and reliable databases (and you now might have a list of some legit ones) can also help provide insight into whether an article comes from a peer-reviewed journal.

Free Online Journal

Common Research Mistakes to Avoid

Research is a lot of work. Even with high standards and good intentions, it’s easy to make mistakes. Perhaps you searched for access to scientific journals for free and found the perfect peer-reviewed sources, but you forgot to document everything, and your references are a mess. Or, you only searched for free online articles and missed out on a ground-breaking study that was behind a paywall.

Whether your research is for a degree or to get published or to satisfy your own inquisitive nature, or all of the above, you want all that work to produce quality results. You want your research to be thorough and accurate.

To have any hope of contributing to the literature on your research topic, your results need to be high quality. You might not be able to avoid every potential mistake, but here are some that are both common and easy to avoid.

Sticking to One Source

One of the hallmarks of good research is a healthy reference section. Using a variety of sources gives you a better answer to your question. Even if all of the literature is in agreement, looking at various aspects of the topic may provide you with an entirely different picture than you would have if you looked at your research question from only one angle.

Not Documenting Every Fact

As you conduct your research, do yourself a favor and write everything down. Everything you include in your paper or article that you got from another source is going to need to be added to your references and cited.

It's important, especially if your aim is to conduct ethical, high-quality research, that all of your research has proper attribution. If you don't document as you go, you could end up making a lot of work for yourself if the information you don’t write down is something that later, as you write your paper, you really need.

Using Outdated Materials

Academia is an ever-changing landscape. What was true in your academic discipline or area of research ten years ago may have since been disproven. If fifteen studies have come out since the article that you're using was published, it's more than a little likely that you're going to be basing your research on flawed or dated information.

If the information you're basing your research on isn’t as up-to-date as possible, your research won't be of quality or able to stand up to any amount of scrutiny. You don’t want all of your hard work to be for naught.

Relying Solely on Open Access Journals

OA is a great resource for conducting academic research. There are high-quality journal articles available through OA, and that can be very helpful for your research. But, just because you have access to free articles, that doesn't mean that there's nothing to be found behind a paywall.

Just as dismissing high-quality peer-reviewed articles because they are OA would be limiting, not exploring any paid content at all is equally short-sighted. If you're seeking to conduct thorough and comprehensive research, exploring all of your options for quality sources is going to be to your benefit.

Digging Too Deep or Not Deep Enough

Research is an art form, and it involves a delicate balance of information. If you conduct your research using only broad search terms, you won't be able to answer your research question well, or you'll find that your research provides information that is closely related to your topic but, ultimately, your findings are vague and unsubstantiated.

On the other hand, if you delve deeply into your research topic with specific searches and turn up too many sources, you might have a lot of information that is adjacent to your topic but without focus and perhaps not entirely relevant. It's important to answer your research question concisely but thoroughly.

Different Types of Scholarly Articles

Different types of scholarly articles have different purposes. An original research article, also called an empirical article, is the product of a study or an experiment. This type of article seeks to answer a question or fill a gap in the existing literature.

Research articles will have a methodology, results, and a discussion of the findings of the experiment or research and typically a conclusion.

Review articles overview the current literature and research and provide a summary of what the existing research indicates or has concluded. This type of study will have a section for the literature review, as well as a discussion of the findings of that review. Review articles will have a particularly extensive reference or bibliography section.

Theoretical articles draw on existing literature to create new theories or conclusions, or look at current theories from a different perspective, to contribute to the foundational knowledge of the field of study.

10 Tips for Navigating Journal Databases

Use the right academic journal database for your search, be that interdisciplinary or specific to your field. Or both!

If it’s an option, set the search results to return only peer-reviewed sources.

Start by using search terms that are relevant to your topic without being overly specific.

Try synonyms, especially if your keywords aren’t returning the desired results.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Even if you’ve found some good articles, try searching using different terms.

Explore the advanced search features of the database(s).

Learn to use Booleans (AND, OR, NOT) to expand or narrow your results.

Once you’ve gotten some good results from a more general search, try narrowing your search.

Read through abstracts when trying to find articles relevant to your research.

Keep track of your research and use citation tools. It’ll make life easier when it comes time to compile your references.

7 Frequently Asked Questions

1. how do i get articles for free.

Free articles can be found through free online academic journals, OA databases, or other databases that include OA journals and articles. These resources allow you to access free papers online so you can conduct your research without getting stuck behind a paywall.

Academics don’t receive payment for the articles they contribute to journals. There are often, in fact, publication fees that scholars pay in order to publish. This is one of the funding structures that allows OA journals to provide free content so that you don’t have to pay fees or subscription costs to access journal articles.

2. How Do I Find Journal Articles?

Journal articles can be found in databases and institutional repositories that can be accessed at university libraries. However, online research databases that contain OA articles are the best resource for getting free access to journal articles that are available online.

Peer-reviewed journal articles are the best to use for academic research, and there are a number of databases where you can find peer-reviewed OA journal articles. Once you've found a useful article, you can look through the references for the articles the author used to conduct their research, and you can then search online databases for those articles, too.

3. How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in reputable scholarly peer-reviewed journals. High-quality journals and journal articles can be found online using academic search engines and free research databases. These resources are excellent for finding OA articles, including peer-reviewed articles.

OA articles are articles that can be accessed for free. While some scholarly search engines and databases include articles that aren't peer reviewed, there are also some that provide only peer-reviewed articles, and databases that include non-peer-reviewed articles often have advanced search features that enable you to select “peer review only.” The database will return results that are exclusively peer-reviewed content.

4. What Are Research Databases?

A research database is a list of journals, articles, datasets, and/or abstracts that allows you to easily search for scholarly and academic resources and conduct research online. There are databases that are interdisciplinary and cover a variety of topics.

For example, Paperity might be a great resource for a chemist as well as a linguist, and there are databases that are more specific to a certain field. So, while ERIC might be one of the best educational databases available for OA content, it's not going to be one of the best databases for finding research in the field of microbiology.

5. How Do I Find Scholarly Articles for Specific Fields?

There are interdisciplinary research databases that provide articles in a variety of fields, as well as research databases that provide articles that cater to specific disciplines. Additionally, a journal repository or index can be a helpful resource for finding articles in a specific field.

When searching an interdisciplinary database, there are frequently advanced search features that allow you to narrow the search results down so that they are specific to your field. Selecting “psychology” in the advanced search features will return psychology journal articles in your search results. You can also try databases that are specific to your field.

If you're searching for law journal articles, many law reviews are OA. If you don’t know of any databases specific to history, visiting a journal repository or index and searching “history academic journals” can return a list of journals specific to history and provide you with a place to begin your research.

6. Are Peer-Reviewed Articles Really More Legitimate?

The short answer is yes, peer-reviewed articles are more legitimate resources for academic research. The peer review process provides legitimacy, as it is a rigorous review of the content of an article that is performed by scholars and academics who are experts in their field of study. The review provides an evaluation of the quality and credibility of the article.

Non-peer-reviewed articles are not subject to a review process and do not undergo the same level of scrutiny. This means that non-peer-reviewed articles are unlikely, or at least not as likely, to meet the same standards that peer-reviewed articles do.

7. Are Free Article Directories Legitimate?

Yes! As with anything, some databases are going to be better for certain requirements than others. But, a scholarly article database being free is not a reason in itself to question its legitimacy.

Free scholarly article databases can provide access to abstracts, scholarly article websites, journal repositories, and high-quality peer-reviewed journal articles. The internet has a lot of information, and it's often challenging to figure out what information is reliable. 

Research databases and article directories are great resources to help you conduct your research. Our list of the best research paper websites is sure to provide you with sources that are totally legit.

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How to get published.

You believe your research will make a contribution to your field, and you’re ready to share it with your peers far and wide, but how do you go about getting it published, and what exactly does that involve?  

If this is you, this page is a great place to start. Here you’ll find guidance to taking those first steps towards publication with confidence. From what to consider when choosing a journal, to how to submit an article and what happens next. 

Getting started

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How to Get Your Journal Article Published guide

Our handy guide is a quick overview covering the publishing process from preparing your article and choosing a journal, to publication (5 minute read).

View the How to Get Your Journal Article Published guide

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How to Get Published webinars

Free 1 hour monthly How to Get Published webinars cover topics including writing an article, the peer review process, and open access. Join fellow researchers and expert speakers live, or listen on catch up.

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SAGE Perspectives blog

Looking for tips on what to avoid for a faster peer review process? Or how to select the right title for your article?

Check out our blog

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SAGE Campus courses

Want something a bit more in-depth? SAGE Campus courses are short and interactive (around 2 hours each) and cover a range of skills, including getting published. Your library may already subscribe to this, or you may want to recommend that they do. Meanwhile, you can try free modules for size.  

Explore SAGE Campus

Choosing the right journal for you


Each journal has its own Aims and Scope, so acceptance of articles is not just about quality, but also about being a good fit. Does your work reflect the scope of the Journal? Is Open Access important to you? Or does your preferred journal publish on subscription? Researching the best match for your work will significantly improve your chances of being accepted.  

Watch our 2 minute video


If you already know which SAGE journal you’d like to publish your work, search for it and check its criteria are right for you. Or use the SAGE Journal Recommender to tell us your article title and subjects and see which journals are a potential home for your article. However you identify your choice, if it’s important to you, be prepared to adjust your article to suit the scope and style of the journal. 

Find journals with the SAGE Journal Recommender  or  browse all SAGE journals


Professional presentation of your work includes a precise and clear writing style, avoiding accidental plagiarism, and formatting your article to meet the criteria of your chosen journal. All of these take time and may not be skills inherent to your field of research. SAGE Author Services can help you to prepare your manuscript to comply with these and other related standards, which could significantly improve your chance of acceptance. 

Visit  SAGE Author Services

Submitting your article to a SAGE journal

You’ve identified the right journal, now you need to make sure your article is the perfect fit. Following the Guidelines can be the difference between acceptance and rejection, so it’s definitely worth it. We’ve got a selection of resources and guides to help: 

Watch How to Get Published: Submitting Your Paper (2 minute video)

Read our Article Submission infographic , a quick reminder of essentials

Here you’ll find chapter and verse on all aspects of our Manuscript Submission Guidelines

Ready to submit? Our online Submission Checklist will help you do a final check before sending your article to us.

Each journal retains editorial independence, which means their Guidelines will vary, so do go to the home page of your chosen journal to check anything you should be aware of. You can submit your article there too.

Promoting your article


The academic world is crowded, how can you make your article stand out? If you are active on social media platforms, telling your followers about your article is one of the simplest and most effective things you can do.


Between us, we can improve the chances of your article being found, read, downloaded and cited – of your article and you making an impact. Our tips and guidance will show you how to promote your article alongside building your academic profile.

Read our  tips on how to maximize your impact

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14 Websites to Download Research Paper for Free – 2023

Download Research Paper for Free

Websites to Download Research Paper for Free

Collecting and reading relevant research articles to one’s research areas is important for PhD scholars. But for any research scholar, downloading a research paper is one of the most difficult tasks. You must pay for access to high-quality research materials or subscribe to the journal or publication. In this article, ilovephd lists the top 14 websites to download free research papers, journals, books, datasets, patents, and conference proceedings downloads.

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Download Research Paper for Free – 2023

14 best free websites to download research papers are listed below:

Sci-Hub is a website link with over 64.5 million academic papers and articles available for direct download. It bypasses publisher paywalls by allowing access through educational institution proxies.  To download papers Sci-Hub  stores papers in its repository, this storage is called Library Genesis (LibGen) or library genesis proxy 2023.

Visit: Working Sci-Hub Proxy Links – 2023

2. Z-Library

Z-Library is a clone of Library Genesis, a shadow library project that allows users to share scholarly journal articles, academic texts, and general-interest books via file sharing (some of which are pirated). The majority of its books come from Library Genesis, however, some are posted directly to the site by individuals.

Individuals can also donate to the website’s repository to make literature more widely available. Z-library claims to have more than  10,139,382 Books  and  84,837,646 Articles  articles as of April 25, 2023.

It promises to be “the world’s largest e-book library” as well as “the world’s largest scientific papers repository,” according to the project’s page for academic publications (at Z-library also describes itself as a donation-based non-profit organization.

Visit: Z-Library – You can Download 70,000,000+ scientific articles for free

3. Library Genesis

The Library Genesis aggregator is a community aiming at collecting and cataloging item descriptions for the most part of scientific, scientific, and technical directions, as well as file metadata. In addition to the descriptions, the aggregator contains only links to third-party resources hosted by users. All information posted on the website is collected from publicly available public Internet resources and is intended solely for informational purposes.


4. Unpaywall

Unpaywall harvests Open Access content from over 50,000 publishers and repositories, and makes it easy to find, track, and use. It is integrated into thousands of library systems, search platforms, and other information products worldwide. In fact, if you’re involved in scholarly communication, there’s a good chance you’ve already used Unpaywall data.

Unpaywall is run by OurResearch, a nonprofit dedicated to making scholarships more accessible to everyone. Open is our passion. So it’s only natural our source code is open, too.


5. is an  Artificial Intelligence(AI)  powered search engine for search and understand  scientific articles  for researchers and scientists. It was developed as a part of the  Unpaywall  project. Unpaywall is a database of 23,329,737 free scholarly Open Access(OA) articles from over 50,000 publishers and repositories, and make it easy to find, track, and use.

Visit: Find and Understand 25 Million Peer-Reviewed Research Papers for Free

6. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) was launched in 2003 with 300 open-access journals. Today, this independent index contains almost 17 500 peer-reviewed, open-access journals covering all areas of science, technology, medicine, social sciences, arts, and humanities. Open-access journals from all countries and in all languages are accepted for indexing.

DOAJ is financially supported by many libraries, publishers, and other like-minded organizations. Supporting DOAJ demonstrates a firm commitment to open access and the infrastructure that supports it.


7. Researcher

The researcher is a free journal-finding mobile application that helps you to read new journal papers every day that are relevant to your research. It is the most popular mobile application used by more than 3 million scientists and researchers to keep themselves updated with the latest academic literature.

Visit: 10 Best Apps for Graduate Students 

8. Science Open

ScienceOpen  is a discovery platform with interactive features for scholars to enhance their research in the open, make an impact, and receive credit for it. It provides context-building services for publishers, to bring researchers closer to the content than ever before. These advanced search and discovery functions, combined with post-publication peer review, recommendation, social sharing, and collection-building features make  ScienceOpen  the only research platform you’ll ever need.

Visit: is a search engine for academic papers. Whether you are looking for a specific paper, or for research from a field, or all of an author’s works – is the place to find it.


10. Internet Archive Scholar

Internet Archive Scholar (IAS) is a full-text search index that includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth-century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

Visit: Sci hub Alternative – Internet Archive Scholar

11. Citationsy Archives

Citationsy was founded in 2017 after the reference manager Cenk was using at the time, RefMe, was shut down. It was immediately obvious that the reason people loved RefMe — a clean interface, speed, no ads, simplicity of use — did not apply to CiteThisForMe. It turned out to be easier than anticipated to get a rough prototype up.


CORE is the world’s largest aggregator of open-access research papers from repositories and journals. It is a not-for-profit service dedicated to the open-access mission. We serve the global network of repositories and journals by increasing the discoverability and reuse of open-access content.

It provides solutions for content management, discovery, and scalable machine access to research. Our services support a wide range of stakeholders, specifically researchers, the general public, academic institutions, developers, funders, and companies from a diverse range of sectors including but not limited to innovators, AI technology companies, digital library solutions, and pharma.


13. Dimensions

Dimensions cover millions of research publications connected by more than 1.6 billion citations, supporting grants, datasets, clinical trials, patents, and policy documents.

Dimensions are the most comprehensive research grants database that links grants to millions of resulting publications, clinical trials, and patents. It

provides up-to-the-minute online attention data via Altmetric, showing you how often publications and clinical trials are discussed around the world. 226m Altmetric mentions with 17m links to publications.

Dimensions include datasets from repositories such as Figshare, Dryad, Zenodo, Pangaea, and many more. It hosts millions of patents with links to other citing patents as well as to publications and supporting grants.


14. PaperPanda

PaperPanda is a Chrome extension that uses some clever logic and the Panda’s detective skills to find you the research paper PDFs you need. Essentially, when you activate PaperPanda it finds the DOI of the paper from the current page, and then goes and searches for it. It starts by querying various Open Access repositories like OpenAccessButton, OaDoi, SemanticScholar, Core, ArXiV, and the Internet Archive. You can also set your university libraries domain in the settings (this feature is in the works and coming soon). PaperPanda will then automatically search for the paper through your library. You can also set a different custom domain in the settings.

Visit: PaperPanda

I Hope, this article would help you to know some of the best websites to download the research papers and journals for free.

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hi im zara,student of art. could you please tell me how i can download the paper and books about painting, sewing,sustainable fashion,graphic and so on. thank a lot

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How to publish your research

A step-by-step guide to getting published.

Publishing your research is an important step in your academic career. While there isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach, this guide is designed to take you through the typical steps in publishing a research paper.

Discover how to get your paper published, from choosing the right journal and understanding what a peer reviewed article is, to responding to reviewers and navigating the production process.

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Step 1: choosing a journal.

Choosing which journal to publish your research paper in  is one of the most significant decisions you have to make as a researcher. Where you decide to submit your work can make a big difference to the reach and impact your research has.

It’s important to take your time to consider your options carefully and analyze each aspect of journal submission – from shortlisting titles to your preferred method of publication, for example  open access. 

Don’t forget to think about publishing options beyond the traditional journals format – for example, open research platform  F1000Research , which offers rapid, open publication for a wide range of outputs.

Vector illustration depicting two characters choosing a journal from a screen which is in the middle of them.

Why choose your target journal before you start writing?

The first step in publishing a research paper should always be selecting the journal you want to publish in. Choosing your target journal before you start writing means you can tailor your work to build on research that’s already been published in that journal. This can help editors to see how a paper adds to the ‘conversation’ in their journal.

Vector illustration of a character wearing blue, facing away, holding a giant magnifying glass.

In addition, many journals only accept specific manuscript formats of article. So, by choosing a journal before you start, you can write your article to their specifications and audience, and ultimately improve your chances of acceptance.

To save time and for peace of mind, you can consider using  manuscript formatting experts  while you focus on your research.

How to select the journal to publish your research in

Choosing which journal to publish your research in can seem like an overwhelming task. So, for all the details of how to navigate this important step in publishing your research paper, take a look at  our choosing a journal guide . This will take you through the selection process, from understanding the aims and scope of the journals you’re interested in to making sure you choose a trustworthy journal.

Don’t forget to explore  our journal suggester  to see which Taylor & Francis journals could be right for your research.

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Go to guidance on choosing a journal

Step 2: writing your paper.

Writing an effective, compelling research paper  is vital to getting your research published. But if you’re new to putting together academic papers, it can feel daunting to start from scratch.

The good news is that if you’ve chosen the journal you want to publish in, you’ll have lots of examples already published in that journal to base your own paper on. We’ve gathered advice on every aspect of writing your paper, to make sure you get off to a great start.

How to write your paper

How you write your paper will depend on your chosen journal, your subject area, and the type of paper you’re writing. Everything from the style and structure you choose to the audience you should have in mind while writing will differ, so it’s important to think about these things before you get stuck in.

Our  writing your paper guide  will take you through everything you need to know to put together your research article and prepare it for submission. This includes getting to know your target journal, understanding your audiences, how to choose appropriate keywords, as a  guide through your research publication journey .

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You should also make sure you’re aware of all  editorial policies  for the journal you plan to submit to. Don’t forget that you can contact our  editing services  to help you refine your manuscript.

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Discover advice and guidance for writing your paper

Step 3: making your submission.

Once you’ve chosen the right journal and written your manuscript, the next step in publishing your research paper is  to make your submission .

Each journal will have specific submission requirements, so make sure you visit  Taylor & Francis Online  and carefully check through the  instructions for authors  for your chosen journal.

How to submit your manuscript

To submit your manuscript you’ll need to ensure that you’ve gone through all the steps in our  making your submission  guide. This includes thoroughly understanding your chosen journal’s instructions for authors, writing an effective cover letter, navigating the journal’s submission system, and ensuring your research data is prepared as required.

You can also  improve your submission experience  with our guide to avoid obstacles and complete a seamless submission.

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To make sure you’ve covered everything before you hit ‘submit’ you can also take a look at our  ‘ready to submit’ checklist (don’t forget, you should only submit to one journal at a time).

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Understand the process of making your submission

Step 4: navigating the peer review process.

Now you’ve submitted your manuscript, you need to get to grips with one of the most important parts of publishing your research paper –  the peer review process .

What is peer review?

Peer review is the independent assessment of your research article by independent experts in your field. Reviewers, also sometimes called ‘referees’, are asked to judge the validity, significance, and originality of your work.

This process ensures that a peer-reviewed article has been through a rigorous process to make sure the methodology is sound, the work can be replicated, and it fits with the aims and scope of the journal that is considering it for publication. It acts as an important form of quality control for research papers.

Vector illustration showing a checklist, person with a magnifying glass, mug of hot drink to show the different elements of peer review.

Peer review is also a very useful source of feedback, helping you to improve your paper before it’s published. It is intended to be a collaborative process, where authors engage in a dialogue with their peers and receive constructive feedback and support to advance their work.

Almost all research articles go through peer review, although in some cases the journal may operate post-publication peer review, which means that reviews and reader comments are invited after the paper is published.

If you’ll like to feel more confident before getting your work peer reviewed by the journal, you may want to consider using an  in-depth technical review service from experts.

Understanding peer review

Peer review can be a complex process to get your head around. That’s why we’ve put together a  comprehensive guide to understanding peer review . This explains everything from the many different types of peer review to the step-by-step peer review process and how to revise your manuscript. It also has helpful advice on what to do if your manuscript is rejected.

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Visit our peer review guide for authors

Step 5: the production process.

If your paper is accepted for publication, it will then head into  production . At this stage of the process, the paper will be prepared for publishing in your chosen journal.

A lot of the work to produce the final version of your paper will be done by the journal production team, but your input will be required at various stages of the process.

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What do you need to do during production?

During production, you’ll have a variety of tasks to complete and decisions to make. For example, you’ll need to check and correct proofs of your article and consider whether or not you want to  produce a video abstract  to accompany it.

Take a look at  our guide to the production process  to find out what you’ll need to do in this final step to getting your research published.

Your research is published – now what?

You’ve successfully navigated publishing a research paper – congratulations! But the process doesn’t stop there. Now your research is published in a journal for the world to see, you’ll need to know  how to access your article  and  make sure it has an impact .

Here’s a  quick tip on how to boost your research impact  by investing in making your accomplishments stand out.

Below you’ll find helpful tips and post-publication support. From how to communicate about your research to how to request corrections or translations.

How to access your published article

When you publish with Taylor & Francis, you’ll have access to a new section on Taylor & Francis Online called  Authored Works . This will give you and all other named authors perpetual access to your article, regardless of whether or not you have a subscription to the journal you have published in.

You can also  order print copies of your article .

How to make sure your research has an impact

Taking the time to make sure your research has an impact can help drive your career progression, build your networks, and secure funding for new research. So, it’s worth investing in.

Creating a real impact with your work can be a challenging and time-consuming task, which can feel difficult to fit into an already demanding academic career.

To help you understand what impact means for you and your work, take a look at  our guide to research impact . It covers why impact is important, the different types of impact you can have, how to achieve impact – including tips on communicating with a variety of audiences – and how to measure your success.

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Keeping track of your article’s progress

Through your  Authored Works access , you’ll be able to get real-time insights about your article, such as views, downloads and citation numbers.

In addition, when you publish an article with us, you’ll be offered the option to sign up for email updates. These emails will be sent to you three, six and twelve months after your article is published to let you know how many views and citations the article has had.

Corrections and translations of published articles

Sometimes after an article has been published it may be necessary to make a change to the  Version of Record . Take a look at our dedicated  guide to corrections, expressions of concern, retractions and removals  to find out more.

You may also be interested in translating your article into another language. If that’s the case, take a look at our  information on article translations .

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Go to your guide on moving through production

Explore related posts.

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Tips for writing a literature review

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Extracting a journal article from your thesis

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How to get an article published for the first time 


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How to Get Research Experience

New section.

Working in a research setting can help make you a competitive medical school applicant and help you to determine if a career in medicine or medical research is right for you

male student working in chemistry lab

How do I find a research position?

If you’re currently in college, check with your institution’s science or undergraduate research websites for opportunities to assist with faculty research projects. You can also review faculty bio pages and lab websites for more information. Next, reach out to your immediate network: express your interest in assisting with a research project to your science professors, academic advisor, and your pre-health advisor.

Try exchanging ideas with your peers and upper-classmen for advice on research opportunities at your institution. You can also ask peer advisors, resident advisors, or any fellow premedical students for introductions to principal investigators (PIs). You might even try the “Undergrad-Grad-PI” method. This is where you first reach out to undergraduate students in research labs to learn about their responsibilities; they oftentimes are more responsive. Then, reach out to the graduate or post-doc students to learn about the research question being investigated. After this, read the most recent paper or abstract the lab published. Once you complete these steps, you can approach the PI more confidently and more effectively demonstrate your commitment to and understanding of their project.

Your school’s career center or student employment office may know about research job openings, and they can also offer resume help and go over interview tips and techniques. Remember, opportunities may be on or off campus, full- or part-time, paid or unpaid, or part of a summer program. Once you find a position, you can connect with your school’s fellowships or awards office to inquire about research funding opportunities.

If you’ve already graduated, consider looking into open positions. Research hospitals, universities, and biotech companies are always looking for lab technicians or clinical research coordinators (CRC). Job opportunities are typically posted on the career pages of their websites.

When should I begin gaining research experience in college?

Some premedical students begin their research experiences during their first year of college, and others begin research positions after they have already graduated. On average, most students secure a research position junior or senior year. There are three big factors that will impact this:

When is the best time to look for a position?

According to Kate Stutz, Ph.D., Director of Pre-Health Advising at Brandeis University, if you’re interested a research position during the academic year, the best time to look for positions is at the very beginning of the semester. There also tend to be a lot of research opportunities in the summer, both paid and volunteer, through set programs like the National Science Foundation’s Research Experience for Undergraduates (REUs). It’s best to start applying for summer research positions in December-February for the upcoming summer. Remember, typically there are more applicants than available spots so get your applications in early. Each undergraduate institution will be different, therefore make sure to connect with your advisors and peers for feedback on when to start looking.

What’s the best way to apply?

The outreach email message that you send to potential research faculty is very important. This message should include a formal introduction of yourself, evidence that you are familiar with their research project(s), and a clear, specific ask. Identify what you hope to contribute to the project. Do you want to clean the glassware or analyze lab findings? Consider attaching your resume as well. Dr. Stutz stresses that networking and persistence are crucial to finding a position. Make sure you’re using all of your network, including your peers and professors, to find open positions. Don’t be afraid to send follow up emails; faculty are very busy and often overlook emails. Sometimes, it can be even more effective to stop by a professor’s office hours to hand deliver your materials and indicate your interest in person.

How should I prepare for an interview?

With any interview, it’s important to make a good impression. Be sure to dress appropriately. Come prepared with a resume. Use your campus career center for advice on proper attire and resume best practices.

Often during interviews, you’ll be asked about your career goals. It’s helpful to be able to speak about the steps you plan to take to meet those goals. Talk about classes you’ve taken, especially upper-level science courses. Speak about your skills, your knowledge of techniques, and the equipment you’ve used throughout your coursework. Be prepared to discuss the lab experiments you’ve completed. If you’ve done any sort of research—even in your coursework—keep track of it. This shows you have experience. Lastly, interviewers often ask candidates if they have any questions. Dr. Stutz suggests asking something that indicates you’ve done your own research into their project. You could ask where they see their research going in the next three years or what challenges they anticipate. You could also ask about expectations for undergraduate researchers; do they expect you to work 20+ hours a week? Full time over the summer? Do they require you to have work study or to sign up for research credits? Asking these questions ahead of time can help you plan ahead and determine if this position is the best fit for you. Check out these  interview resources  for more tips.

Does research experience have to be in a wet lab?

No! Research can be performed in any field or subject. We’ve had successful applicants with research in classics, sociology, history, and policy, as well as applicants with research in biology, biochemistry, and neuroscience. Medical schools value all types of research. Research can take place in a scientific lab that requires advanced devices and procedures to obtain data for analysis. Research can also take place in the humanities or social sciences where participant interviews or surveys are needed to obtain an individual's life perspective. The clinical research field is constantly investigating patient outcomes and how to improve care through clinical trials or analysis of patient data. As a premedical student, consider what question you want to investigate further. Do you want to learn more about how health inequities impact disadvantaged communities in your area, or perhaps you want to know more about the protein channels involved in memory cognition? Once you choose a direction, you can then partner with a research PI for guidance on how to navigate your question. Sierra Perez, Pre-Health Advisor at Brandeis University, shares not to be afraid to get creative with your research question. She has been impressed by the medical school applicants who have created independent questions that address the community needs. “Applicants are recognizing the critical needs of specific populations, such as homelessness, LGBTQ+, veterans, youth with disabilities, etc.,” she stated. “There is also a demand for translational researchers, or individuals who can take complicated bench topics and apply it to the clinical world.”

Is research experience required to be accepted to medical school? 

It depends. Some medical schools are very research focused; they may require a research thesis or have research time built into the curriculum. Other schools are more community or clinically focused; they would rather have an applicant work in a healthcare setting or volunteer at their local soup kitchen than be at the bench moving clear liquids from one test tube to another. Research experience (in whatever discipline) is helpful for developing some of the AAMC Core Competencies , such as critical thinking, quantitative reasoning, scientific reasoning, as well as teamwork and oral communication skills. How much you should engage in research depends on how much you enjoy it once you try it!

The majority of accepted medical school applicants have some form of academic or clinical research at the time they apply. Competence in research has become increasingly important in the medical field to improve patient care outcomes.

You can also review medical school mission statements to see if research is a focus at a particular school. You can read each school’s mission, and the number of accepted students in their most recent class who had research experience, in the  Medical School Admission Requirements . Remember, it’s best to pursue experiences that you’re genuinely interested in, rather than just to check a box, but you may not know if research is for you until you give it a try.  

How to Find Research Articles

Last Updated: October 29, 2022 References

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 10,252 times. Learn more...

If you need original research for a paper or other project, chances are you're going to be looking for scholarly journals. Most of these journals are digitized and available online. However, not all are available for free. Many are contained in databases that require a subscription to access. Once you've found a research article you think you might be able to use, you'll also want to make certain that the article you're reading is primary research. In the sciences, a primary research article discusses a study conducted by the authors of the article and the results of that study, rather than merely summarizing the findings of others. [1] X Research source

Using Free Academic Search Engines

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Warning: Most academic search engines only provide you the link to a citation and abstract, not the full text of the article. However, you can read the abstract to determine if the article would be helpful for you.

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Tip: As you're scrolling your search results, look for a link with a PDF extension. These are more likely to be the full text of the article.

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Accessing Scholarly Databases

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Tip: If you're not affiliated with a college or university, talk to the research librarian at your public library. Public libraries often have scholarly database subscriptions as well.

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Identifying Articles about Primary Research

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Tip: If you see an article with the word "review" in the title, it typically does not present original research. However, it does provide an overview and analysis of several studies on the same subject. You can use it to see if any of those studies would help you, then look for those articles.

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Tip: Use the references to find other primary research articles that the author or authors relied upon when presenting their own findings.

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Q. What's the difference between a research article (or research study) and a review article?


Answered By: Priscilla Coulter Last Updated: Jul 29, 2022     Views: 221713

A research paper is a primary source ...that is, it reports the methods and results of an original study performed by the authors . The kind of study may vary (it could have been an experiment, survey, interview, etc.), but in all cases, raw data have been collected and analyzed by the authors , and conclusions drawn from the results of that analysis.

Research papers follow a particular format.  Look for:

You can use the library's article databases to search for research articles:

A review article is a secondary source is written about other articles, and does not report original research of its own.  Review articles are very important, as they draw upon the articles that they review to suggest new research directions, to strengthen support for existing theories and/or identify patterns among exising research studies.  For student researchers, review articles provide a great overview of the existing literature on a topic.    If you find a literature review that fits your topic, take a look at its references/works cited list for leads on other relevant articles and books!

You can use the library's article databases to find literature reviews as well!  Click here for tips.

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How to get published in an academic journal: top tips from editors

Journal editors share their advice on how to structure a paper, write a cover letter - and deal with awkward feedback from reviewers

Writing for academic journals is highly competitive. Even if you overcome the first hurdle and generate a valuable idea or piece of research - how do you then sum it up in a way that will capture the interest of reviewers?

There’s no simple formula for getting published - editors’ expectations can vary both between and within subject areas. But there are some challenges that will confront all academic writers regardless of their discipline. How should you respond to reviewer feedback? Is there a correct way to structure a paper? And should you always bother revising and resubmitting? We asked journal editors from a range of backgrounds for their tips on getting published.

The writing stage

1) Focus on a story that progresses logically, rather than chronologically

Take some time before even writing your paper to think about the logic of the presentation. When writing, focus on a story that progresses logically, rather than the chronological order of the experiments that you did. Deborah Sweet, editor of Cell Stem Cell and publishing director at Cell Press

2) Don’t try to write and edit at the same time

Open a file on the PC and put in all your headings and sub-headings and then fill in under any of the headings where you have the ideas to do so. If you reach your daily target (mine is 500 words) put any other ideas down as bullet points and stop writing; then use those bullet points to make a start the next day.

If you are writing and can’t think of the right word (eg for elephant) don’t worry - write (big animal long nose) and move on - come back later and get the correct term. Write don’t edit; otherwise you lose flow. Roger Watson, editor-in-chief, Journal of Advanced Nursing

3) Don’t bury your argument like a needle in a haystack

If someone asked you on the bus to quickly explain your paper, could you do so in clear, everyday language? This clear argument should appear in your abstract and in the very first paragraph (even the first line) of your paper. Don’t make us hunt for your argument as for a needle in a haystack. If it is hidden on page seven that will just make us annoyed. Oh, and make sure your argument runs all the way through the different sections of the paper and ties together the theory and empirical material. Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies

4) Ask a colleague to check your work

One of the problems that journal editors face is badly written papers. It might be that the writer’s first language isn’t English and they haven’t gone the extra mile to get it proofread. It can be very hard to work out what is going on in an article if the language and syntax are poor. Brian Lucey, editor, International Review of Financial Analysis

5) Get published by writing a review or a response

Writing reviews is a good way to get published - especially for people who are in the early stages of their career. It’s a chance to practice at writing a piece for publication, and get a free copy of a book that you want. We publish more reviews than papers so we’re constantly looking for reviewers.

Some journals, including ours, publish replies to papers that have been published in the same journal. Editors quite like to publish replies to previous papers because it stimulates discussion. Yujin Nagasawa, c o-editor and review editor of the European Journal for Philosophy of Religion , philosophy of religion editor of Philosophy Compass

6) Don’t forget about international readers

We get people who write from America who assume everyone knows the American system - and the same happens with UK writers. Because we’re an international journal, we need writers to include that international context. Hugh McLaughlin, editor in chief, Social Work Education - the International Journal

7) Don’t try to cram your PhD into a 6,000 word paper

Sometimes people want to throw everything in at once and hit too many objectives. We get people who try to tell us their whole PhD in 6,000 words and it just doesn’t work. More experienced writers will write two or three papers from one project, using a specific aspect of their research as a hook. Hugh McLaughlin, editor in chief, Social Work Education - the International Journal

Submitting your work

8) Pick the right journal: it’s a bad sign if you don’t recognise any of the editorial board

Check that your article is within the scope of the journal that you are submitting to. This seems so obvious but it’s surprising how many articles are submitted to journals that are completely inappropriate. It is a bad sign if you do not recognise the names of any members of the editorial board. Ideally look through a number of recent issues to ensure that it is publishing articles on the same topic and that are of similar quality and impact. Ian Russell, editorial director for science at Oxford University Press

9) Always follow the correct submissions procedures

Often authors don’t spend the 10 minutes it takes to read the instructions to authors which wastes enormous quantities of time for both the author and the editor and stretches the process when it does not need to Tangali Sudarshan, editor, Surface Engineering

10) Don’t repeat your abstract in the cover letter We look to the cover letter for an indication from you about what you think is most interesting and significant about the paper, and why you think it is a good fit for the journal. There is no need to repeat the abstract or go through the content of the paper in detail – we will read the paper itself to find out what it says. The cover letter is a place for a bigger picture outline, plus any other information that you would like us to have. Deborah Sweet, editor of Cell Stem Cell and publishing director at Cell Press

11) A common reason for rejections is lack of context

Make sure that it is clear where your research sits within the wider scholarly landscape, and which gaps in knowledge it’s addressing. A common reason for articles being rejected after peer review is this lack of context or lack of clarity about why the research is important. Jane Winters, executive editor of the Institute of Historical Research’s journal, Historical Research and associate editor of Frontiers in Digital Humanities: Digital History

12) Don’t over-state your methodology

Ethnography seems to be the trendy method of the moment, so lots of articles submitted claim to be based on it. However, closer inspection reveals quite limited and standard interview data. A couple of interviews in a café do not constitute ethnography. Be clear - early on - about the nature and scope of your data collection. The same goes for the use of theory. If a theoretical insight is useful to your analysis, use it consistently throughout your argument and text. Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies

Dealing with feedback

13) Respond directly (and calmly) to reviewer comments

When resubmitting a paper following revisions, include a detailed document summarising all the changes suggested by the reviewers, and how you have changed your manuscript in light of them. Stick to the facts, and don’t rant. Don’t respond to reviewer feedback as soon as you get it. Read it, think about it for several days, discuss it with others, and then draft a response. Helen Ball, editorial board, Journal of Human Lactation

14) Revise and resubmit: don’t give up after getting through all the major hurdles

You’d be surprised how many authors who receive the standard “revise and resubmit” letter never actually do so. But it is worth doing - some authors who get asked to do major revisions persevere and end up getting their work published, yet others, who had far less to do, never resubmit. It seems silly to get through the major hurdles of writing the article, getting it past the editors and back from peer review only to then give up. Fiona Macaulay, editorial board, Journal of Latin American Studies

15) It is acceptable to challenge reviewers, with good justification

It is acceptable to decline a reviewer’s suggestion to change a component of your article if you have a good justification, or can (politely) argue why the reviewer is wrong. A rational explanation will be accepted by editors, especially if it is clear you have considered all the feedback received and accepted some of it. Helen Ball, editorial board of Journal of Human Lactation

16) Think about how quickly you want to see your paper published

Some journals rank more highly than others and so your risk of rejection is going to be greater. People need to think about whether or not they need to see their work published quickly - because certain journals will take longer. Some journals, like ours, also do advance access so once the article is accepted it appears on the journal website. This is important if you’re preparing for a job interview and need to show that you are publishable. Hugh McLaughlin, editor in chief, Social Work Education - the International Journal

17) Remember: when you read published papers you only see the finished article

Publishing in top journals is a challenge for everyone, but it may seem easier for other people. When you read published papers you see the finished article, not the first draft, nor the first revise and resubmit, nor any of the intermediate versions – and you never see the failures. Philip Powell, managing editor of the Information Systems Journal

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Every college student conducts research at some point. And professors have strong views on what counts as a credible academic resource. Choosing the wrong sources can hurt your grade.

So how can you conduct research efficiently while avoiding sleepless nights in the campus library? Online academic research websites make it easier to find reliable sources quickly. is an advertising-supported site. Featured or trusted partner programs and all school search, finder, or match results are for schools that compensate us. This compensation does not influence our school rankings, resource guides, or other editorially-independent information published on this site.

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College students conduct academic research in all kinds of disciplines, including science, history, literature, engineering, and education. And when it comes to college research papers , academic resources are the best sources.

Rather than pulling random facts from the internet — and running into problems with citations — college students need to know how to find credible sources and how to use online academic tools. Keep reading to learn how you can find the best credible sources for your college research needs.

How to Find Credible Sources for Research

How can you find credible sources for research and avoid misinformation? Your instructor likely recommends avoiding general web content or Wikipedia.

Finding the most reliable websites for research starts with evaluating the website itself. Sites run by academic or government organizations rank high in reliability. Databases and specialized search engines can also provide good research sources.

Next, make sure you understand the source of the information and the process used to publish it. Scholarly articles and books that undergo peer review make for the best academic resources.

Finally, when in doubt, check with your instructor or an academic librarian. They can help point you to reliable sources or double-check sources you're unsure about.

The 10 Best Academic Research Sources

What resources will point you toward reliable sources for your academic research? Rather than scrolling through pages of search results, turn to these academic resources when you need to find sources.

1. Google Scholar

Looking for an academic article, thesis , or abstract? Google Scholar should be your first stop. Google Scholar helps you find related works, locate full documents at your school library , and access scholarly research.

While Google created Google Scholar, it's very different from a general online search. Google Scholar brings together academic articles and ranks them based on the authors, publication location, and citation record. That means the top results generally represent the most reliable scholarship on your topic.

For journal articles, books, images, and even primary sources, JSTOR ranks among the best online resources for academic research. JSTOR's collection spans 75 disciplines, with strengths in the humanities and social sciences . The academic research database includes complete runs of over 2,800 journals.

And if you're looking for images, turn to Artstor , which offers over 2.5 million images related to the arts, sciences, and literature. However, JSTOR is not an open-access database. That means you'll need to log in through your university library, which typically includes off-campus access .

3. Library of Congress

As the largest library in the world, the Library of Congress is an amazing online resource for academic research. Students can search its collections to access digital resources, videos, audio recordings, photographs, and maps.

The library's materials also include notated music, web archives, legislation, and 3D objects. You'll find materials for almost any topic in its extensive collections. You can search historic American newspapers from 1777-1963 with the Chronicling America tool or look up pirate trials in another digital collection.

4. PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, runs PubMed Central. Founded in 2000, the database includes academic scholarship dating back to the 18th century. The resource connects college students with life sciences and biomedical academic sources.

And as an open-access database, PubMed Central offers free access to scholarly literature. Today, PubMed Central has over 7 million full-text records, making it a great resource for students in the life sciences or medical fields.

5. Google Books

Whether you're looking for a recent publication or an out-of-print book, there's a good chance you'll find it on Google Books. In 2019, Google announced that Google Books contains over 40 million books .

You can enter any search term to find books that contain matches. And you can download the full text of any book in the public domain — which includes 10 million titles. Make sure to check publisher and author information when using Google Books.

The site also includes reference pages that link to book reviews. Keep in mind that you'll have more limited access to recent books. Still, Google Books is a great first step to find sources that you can later look for at your campus library.


If you're looking for scientific research, is a great option. The site provides full-text documents, scientific data, and other resources from federally funded research.

A U.S. government site, searches more than 60 databases and 2,200 scientific websites. You'll find over 200 million pages of research and development information, including projects funded by 14 federal agencies. Students in any STEM field can benefit from the resource.

7. Digital Commons Network

University librarians curate the Digital Commons Network, which connects students with peer-reviewed articles. The site's other resources include dissertations, book chapters, conference proceedings, and working papers.

The Digital Commons Network includes scholarly work from diverse disciplines like architecture, business, education, law, and the sciences. You can also access humanities, social sciences, and engineering scholarship through the network.

8. ResearchGate

ResearchGate has been described as social networking for research scientists. But ResearchGate is also a great option to find open-access academic sources. Scholars upload their work to ResearchGate, which makes it available to the public for free.

Currently, over 20 million researchers around the world use the site, which contains over 135 million publications. College students looking for scientific research can often find resources on ResearchGate and even connect with scholars.

9. WorldCat

When you're looking for library resources, WorldCat is one of the best tools. Connected to over 10,000 libraries, WorldCat is a database that allows you to search library collections.

The database lists books and articles available at your local libraries, making it easier to find materials that are not available online. In addition to books, WorldCat contains music, videos, audiobooks, and scholarly articles.

You can also find digital research materials, including photos. When you're logged into WorldCat through your university library, you can also access full-text articles and other resources. Or you can use WorldCat to find sources to request through interlibrary loan.

10. Your University Library

When you're conducting academic research, your university library can be one of your best resources. In addition to online databases, journal articles, and books, your campus library also has academic librarians who can point you to the best sources.

When you don't know where to start, reach out to an academic librarian to learn more about your school's research tools. Or use interlibrary loan to get a scanned copy of an article. Many of the campus library's resources are available online, making them easy to access.

How to Access Academic Resources

Many sites offer open-access resources. That means anyone can access the materials. Other sites restrict what you can read. For example, you might find some blank pages when searching on Google Books because of copyright restrictions. And many academic articles are behind paywalls.

Fortunately, college students benefit from one of the best resources for conducting research: the university library. Your library likely subscribes to multiple academic databases and journals. If you run into a paywall, check whether your library offers access to the resource.

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What Is Peer Review? | Types & Examples

Published on December 17, 2021 by Tegan George . Revised on November 25, 2022.

Peer review, sometimes referred to as refereeing , is the process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Using strict criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decides whether to accept each submission for publication.

Peer-reviewed articles are considered a highly credible source due to the stringent process they go through before publication.

There are various types of peer review. The main difference between them is to what extent the authors, reviewers, and editors know each other’s identities. The most common types are:

Collaborative review

Open review.

Relatedly, peer assessment is a process where your peers provide you with feedback on something you’ve written, based on a set of criteria or benchmarks from an instructor. They then give constructive feedback, compliments, or guidance to help you improve your draft.

Table of contents

What is the purpose of peer review, types of peer review, the peer review process, providing feedback to your peers, peer review example, advantages of peer review, criticisms of peer review, frequently asked questions about peer reviews.

Many academic fields use peer review, largely to determine whether a manuscript is suitable for publication. Peer review enhances the credibility of the manuscript. For this reason, academic journals are among the most credible sources you can refer to.

However, peer review is also common in non-academic settings. The United Nations, the European Union, and many individual nations use peer review to evaluate grant applications. It is also widely used in medical and health-related fields as a teaching or quality-of-care measure.

Peer assessment is often used in the classroom as a pedagogical tool. Both receiving feedback and providing it are thought to enhance the learning process, helping students think critically and collaboratively.

Depending on the journal, there are several types of peer review.

Single-blind peer review

The most common type of peer review is single-blind (or single anonymized) review . Here, the names of the reviewers are not known by the author.

While this gives the reviewers the ability to give feedback without the possibility of interference from the author, there has been substantial criticism of this method in the last few years. Many argue that single-blind reviewing can lead to poaching or intellectual theft or that anonymized comments cause reviewers to be too harsh.

Double-blind peer review

In double-blind (or double anonymized) review , both the author and the reviewers are anonymous.

Arguments for double-blind review highlight that this mitigates any risk of prejudice on the side of the reviewer, while protecting the nature of the process. In theory, it also leads to manuscripts being published on merit rather than on the reputation of the author.

Triple-blind peer review

While triple-blind (or triple anonymized) review —where the identities of the author, reviewers, and editors are all anonymized—does exist, it is difficult to carry out in practice.

Proponents of adopting triple-blind review for journal submissions argue that it minimizes potential conflicts of interest and biases. However, ensuring anonymity is logistically challenging, and current editing software is not always able to fully anonymize everyone involved in the process.

In collaborative review , authors and reviewers interact with each other directly throughout the process. However, the identity of the reviewer is not known to the author. This gives all parties the opportunity to resolve any inconsistencies or contradictions in real time, and provides them a rich forum for discussion. It can mitigate the need for multiple rounds of editing and minimize back-and-forth.

Collaborative review can be time- and resource-intensive for the journal, however. For these collaborations to occur, there has to be a set system in place, often a technological platform, with staff monitoring and fixing any bugs or glitches.

Lastly, in open review , all parties know each other’s identities throughout the process. Often, open review can also include feedback from a larger audience, such as an online forum, or reviewer feedback included as part of the final published product.

While many argue that greater transparency prevents plagiarism or unnecessary harshness, there is also concern about the quality of future scholarship if reviewers feel they have to censor their comments.

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In general, the peer review process includes the following steps:

The peer review process

In an effort to be transparent, many journals are now disclosing who reviewed each article in the published product. There are also increasing opportunities for collaboration and feedback, with some journals allowing open communication between reviewers and authors.

It can seem daunting at first to conduct a peer review or peer assessment. If you’re not sure where to start, there are several best practices you can use.

Summarize the argument in your own words

Summarizing the main argument helps the author see how their argument is interpreted by readers, and gives you a jumping-off point for providing feedback. If you’re having trouble doing this, it’s a sign that the argument needs to be clearer, more concise, or worded differently.

If the author sees that you’ve interpreted their argument differently than they intended, they have an opportunity to address any misunderstandings when they get the manuscript back.

Separate your feedback into major and minor issues

It can be challenging to keep feedback organized. One strategy is to start out with any major issues and then flow into the more minor points. It’s often helpful to keep your feedback in a numbered list, so the author has concrete points to refer back to.

Major issues typically consist of any problems with the style, flow, or key points of the manuscript. Minor issues include spelling errors, citation errors, or other smaller, easy-to-apply feedback.

Tip: Try not to focus too much on the minor issues. If the manuscript has a lot of typos, consider making a note that the author should address spelling and grammar issues, rather than going through and fixing each one.

The best feedback you can provide is anything that helps them strengthen their argument or resolve major stylistic issues.

Give the type of feedback that you would like to receive

No one likes being criticized, and it can be difficult to give honest feedback without sounding overly harsh or critical. One strategy you can use here is the “compliment sandwich,” where you “sandwich” your constructive criticism between two compliments.

Be sure you are giving concrete, actionable feedback that will help the author submit a successful final draft. While you shouldn’t tell them exactly what they should do, your feedback should help them resolve any issues they may have overlooked.

As a rule of thumb, your feedback should be:

Below is a brief annotated research example. You can view examples of peer feedback by hovering over the highlighted sections.

Influence of phone use on sleep

Studies show that teens from the US are getting less sleep than they were a decade ago (Johnson, 2019) . On average, teens only slept for 6 hours a night in 2021, compared to 8 hours a night in 2011. Johnson mentions several potential causes, such as increased anxiety, changed diets, and increased phone use.

The current study focuses on the effect phone use before bedtime has on the number of hours of sleep teens are getting.

For this study, a sample of 300 teens was recruited using social media, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. The first week, all teens were allowed to use their phone the way they normally would, in order to obtain a baseline.

The sample was then divided into 3 groups:

All participants were asked to go to sleep around 10 p.m. to control for variation in bedtime . In the morning, their Fitbit showed the number of hours they’d slept. They kept track of these numbers themselves for 1 week.

Two independent t tests were used in order to compare Group 1 and Group 2, and Group 1 and Group 3. The first t test showed no significant difference ( p > .05) between the number of hours for Group 1 ( M = 7.8, SD = 0.6) and Group 2 ( M = 7.0, SD = 0.8). The second t test showed a significant difference ( p < .01) between the average difference for Group 1 ( M = 7.8, SD = 0.6) and Group 3 ( M = 6.1, SD = 1.5).

This shows that teens sleep fewer hours a night if they use their phone for over an hour before bedtime, compared to teens who use their phone for 0 to 1 hours.

Peer review is an established and hallowed process in academia, dating back hundreds of years. It provides various fields of study with metrics, expectations, and guidance to ensure published work is consistent with predetermined standards.

Peer review can stop obviously problematic, falsified, or otherwise untrustworthy research from being published. Any content that raises red flags for reviewers can be closely examined in the review stage, preventing plagiarized or duplicated research from being published.

Peer review represents an excellent opportunity to get feedback from renowned experts in your field and to improve your writing through their feedback and guidance. Experts with knowledge about your subject matter can give you feedback on both style and content, and they may also suggest avenues for further research that you hadn’t yet considered.

Peer review acts as a first defense, helping you ensure your argument is clear and that there are no gaps, vague terms, or unanswered questions for readers who weren’t involved in the research process. This way, you’ll end up with a more robust, more cohesive article.

While peer review is a widely accepted metric for credibility, it’s not without its drawbacks.

The more transparent double-blind system is not yet very common, which can lead to bias in reviewing. A common criticism is that an excellent paper by a new researcher may be declined, while an objectively lower-quality submission by an established researcher would be accepted.

The thoroughness of the peer review process can lead to significant delays in publishing time. Research that was current at the time of submission may not be as current by the time it’s published. There is also high risk of publication bias , where journals are more likely to publish studies with positive findings than studies with negative findings.

By its very nature, peer review carries a risk of human error. In particular, falsification often cannot be detected, given that reviewers would have to replicate entire experiments to ensure the validity of results.

Peer review is a process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Utilizing rigorous criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decide whether to accept each submission for publication. For this reason, academic journals are often considered among the most credible sources you can use in a research project– provided that the journal itself is trustworthy and well-regarded.

In general, the peer review process follows the following steps: 

Peer review can stop obviously problematic, falsified, or otherwise untrustworthy research from being published. It also represents an excellent opportunity to get feedback from renowned experts in your field. It acts as a first defense, helping you ensure your argument is clear and that there are no gaps, vague terms, or unanswered questions for readers who weren’t involved in the research process.

Peer-reviewed articles are considered a highly credible source due to this stringent process they go through before publication.

Many academic fields use peer review , largely to determine whether a manuscript is suitable for publication. Peer review enhances the credibility of the published manuscript.

However, peer review is also common in non-academic settings. The United Nations, the European Union, and many individual nations use peer review to evaluate grant applications. It is also widely used in medical and health-related fields as a teaching or quality-of-care measure. 

A credible source should pass the CRAAP test  and follow these guidelines:

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Why Companies Should Help Every Employee Chart a Career Path

Providing career development to all employees requires a commitment to clarifying pathways for growth and giving everyone opportunities to build new skills.

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Ask an HR leader whether their company is good at career development, and they will likely say that it is — and then they’ll talk about the programs they’ve designed for high-potential employees.

Ask them how well the company supports the rest of the workforce, and their answer will likely change. Some will say that they expect managers to be responsible for developing their people. Others will say that employees are empowered to “own” their own career development. The more transparent leaders might add that their approach works for some employees but not for most.

Those approaches might sound good but often don’t live up to their promise. This is a problem for companies, especially when it’s difficult to find and retain skilled employees. Leaders must do much more to help employees see a future with the company and a path to advance toward that future.

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Fortunately, a small but growing number of companies are finding ways to improve career development for all of their interested employees. Doing this at scale does not require the same level of investment that the company provides to its high-potential future leaders. It does, however, require the use of modern tools and a coherent approach that helps employees see a path forward, learn and practice the competencies they need, and receive solid feedback and coaching along the way.

In this article, we’ll share insights from a survey of more than 1,000 workers and interviews with talent and learning leaders at more than 25 organizations who are figuring this out.

Let’s Stop Kidding Ourselves

It’s convenient for senior executives who make decisions on HR policies and investments to delegate employee development to line managers or to spin a lack of organizational support as empowering employees to own their professional growth paths. Yet neither course is a very effective solution to a problem that requires a more systematic approach.

About the Authors

George Westerman is a senior lecturer at the MIT Sloan School of Management and founder of the Global Opportunity Initiative in MIT’s Office of Open Learning. Abbie Lundberg is editor in chief of MIT Sloan Management Review .

1. K. Parker and J.M. Horowitz, “ Majority of Workers Who Quit a Job in 2021 Cite Low Pay, No Opportunities for Advancement, Feeling Disrespected ,” Pew Research Center, March 9, 2022,

2. A. De Smet, B. Dowling, B. Hancock, et al., “ The Great Attrition Is Making Hiring Harder. Are You Searching the Right Talent Pools? ” McKinsey Quarterly, July 13, 2022,

3. Willis Towers Watson’s 2016 Global Talent Management and Rewards Study surveyed more than 2,000 companies globally, including 441 from the U.S.

4. Dervin is an editorial adviser to MIT Sloan Management Review.

5. W.R. Kerr, E. Billaud, and M.F. Hjortshoej, “Unilever’s Response to the Future of Work,” Harvard Business School case no. 820-104 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, April 2020).

6. D. Kiron, J. Schwartz, R. Jones, et al., “ Create a Crisis Growth Plan: Start With Opportunity Marketplaces ,” Sloan Management Review, June 23, 2020,; and M. Schrage, J. Schwartz, D. Kiron, et al., “ Opportunity Marketplaces: Aligning Workforce Investment and Value Creation in the Digital Enterprise ,” MIT Sloan Management Review, April 28, 2020,

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5 free and legal ways to get the full text of research articles

By Carol Hollier on 07-Apr-2021 13:23:17

Accessing full text of research articles | IFIS Publishing

1.  Use your library if you have one !

If you are affiliated with a university, you probably have free library access to the full text of millions of research articles.   The library will have subscribed to these journals on your behalf. The smartest thing you can do for accessing research articles is familiarize yourself with your own library.

If you are not affiliated with a university library, there are still ways you can successfully—and legally—get the full text of research articles.

2.  Open Access browser extensions  

More and more research is published Open Access as governments around the world are mandating that research paid for by taxpayer money be freely available to those taxpayers.

Browser extensions have been created to make it easy to spot when the full text of an article is free.   Some of the best are CORE Discovery , Unpaywall and Open Access Button .

Learn more about difference between discovery and access and why it matters for good research: Where to search - Best Practice for Literature Searching - LibGuides at IFIS

3. Google Scholar

You can search the article title inside quotation marks on Google Scholar to see if a link to a copy of the article appears.   If it does, be sure to pay attention to what version of the article you are linking to, to be sure you are getting what you think you’re getting.  These links can lead to an article's published version of record, a manuscript version, or to a thesis or conference proceeding with the same title and author as the article you expected to find.   

4.  Researcher platforms

 A Google Scholar search might lead you to a researcher platform like or ResearchGate .   There, if you set up an account, you can sometimes download or request a copy of the text.  Again, pay attention to which version of the text you get!

5.  Write to the author

If you can’t get a copy by other means, you can write to an article’s corresponding author and (politely!) ask them to send you a copy. Their contact information, usually an email address, will be listed in the information you find about the article, either in a database record for the article or on the publishing journal’s page for it. Many authors are happy to share a copy of their work.

Three bonus ways that might work depending on where you live:

1.  A nearby university library might offer access to articles even if you do not work or study there.

Members of the public are sometimes allowed access to university journal subscriptions through visitor access or a walk-in user service. You usually need to use the collections from a dedicated computer terminal located in a library and may need to make an appointment before you go. Do your research before showing up to make sure you bring the correct documents and equipment (like a flash drive) along.

2.  Try your public library

In some countries, public libraries partner with publishers to give the public access to research articles.   In the UK, for instance, many public libraries participate in the Access to Research scheme, which gives members of the public on-site access to over 30 million academic articles. Contact your local public library to learn what is available to you.

3.  Research4Life

In other countries, your institution might have access to a massive collection of research articles and databases through the publisher/library/United Nations agency initiative Research4Life . Check to see if you already have access, and if not, if your institution might be eligible to join. Membership is only available on an organizational or institutional level.  

Remember —even though you now have a lot of strategies for finding the full text of articles, research should never be led by the articles you can access most easily.

Good research is driven by first figuring out what articles are most relevant to your question and then getting the full text of what you need. One of the best ways to do this is to use a good discipline-specific database, like FSTA for the sciences of food and health.  

Learn more about difference between discovery and access and why it matters for good research:

Where to search - Best Practice for Literature Searching

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Publishing with Elsevier: step-by-step

Learn about the publication process and how to submit your manuscript. This tutorial will help you find the right journal and maximize the chance to be published.

1. Find a journal

Find out the journals that could be best suited for publishing your research. Match your manuscript using the JournalFinder tool, then learn more about each journal.


Powered by the Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™, Elsevier JournalFinder uses smart search technology and field-of-research-specific vocabularies to match your article to Elsevier journals.

Find out more about a journal

Learn about each journal's topics, impact and submission policies.

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2. Prepare your paper for submission

Download our get published quick guide , which outlines the essential steps in preparing a paper. (This is also available in Chinese ). It is very important that you stick to the specific "guide for authors" of the journal to which you are submitting. This can be found on the journal's home page.

You can find information about the publishing process in the understanding the publishing process guide. It covers topics such as authors' rights, ethics and plagiarism, and journal and article metrics.

If you have research data to share, make sure you read the guide for authors to find out which options the journal offers to share research data with your article.

Read more on preparing your paper

Read about publishing in a special issue

3. Submit and revise

You can submit to most Elsevier journals using our online systems.  The system you use will depend on the journal to which you submit. You can access the relevant submission system via the "submit your paper" link on the journal homepage of your chosen journal.

Alternatively, if you have been invited to submit to a journal, follow the instructions provided to you.

Once submitted, your paper will be considered by the editor and if it passes initial screening, it will be sent for peer review by experts in your field. If deemed unsuitable for publication in your chosen journal, the editor may suggest you transfer your submission to a more suitable journal, via an article transfer service.

Read more on how to submit and revise

4. Track your paper

Track your submitted paper.

You can track the status of your submitted paper online. The system you use to track your submission will be the same system to which you submitted. Use the reference number you received after submission to track your submission.

Unsure about what the submission status means? Check out this video .

In case of any problems contact the Support Center

Track your accepted paper

Once your paper is accepted for publication, you will receive a reference number and a direct link that lets you follow its publication status via Elsevier’s "Track Your Accepted Article" service.

However, even without a notification you can track the status of your article by entering your article reference number and corresponding author surname in Track Your Accepted Article .

Read more about the article tracking service

5. Share and promote

Now that your article is published, you can promote it to achieve a bigger impact for your research. Sharing research, accomplishments and ambitions with a wider audience makes you more visible in your field. This helps you get cited more, enabling you to cultivate a stronger reputation, promote your research and move forward in your career.

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Some whales use vocal fry to find and catch their food, new research says

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Scientists have confirmed that toothed whales use vocal registers to produce a variety of sounds – something previously confirmed only in humans and crows.


Vocal fry - you know, that low, creaky voice sound that a lot of people use? Well, new research in the journal Science now shows that the same type of vocal fry is what allows certain kinds of whales to find and catch their food. Science reporter Ari Daniel has more.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON: Passenger P. Scotty (ph), your flight is ready for departure.

ARI DANIEL, BYLINE: I got a hold of Coen Elemans at the Copenhagen airport.

COEN ELEMANS: They normally never say anything at this airport. They're very vocal today.

DANIEL: Elemans is a bioacoustician at the University of Southern Denmark, and he says the airport is as good a place as any to hear the different ways people vocalize.

ELEMANS: What I hear is a lot of people talking. They're mostly using what's called a chest register.

DANIEL: That's our typical speaking voice.



DANIEL: Then Elemans notices some music. The situation where we most often hear our higher pitched vocal register on display - falsetto.

ELEMANS: (Vocalizing) Singing register.

DANIEL: We also have a lower register below how we usually talk. That's vocal fry.

ELEMANS: It sounds like this (vocalizing).

DANIEL: All these sounds, we produce them by sending air across our vocal folds in the larynx. But this tissue vibrates differently for each register.

ELEMANS: In the vocal fry register, your vocal folds are most slack.

DANIEL: So they're thick and heavy.

ELEMANS: And they vibrate at their lowest frequencies.

DANIEL: In the falsetto register, they're stretched long and are under higher tension.

ELEMANS: And these leads to the highest frequencies.

DANIEL: Elemans wondered whether a similar thing might be at play in toothed whales - like bottlenose dolphins, orcas, pilot whales - to allow them to produce everything from whistles...


DANIEL: ...To bursts, the sound we associate with Flipper...


DANIEL: ...To echolocation clicks...


DANIEL: ...Used to hunt for food. Now, toothed whales have a larynx, but it doesn't produce sound. Rather...

ELEMANS: They evolved some new structure that's located in their nose that generates the sounds, what's called phonic lips.

DANIEL: For decades, it's been really hard to observe the phonic lips in action, but Elemans and his colleagues have managed to do just that. They lowered a small camera into the blowholes of a few trained captive dolphins and porpoises.

ELEMANS: And we showed that there's definitely movement of these while they make echolocation clicks.

DANIEL: Then they worked with harbor porpoises that had died in the wild and saw that the phonic lips aren't controlled by muscles.

ELEMANS: Instead, they move just like our human voice, by airflow, and that's a really striking parallel.

DANIEL: Additional experiments suggested toothed whales likely have separate vocal registers, just like we do, that generate their numerous sounds. The vocal fry register is responsible for echolocation.

AGNESE LANZETTI: This is, I think, the very best research that shows how the sounds are made mechanically and to prove that the sounds are generated by air.

DANIEL: University of Birmingham evolutionary biologist Agnese Lanzetti wasn't involved in the research. Her point about air is important because when an animal like a sperm whale dives deep below the surface, its lungs collapse under the pressure. But inside the bony structure of the nose, air can continue to move around and power echolocation, says Coen Elemans.

ELEMANS: By moving all the air into the nose, these toothed whales are able to generate much higher pressures to drive the system. And with that, they can make basically the loudest sounds any animal can make on the planet.

DANIEL: And more importantly, feed themselves in the process, turning vocal fry into fish fry. For NPR News, I'm Ari Daniel.

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close-up of a fruit fly

‘Let’s get real’: scientists discover a new way climate change threatens cold-blooded animals

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Lesley Alton receives funding from the Australian Research Council.

Vanessa Kellermann receives funding from Australian Research Council.

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All animals need energy to live. They use it to breathe, circulate blood, digest food and move. Young animals use energy to grow, and later in life , to reproduce.

Increased body temperature increases the rate at which an animal uses energy. Because cold-blooded animals rely on the thermal conditions of their environment to regulate their body temperature, they’re expected to need more energy as the planet warms.

However, our new research, published today in Nature Climate Change , suggests temperature is not the only environmental factor affecting the future energy needs of cold-blooded animals. How they interact with other species will also play a role.

Our findings suggest cold-blooded animals will need even more energy in a warmer world than previously thought. This may increase their extinction risk.

baby turtle emerging from shell

What we already know

The amount of energy animals use in a given amount of time is called their metabolic rate.

Metabolic rate is influenced by a variety of factors, including body size and activity levels. Larger animals have higher metabolic rates than smaller animals, and active animals have higher metabolic rates than inactive animals.

Metabolic rate also depends on body temperature. This is because temperature affects the rate at which the biochemical reactions involved in energy metabolism proceed. Generally, if an animal’s body temperature increases, its metabolic rate will accelerate exponentially .

Most animals alive today are cold-blooded, or “ectotherms”. Insects, worms, fish, crustaceans, amphibians and reptiles – basically all creatures except mammals and birds – are ectotherms.

As human-induced climate change raises global temperatures, the body temperatures of cold-blooded animals are also expected to rise.

Researchers say the metabolic rate of some land-based ectotherms may have already increased by between 3.5% and 12% due to climate warming that’s already occurred. But this prediction doesn’t account for the animals’ capacity to physiologically “acclimate” to warmer temperatures.

Acclimation refers to an animal’s ability to remodel its physiology to cope with a change in its environment.

But rarely can acclimation fully negate the effect of temperature on metabolic processes. For this reason, by the end of the century land-based ectotherms are still predicted to have metabolic rates about 20% to 30% higher than they are now.

Having a higher metabolic rate means that animals will need more food. This means they might starve if more food is not available, and leaves them less energy to find a mate and reproduce.

Read more: Why are bigger animals more energy-efficient? A new answer to a centuries-old biological puzzle

crocodile carrying baby in its mouth

Our research

Previous research attempts to understand the energetic costs of climate warming for ectotherms were limited in one important respect. They predominantly used animals studied in relatively simple laboratory environments where the only challenge they faced was a change in temperature.

However, animals face many other challenges in nature. This includes interacting with other species, such as competing for food and predator-prey relationships.

Even though species interact all the time in nature, we rarely study how this affects metabolic rates.

We wanted to examine how species interactions might alter predictions about the energetic costs of climate warming for cold-blooded animals. To do this, we turned to the fruit fly (from the genus Drosophila ).

Fruit fly species lay their eggs in rotting plant material. The larvae that hatch from these eggs interact and compete for food.

Our study involved rearing fruit fly species alone or together at different temperatures. We found when two species of fruit fly larvae compete for food at warmer temperatures, they were more active as adults than adults that didn’t compete with other species as larvae. This means they also used more energy.

From this, we used modelling to deduce that species interactions at warmer global temperatures increase the future energy needs of fruit flies by between 3% and 16%.

These findings suggest previous studies have underestimated the energetic cost of climate warming for ectotherms. That means purely physiological approaches to understanding the consequences of climate change for cold-blooded animals are likely to be insufficient.

Read more: Young cold-blooded animals are suffering the most as Earth heats up, research finds

close up image of fruit fly

Let’s get real

Understanding the energy needs of animals is important for understanding how they’ll survive, reproduce and evolve in challenging environments.

In a warmer world, hotter ectotherms will need more energy to survive and reproduce. If there is not enough food to meet their bodies’ energy demands, their extinction risk may increase .

Clearly, we must more accurately predict how climate warming will threaten biodiversity. This means studying the responses of animals to temperature change under more realistic conditions.

Read more: Move over, honeybees: Aussie native bees steal the show with unique social and foraging behaviours

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You may be wondering about the kind of article you need to support your research for an assignment. This guide can help!

Read below for an explanation of research versus non-research articles, and use the tabs at the top of this guide to learn more about the different types of articles that fall within those categories, as well as how to find them in the library and on the web.

If you have questions or need assistance finding articles in the library to support your research, feel free to contact a librarian using the chat box located on the right side of each page in this guide.

What Is a Research Article?

Research articles should include a hypothesis, a proposed question. Does the article propose an assumption to be tested? Remember the scientific method.

Examples of Research Articles:   Peer-reviewed articles


Examples of Non-Research Articles:   News and magazine articles, editorials, book reviews, test reviews, advice columns

(Source:  University of South Alabama Online Learning Lab: Research vs. Non-Research Articles )

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Research Article

Related terms:.

Research articles

Matt Carter , in Designing Science Presentations (Second Edition) , 2021

Summary: Design principles for writing research articles

Research articles represent the ultimate, final product of a scientific study. You should assume that your published work will be indefinitely available for anyone to access.

Research articles always consist of a title, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and references sections, and many include a supplemental materials section. There are strategies for making each section most helpful to the reader.

Effective titles of research articles communicate the most important aspects of the study and communicate as much information as possible.

An effective abstract completely summarizes your paper within a single paragraph and highlights why the results are novel.

An effective introduction highlights the most interesting previous studies in your field and leads to the unknown question that drove your research project forward.

The materials and methods section provides enough detail such that a study is reproducible without forcing the reader to consult other studies.

Each 1–2 paragraphs of a results section should come across as its own “mini-paper,” complete with its own rationale, statement of methods, results, and conclusion. To ensure that you provide a rationale, consider starting each part of your results section with the word, “To …. ”

Don't refer to your figures or tables within the text … instead, state the information and then cite the figures and tables, just as you would cite references.

Use your discussion section to add new insight or understanding to your research article, not just to summarize or repeat the previous sections.

When writing a research article, keep in mind the common reasons that papers are rejected, both regarding the content and the writing style.

Scientific Publishing

B.A. Fischer , M.J. Zigmond , in Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition) , 2012

Peer reviewed- research articles have long played a significant role in science – facilitating scientific progress by permitting the sharing of methods, results, and interpretations, and establishing a mechanism for judging the expertise and productivity of individual researchers. Perhaps because publications hold such value, some individuals have sought to circumvent traditional publication practices so as increase their professional standing. The damage that can be inflicted on the researcher, their colleagues, and the scientific enterprise by such incidents has led a number of scientific societies, institutions, funding agencies, and journals to develop guidelines outlining responsible conduct with regard to publishing research articles. This article outlines some of the major ethical concerns regarding publication practices, describes some of the points at which a conflict in values or obligations may arise, and discusses some of the mechanisms that have been developed to minimize such conflicts and their impact on the relevant discipline and on science and society more generally. Although this article focuses specifically on peer reviewed-research articles, many of the issues discussed – for example, plagiarism, honorary authorship, and failure of scholarship – are equally relevant to other forms of publications including abstracts, review articles, and monographs.

Research writing and dissemination

Mary Anne Kennan , Kim M. Thompson , in Research Methods (Second Edition) , 2018

Peer review and ethical writing

In any field of research, peer review is an important part of the research process, as it is used to uphold standards and offer credibility. The idea is that peers familiar with the literature, methodology, and the area of study of your paper can read for quality assurance. When a paper is submitted to a journal or conference, the editor generally sends it to two or three expert reviewers or referees. Multiple reviewers may give similar or contrasting reviews. For example, one reviewer may note that the publication needs more exploration of the literature, while another reviewer may consider the research to be sufficiently rigorous and well written for publication. In this case, the editor often makes the final decision, and a good editor will guide authors with regard to which of divergent paths suggested may be the most appropriate.

Before any research article or paper is accepted by a journal or conference, it will need to go through a peer review process. There are different kinds of review, for example:

Editorial review is when the editor or editorial board read and review the work, deciding whether or not to accept the paper, sometimes suggesting changes before the work will be accepted.

Blind review is when the author does not know who the reviewers are, but the reviewer is allowed to know whose work is being reviewed. The idea is that this allows the reviewer to be candid with recommendations.

The standard reviewing process among high quality journals and conferences is to use the double blind review . The author does not know who will be reviewing his or her work and the reviewer does not know whose work is under review. In this, an anonymised version of your submission is sent to at least two outside reviewers whom the editors regard as having appropriate expertise in the area of your research. The reviewers then assess the submission, providing detailed feedback, and make a recommendation as to whether it should be accepted or not and what changes, if any, are needed before publication.

Revisions post-review

It is rare for any submission, even those from experienced authors, to be accepted without change. The majority of articles require some amendments before they are ready to be published. Most reviewers work very hard to provide constructive feedback and authors should try not to take the critique personally. When you receive your referees’ reports, you should go through them in detail and use them to develop a plan for revising your manuscript. You do not necessarily have to follow all the reviewers’ instructions. As intimated above, sometimes reviewers’ advice may be contradictory, or sometimes there may be compelling reasons not to make a suggested change. After you have completed your revisions, you should respond to the editors saying which changes you have made and where, and which changes you have not made and why you have not made them. They will then let you know whether they find this acceptable, require you to revise further, or find the article not acceptable for the particular outlet.

Inevitably some submissions are rejected. Read the referees’ and editor’s reasons for rejection carefully – it may simply been an indicator that you have not chosen the appropriate journal for your work, and you may need to search elsewhere for the right audience. After considering the reasons for rejection, think about whether another journal or conference might be a suitable alternative and if so, revise the manuscript accordingly and resubmit.

A dissertation or thesis does not go through peer review in the same sense that journal articles do; however, it is examined by experts in the field. Examiners are given specific instructions that may vary slightly institution by institution, and the process of examination is related to that of peer review.

The ethics of authorship

As an author writing up research you take responsibility for the research and how it was conducted. Authorship also confers ownership of the written work. Therefore it is important to exhibit honesty and integrity in all your research communications. It is important that new researchers make themselves aware of the particular ethical requirements that surround the dissemination and publication of research. A brief discussion of some of the issues follows. A plethora of ethics statements and codes of conduct with substantial sections on dissemination, publication and authorship (c.f. NHMRC, 2007 ; ICMJE, 2016 ) reflect the importance of the issue.

Examples of practices generally considered to be unethical include:

publishing the same data in different forms in different journals unless it is acknowledged, as in the case of a research program where research is ongoing and later work builds on earlier work, or where the data is published in different ways for different audiences;

submitting the same paper simultaneously to more than one journal in the hope of having at least one journal accept it or with the intent of withdrawing it from the journal that responds last;

submitting works without all authors giving their active consent to being authors and approving both the submitted and published versions; and

not acknowledging people who, and organisations which, contribute in substantial ways to the work, without actually being authors.

Sometimes determining who should be listed as an author and in what order authors should be listed can be difficult, especially where there are power relationships between the authors or where the research is conducted by teams comprising members from difficult disciplines with different research cultures. The first author gets the most credit and so they should also do most of the work.

Conflicts can arise over authorship, so it is best if the order and role of each author is discussed openly and agreed upon early in a research project. As conflicts can arise, the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research ( NHMRC, 2007 ) has a section on dissemination and authorship based on the earlier Vancouver Convention ( ICMJE, 2016 ). The most important sub-section is as follows:

conception and design of the project,

analysis and interpretation of research data, and

drafting significant parts of the work or critically revising it so as to contribute to the interpretation.

The right to authorship is not tied to position or profession and does not depend on whether the contribution was paid for or voluntary. It is not enough to have provided materials or routine technical support, or to have made the measurements on which the publication is based. Substantial intellectual involvement is required ( NHMRC, 2007 , section 5.1).

Current Issues in the Education of Students with Visual Impairments

Robert Wall Emerson , Tessa McCarthy , in International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities , 2014

5.2 Filling Gaps in the Research

There were no research articles on children with visual impairments and additional disabilities that met our criteria for inclusion in this chapter. Therefore, research on O&M for children who are blind and visually impaired with additional disabilities including deafblindness is needed. In the field of O&M, research with adults is often reimagined and redesigned for application with children. In a similar vein, reliance on small sample sizes or single-subject research means that more replication of research needs to be conducted to generalize findings to other populations and other situations or to simply expand the theoretical and pedagogical usefulness findings.

After an initial search of the literature, it seemed that another area with a significant amount of work was focused on early childhood. However, a closer look at the identified articles whittled the list of appropriate articles down to one study that investigated the reaching responses of infants to auditory cues versus tactile cues ( Ihsen, Troester, & Brambring, 2010 ). This study has implications for O&M but is not directly related. The only other publication that addressed early childhood was a practice report about incorporating music and rhythm to enhance O&M education ( Sapp, 2011 ). The paucity of researchers examining early childhood represents an important gap in the literature, especially given the concern that children who are blind might suffer later in life if they do not develop appropriately in early childhood ( Fraiberg, 1971 ).

Sandra Lewis , ... Kitty Greeley-Bennett , in International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities , 2014

3.1.1 Food Management

Three of the five research articles on food management had some focus on appropriate eating or drinking skills ( Farrenkopf et al., 1997; Sisson & Dixon, 1986; Stolz & Wolf, 1969 ), one examined food preparation ( Taylor, 1987 ), and one examined grocery shopping ( Gumpel & Nativ-Ari-Am, 2001 ). Three of these articles ( Farrenkopf et al., 1997; Sisson & Dixon, 1986; Stolz & Wolf, 1969 ) demonstrated a functional relation between their intervention and a change in behavior, but only one research group ( Farrenkopf et al., 1997 ) demonstrated an effect for the actual eating behavior, finding that physical prompts were more effective than verbal prompts in increasing a student's drinking skills.

Baril Marc , ... Lajoie Alain , in Information Resources in Toxicology (Fourth Edition) , 2009

Original Research Articles in Toxicology

Many Canadian authors routinely submit their original research articles in toxicology to international publications, particularly the official journals of the U.S. Society of Toxicology. In addition, review articles and book chapters frequently appear in books that are edited and published in the United States. Consequently, readers are referred to the detailed descriptions of books and journals that appear in the appropriate section of this text dealing with the United States, because these frequently contain articles of Canadian origin.

In addition, there are some Canadian journals that describe original research in toxicology even if it is not their main topic. For example, there is a pharmacology and toxicology section in the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology , and articles concerned with environmental toxicology are routinely published in the Canadian Fisheries Journal . Other relevant public health articles are published in the Canadian Journal of Public Health .

Gender and Space

I. Molina , K. Grundström , in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home , 2012

Concluding Comments

As mentioned in the beginning of this article, research on housing, gender, and space has gone from a binary conceptualisation of space to a more complex and mutually constituted understanding. Currently, research with both binary and dialectical understandings of space continues to develop and several attempts are being undertaken in Europe to translate research into practice through reinterpreting and reshaping the built urban environment to support a society based in equal rights.

The complexity of the theoretical development is, in our interpretation, a possible explanation of the fact that research specifically on housing has declined. A more complex conceptualisation where gender and space are constituted through continuous action implies that an increasing amount of places, scenes, passages, and spaces are included in a perspective where also the geographical limitation of the dwelling and neighbourhood is questioned.

Finally, we would like to underline that gender and space have been, and still are, important parts of housing research that call for a deepened understanding and further theoretical development.

Guillermo Repetto , Manuel Repetto , in Information Resources in Toxicology (Fourth Edition) , 2009

Many Spanish authors routinely submit their original research articles in toxicology to international journals and books that are referenced in the appropriate sections of the other countries in this book. In addition, there are some Spanish journals and books that describe original research in toxicology and environmental and occupational safety and health. There is a broad audience in many Spanish-spoken countries for these publications.

Agudo J (2004)

El control de contaminación. Técnicas jurídicas de protección medioambiental (Pollution control. Legal techniques of environmental protection)

Madrid: Editorial Montecorvo SA

This book describes the current legislation to control pollution.

Alastuey MC (2004)

El delito de contaminación ambiental: Artículo 325.1 del código penal (The crime of environmental contamination)

Albolote: Editorial Comares S.L.

This book deals with the legal prosecution of those responsible for pollution.

Alonso MJ, Melgar J, García MA (1997)

Hongos silvestres comestibles en la Provincia de Lugo: contaminación por plomo y cadmio y sus repercusiones toxicológicas (Lead and cadmium contamination of fungi and their toxicological consequences)

Lugo: Servicio de Publicaciones Diputación Provincial de Lugo

A research document on cadmium and lead human exposure through fungi.

Aragón P (2005)

Contaminación atmosférica: manual de laboratorio (Atmospheric pollution: laboratory handbook)

Valencia: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

A laboratory handbook on atmospheric pollution.

Azpeitia P, Rosado A (2004)

Revisión de métodos de análisis de contaminantes prioritarios en suelos (Review of analytical methods of contaminants in soil)

Madrid: Instituto Geológico y Minero de España.

A review of analytical techniques in contaminated soil.

Ballesteros E, Jurado R, San Andres MI (2000)

Toxicología Animal Originada por Plantas, Flora Silvestre Española (Animal Toxicology from the Spanish flora)

Madrid: Editorial Complutense

Animal poisoning due to plants.

Bataller Sifre R (2004)

Toxicología Clínica (Clinical Toxicology)

Valencia: Universitat de València.

A book on different aspects of clinical toxicology.

Baucells J, Vernet J (2004)

La prevención y el control integrados de la contaminación (The integrated pollution prevention and control)

Madrid: Marcial Pons

Contains information on prevention and integrated control of contamination.

Bello J, López de Cerain A (2001)

Fundamentos de Ciencia Toxicológica (The Foundation of Toxicological Science)

Madrid: Díaz de Santos

A textbook for undergraduate students.

Cabrera R, Mencias E, Cabrera J (1993)

Toxicología de los Psicofármacos (Psychotropic Toxicology)

L. Beecham: Madrid

An epidemiological study of poisoning by psychotropics, considering pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in general, and that pertains to the different groups of this type of medicine.

Cabrera R (2001)

Manual Toxicológico de Productos Fitosanitarios para uso Sanitario (Toxicological Workbook of non-agriculture pesticides)

Madrid: Consejería de Salud

A book about the toxicology of biocides.

Camí J (1995)

Farmacología y toxicidad de la MDMA (Pharmacology and Toxicity of MDMA)

Neurociencias: Barcelona

Review of the pharmacology, effects, and clinical characteristics of ecstasy use.

Capó M (2002)

Principios de Ecotoxicología (Principles of Ecotoxi‑cology)

Madrid: McGraw-Hill Interamericana

A review on the basis of ecotoxicology.

Carreño F, Rodríguez I (2006)

Elaboración y estructuración de una base de datos cartográfica de la contaminación marina provocada por el Prestige y su integración en un sistema de información geográfico (Preparation and structure of a cartographic database of the marine contamination produced by the Prestige and integration in a geographic information system)

Madrid: Editorial Dykinson

Database constructed with data from the disaster of the contamination caused by the leakage of petrol from a ship.

Casas M, Gutiérrez M, San L (1995)

Avances en Drogodependencias (Advances in Drug Addiction)

The current situation of the criteria regarding therapeutic methods based on the substitution of opiates by methadone, buprenorphine, etc., and the use of antagonists.

Compaño R, Rios A (2002)

Garantía de Calidad en los laboratorios analíticos (Quality assurance in analytical laboratories)

Madrid: Síntesis

A practical review on the implementation of quality control and assurance systems in analytical process.

Coordinadora de ONGs (1995)

Directorio. Organizacions no-gubernamentales que intervienen en drogodependencias (Directory. Non-Governmental Organizations Intervening in Drug Addictions)

OMGs: Madrid

File on human resources and associations of all types with activities in the fight against drug addiction.

de la Fuente L, Frutos J (1995)

Toxicología y Seguridad Química Evaluación y Gestión del Riesgo Químico (Toxicology, Chemical Safety and Chemical Risk Management)

Madrid: Colegio Oficial de Biólogos. Consejería de Salud

A review on risk assessment and management.

de la Peña E, Gómez Campoy E (2005)

Toxicología Ambiental: Seguridad Química (Environmental Toxicology: Chemical Safety)

Murcia: AETOX, SESA, Consejeria de Sanidad. Comunidad Autónoma de la Región de Murcia. CSIC (CD-ROM)

An update on the basis and procedures used in chemical safety.

de la Peña E, Guadaño A, Barrueco C, Repetto G, Gonzalez Menció F, Garcia Partida P (1995)

ICLAS/CSIC Working Group on Complementary Methods

Madrid: Comité Español del ICLAS/CICYT/CSIC, Dirección General de Investigación Científica y Técnica

Report produced in a meeting of experts in alternative and complementary methods to the use of animals in testing.

de la Peña E, Burguete I, Guadaño A (1999)

Evaluación Mutagénica y Genotóxica (Mutagenic and Genotoxic Evaluation)


This is a compendium of available techniques applicable to the study of the genotoxic and mutagenic capacity of compounds.

de la Peña E, Gomez Campoy E (2000)

Evaluación Toxicológica de los Plaguicidas y la Sanidad Ambiental (Toxicological Evaluation of Pesticides and Environmental Safety)

Murcia: Monografía SESA/AET SESA, AET, RAMCM, CSyC, CFRM.

This is a compilation of strategies used for testing the toxicity of pesticides.

de Moreno MD (2003)

Toxicologia Ambiental: Evaluacion de Riesgo para la Salud Humana (Environmental Toxicology: Human Risk Assessment)

Madrid: McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de España, S.A.

This book describes the strategies for the assessment of human risks from environmental exposure.

Dirección General de Calidad y Evaluación Ambiental (2006)

Prevención y control integrados de la contaminación (IPPC): documento de referencia de mejores técnicas disponibles en la industria de procesos de metales férreos (Prevention and integrated control of contamination: the iron industry)

Madrid: S.G.T. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

A review on the control procedures applicable to the iron industry to reduce pollution.

Domènech X (2000)

Química atmosférica: origen y efectos de la contaminación (Atmospheric chemistry: origin and effects of contamination)

Madrid: Miraguano Ediciones

A book reviewing the sources and adverse effects of atmospheric pollutants.

Quimica del Suelo, el Impacto de los Contaminantes (Chemistry of Soil and Impact of contaminants)

A book reviewing the adverse effects caused by soil pollutants.

Dueñas A (1999)

Intoxicaciones agudas en medicina de urgencia y cuidados Intensivos (Acute Poisonings in Urgency Medicine and Intensive Care)

Madrid: Masson, S.A.

Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of main acute poisonings are presented from the perspective of clinical toxicology.

Felices F, Nogué S, Civeira E (1993)

Medicina Intensiva Práctica. Intoxicaciones Agudas (Practical Intensive Medicine. Acute Poisonings)

IDEPSA: Madrid

Describes the general basis for the treatment of acute poisoning, with chapters covering medicines, drugs of abuse, alcohol, and other frequent agents of poisoning.

Gelpi E (2001)

Advances in Mass Spectrometry 15

Barcelona: Wiley

This volume comprises the proceedings of the 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference held in Barcelona.

Gestal JJ, Smyth E, Figueiras A, Montes A (2004)

Recollida e limpeza do fuel do Prestige. Avaliación da exposición e danos á saúde en voluntarios e traballadores (Cleaning of Fuel from the Prestige. Exposure Evaluation and Health Effects in Volunteers and Workers)

Saúde Pública: Santiago de Compostela, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela

A study of the human health effects due to the cleaning procedures applied in the petrol leakage from the Prestige ship.

Gisbert-Calabuig JA (2004)

Medicina Legal y Toxicologia, 6th Edition (Legal Medicine and Toxicology)

Barcelona: Masson

An extensive text and reference book for forensic science students.

Hernández I, Gil A, Delgado M, Bolúmar F (2005)

Manual de Epidemiología y Salud Pública

Madrid: Panamericana

A textbook for students of public health.

Laborda R (2001)

Evaluación de la exposición a agentes químicos en el trabajo: manual práctico (Exposure Assessment to Chemical Agents at Work: Practical Manual)

Valencia: Bèrnia

A laboratory handbook for the evaluation of the ocupational exposure to chemicals.

Ladrón de Guevara J, Moya V (1995)

Toxicología Médica: Clínica y Laboral (Medical Toxicology: Clinical and Occupational)

Madrid: McGraw-Hill

Contains a general section, several chapters on basic, clinical, and workplace toxicology, followed by a descriptive dictionary of poisonous compounds.

López de Cerain A, Bello J (2000)

Toxicología: guía de prácticas (Toxicology: A Guide of Practical Teaching)

Pamplona: Universidad de Navarra

A textbook describing practical procedures for training in toxicology.

Manzanera R, Torralba I, Solanes P (1995)

Plan municipal de acción sobre drogodependencias (Municipal Plan of Action on Drug Addiction)

Corporation: Barcelona

Municipal plans for the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of drug addicts.

Marruecos L, Nogué S, Nolla J (1993)

Springer Verlag Ibérica: Barcelona

A study of epidemiology, physiopathology, laboratory and clinical diagnosis; also addressing the therapeutics of the principal types of acute poisoning, with special discussion of the most frequent groups of poisons.

Mateu J (1994)

Toxicología Médica: productos de uso doméstico, mordeduras y picaduras, Toxicología Vegetal. Tratamiento general de las Intoxicaciones (Medical Toxicology)

Doyma: Barcelona

Compilation of the symptoms and therapeutics of poisoning by household products, cosmetics, and products for personal hygiene, detergents and soaps, disinfectants, pesticides, fuels, etc. and by poisonous animals.

Mateu J (1995)

El niño intoxicado (The Poisoned Child)

McEdiciones: Barcelona

A very attractively presented book; addressed to the public rather than to health professionals, with the intention of preventing poisonings and to give first aid to the poisoned.

Mateu J (1999)

Guia Practica de Primeros Auxilios (II) (Toxicologia Vegetal y Accidentes) (Vegetal Toxicology and accidents)

Murcia: Diego Marin Librero Editor, S.L.

A guide for first aid treatment of poisonings.

Mencias E, Mayero LM (2000)

Manual de Toxicologia Basica (Manual of Basic Toxicology)

Madrid: Ediciones Diaz de Santos, S.A.

A multiauthor book with a variety of information about the toxicity and treatment of different compounds.

Nogue S, Sanz P (2001)

Atlas de Toxicologia Clínica y Laboral (Atlas of Clinical and Occupational Toxicology)

Barcelona: Universidad Politecnica de Cataluña

A book about clinical and occupational effects of toxicants.

Nogué S, Munné P, Nicolás JM (2003)

Intoxicaciones agudas. Protocolos de Tratamiento (Acute Poisonings. Protocol Treatments)

Barcelona: Morales i Torres editores S.L.

A very detailed book containing established protocols used for the treatment of acute poisonings in the Clinic Hospital of Barcelona.

Obiols J (1998)

Quinto Control biológico de los trabajadores expuestos a contaminantes químicos (5th Biological Control of Workers Exposed to Chemical Pollutants)

Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo

This is a compilation from a biological control carried out in workers of different activities.

Pérez M, Soler F (2005)

Toxicología Clínica de Pequeños Animales (Clinical Toxicology of Small Animals)

Madrid: Consulta de Difusión Veterinaria 98

Piqueras J (1996)

Intoxicaciones por plantas y hongos (Poisonings by Plants and Toadstools)

Masson: Barcelona

Summarizes the author’s experience in the treat‑ment of patients poisoned by plants and especially by toadstools, with a detailed classification and description of the botanical and toxicological aspects.

REMA (Red Española de Métodos Alternativos) (2005)

Curso-Taller de Reducción, Refinamiento y Reemplazo de animales en Investigación, Desarrollo y Docencia (Course on Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animals in Research, Development and Education)

Madrid: Red Española de Métodos Alternativos (REMA) (CD-ROM)

This publication is targeted for scientists using animals in research, education, and testing. There are many possibilities to reduce, refine, or replace their use.

Repetto M (1978)

Toxicologia de los Aerosoles (Toxicology of Aerosols)

Universidad: Sevilla

This book studies the physiochemical properties of colloidal dispersions and the uses and applications of aerosols, as much to military, agricultural, or medical ends as to meteorological. It revises knowledge of absorption by inhalation, of lung clearance, and of local or systemic pathologies that aerosols can cause. This book also presents the appropriate methodology for toxicity testing.

Repetto M, et al (1985)

Toxicología de la Drogadicción (Toxicology of Drug Addiction)

Díaz de Santos: Madrid

This is a collective book, whose authors – physicians, chemists, biologists, pharmacists, a judge, and a psychologist – approach the different aspects of the problem of drug addiction from their personal points of view.

Repetto M, Sanz P (1995)

Glosario de términos usados en Toxicología (Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicology)

Doble Cero: Sevilla

This is the Spanish version of the IUPAC glossary, including most of the words used in toxicology (Duffus et al 1993), including over 1000 terms.


Repetto M, et al (1995)

Toxicología Avanzada (Advanced Toxicology)

This collective work is an examination of several toxicological subjects, from ancient to the modern, based on extensive research of the literature.

Repetto G, del Peso A, Salguero M, Repetto M (1999)

Inventory of the Spanish Institutions and Scientists Involved in Alternatives to the use of Laboratory Animals (Refinement, Reduction or Replacement)

Revista de Toxicología 16: 50–127

Database on groups working on the development of alternative methods in Spain.

Repetto M (2001)

Evolución, estado actual, retos y tendencias de la Toxicología comenzar el milenio (Evolution, Present Situation and Trends of the Toxicology at the Start of the Millennium)

Sevilla: Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Sevilla (CD-ROM)

Published as a textbook in a short course for postgraduate students of toxicology.

Repetto M (2002)

Toxicología de Postgrado (Postgrade Toxicology)

Published as a textbook in a course to obtain the title of Universitary Expert in Toxicology.

Repetto M (2003)

Toxicología de Postgrado 03, 2nd Edition (Postgraduate Toxicology)

Repetto M (2004)

Toxicología de Postgrado 04, 3rd Edition (Postgraduate Toxicology)

Repetto M (2005)

Toxicología de Postgrado 05 (Enlargement of Postgraduate Toxicology 05)

Published as a textbook in a course to obtain the title of Universitary Master in Toxicology.

Repetto M, Cameán AM (2006)

Toxicología Alimentaria (Food Toxicology)

This multiauthor book is an extensive review of the different areas related to food toxicology, including analytical procedures, distribution and kinetics, effects of chemicals, risk assessment, treatment of poisonings, etc.

Repetto M (2006)

Toxicología de Postgrado 06, 4th Edition (Postgraduate Toxicology 06)

Repetto M (2007)

Ampliación de Toxicología de Postgrado 07, 2nd Edition (Enlargement of Postgrade Toxicology 07)

Repetto M, Repetto G (2009)

Toxicología Fundamental, 4th Edition (Fundamental Toxicology)

This is a multidisciplinary text in which, from biological, chemical, anatomical, and physiological knowledge, physiopathological processes of toxic origin are explained. Several chapters are also dedicated to the basis of toxicological analysis and the treatment of the poisoned.

San Andrés MI (2000)

Toxicología Animal originada por Plantas (Toxicology of Animals due to Plants)

The effects of plant toxins on animals are reviewed.

Sogorb MA, Vilanova E (2004)

Técnicas analíticas de contaminantes químicos: aplicaciones toxicológicas, medioambientales y alimentarias (Analytical Techniques of Chemical Pollutants: Toxicological, Environmental and Food Applications)

This book covers many different applications for the analytical quantification of chemicals.

Soler F (2003)

Plantas Tóxicas para el Ovino I (Toxic Plants for the Ovine)

Revista OVIOS: Monografía Nov

Soler F (2004)

Plantas Tóxicas para el Ovino II (Toxic Plants for the Ovine)

Revista OVIOS: Monografía Marzo

Valledor A (1994)

Envenenamiento por animales (Poisoning Due to Animals)

Diaz de Santos: Madrid

A review of the habits and characteristics of animals (vertebrates and invertebrates) of the entire world, whose behavior produces poisoning and also of the preventive and therapeutic actions applicable in each case.

Valverde JL, Perez De-Gregorio JJ (2002)

Manual de Toxicología Medioambiental Forense (Manual of Environmental Forensic Toxicology)

Madrid: Editorial Universitaria Ramon Areces

A review of the legislation and the procedures used for the investigation of cases of environmental pollution.

Vera DJ (2005)

Actividades molestas, insalubres, nocivas y peligrosas: normativa de evaluación del impacto ambiental y prevención y control de la contaminación (Regulations for the Environmental Impact Evaluation and Prevention and Control of Contamination)

Madrid: Ed. Tecnos

Procedures for environmental impact studies and the integrated prevention of pollution.

The Measurement of Bank Efficiency and Bank Competition in China

Yong Tan , in Efficiency and Competition in Chinese Banking , 2016

5.3.3 Lerner Index

During recent years, a number of research articles have used different methods to investigate the competitive condition in the banking industry (see Al-Muharrami et al., 2006; Matthews et al., 2007; Jeon et al., 2011; Olivero et al., 2011; Tabak et al., 2012; Cipollini and Fiordelisi, 2012; Fungacova et al., 2014; Fu et al., 2014; Tan, 2016 ). More specifically, the competition in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) banking system over the period 1993–2002 was estimated by Al-Muharrami et al. (2006) using three different indicators, namely K-bank concentration ratio, Herfindahl–Hirschman index as well as the Panzar–Rosse H-statistic; whereas the Panzar–Rosse H-statistic was used by Matthew et al. (2007) to investigate the competitive condition of British banks over the period 1980–2004. The Panzar–Rosse H-statistic was used by Jeon et al. (2011) to evaluate the competitive condition of the Asia and Latin America banking sector over the period 1997–2008. Olivero et al. (2011) assessed the competitive condition of the Asian and Latin American banking sector over the period 1996–2006 under the Panzar–Rosse H-statistic; the Boone indicator was used by Tabak et al. (2012) to investigate the competition of the Latin American banking industry during 2003 and 2008. Cipollini and Fiordelisi (2012) used Lerner index as well as the Herfindahl–Hirschman index to examine to the competitive condition of a sample of European banks over the period 1996–2009. Fungacova et al. (2014) used the Lerner index to examine the competitive condition for a sample of banks from 12 European area countries over the period 2002–10, whereas both the three-bank concentration ratio as well as the Lerner index were used by Fu et al. (2014) to evaluate the competition in the Asian Pacific banking industry over the period 2003–10. Using a sample of Chinese commercial banks over the period 2003–11, Tan (2016) investigated the joint impacts of risk and competition on bank profitability in China. The Lerner index was used to measure the competitive condition in the Chinese banking industry.

Although a number of researchers are using the Panzar–Rosse H-statistic to investigate the competition in the banking sector, it mainly suffers from two drawbacks. First, as argued by Leuvensteijin et al. (2011) , the H-statistic was developed on the basis of a static model, and there are no predictions on the H-statistic which is one of the weaknesses of this test. In other words, the estimate is surrounded by a degree of uncertainty. Furthermore, as argued by Claessens and Laeven (2004) , the overall market equilibrium required by the test cannot be fulfilled because of market entry and exit, which leads to further limits on the interpretation of such analysis.

Furthermore, the Boone indicator also suffers from two disadvantages. First, as argued by Tabak et al. (2012) , it makes the assumption that part of the efficiency gains achieved by the banks will be passed onto consumers. In addition, this indicator also suffers from idiosyncratic variation, ie, uncertainty.

The Lerner index is used in this study mainly because of the following reasons: (1) it can be easily estimated by each bank at each year; and also it matches with its determinants, which are bank-level variables at each year; (2) we can estimate the competitive conditions (market power) for three different ownership types of Chinese banks.

The Lerner index is defined as the difference between a bank's price and the MC, divided by the price. The index value ranges from a maximum of one to a minimum of zero, with higher numbers indicating greater market power and hence less competition. The Lerner index represents the extent to which a particular bank has market power to set its price above the MC.

The price is computed by estimating the average price of bank production (proxied by total assets) as the ratio of total revenue over total assets following Fernandez de Guevara et al. (2005) and Carbo et al. (2009a,b) . The cost function is specified as the same used to measure the efficiency and the estimation of MC follows the specification used to evaluate the Boone indicator.

Once the MC is estimated and the price of output computed, we calculate the Lerner index for each bank and obtain a direct measure of bank competition. We use the same three input prices to calculate the MC, which are the price of funds, price of capital and price of labour. a ˆ 1 , a ˆ 2 γ ˆ i t j are the coefficients estimated from the Eq. [5.4] . The variables used to estimate the Lerner index are defined in Table 5.3 .

Review articles

Summary: design principles for writing review articles.

A review article synthesizes dozens of primary research articles into a comprehensive narrative about a field of knowledge.

Review articles can synthesize the scientific literature in different ways. They can be explanative, providing a summary of recent articles; they can offer analysis, comparing and contrasting scientific studies; they can be evaluative, appraising studies and supporting points of view; or they can be constructive, offering new points of view. Before writing an article, determine what level of analysis you want your review to offer.

Help your readers appreciate the structure of your review article by including subdivisions throughout the review article and outlining these subdivisions in your abstract and/or introduction.

Include as many informative figures and tables as possible to visually convey and synthesize information.

Choose and highlight the best references to help your readers learn the best sources of primary information.

Search Form

Twenty steps to writing a research article.

Article reproduced with permission from  Beth A. Fischer and Michael J. Zigmond, Survival Skills and Ethics Program, University of Pittsburgh

THE PROCESS OF MOVING FROM IDEA to published manuscript can be a daunting one. Here we break that process into a series of steps designed make this essential task more manageable. Our list has been modified and expanded from a list provided by the Council of Biological Editors, 1968. If 20 steps are too many to manage, focus on the 13 steps that we have marked with an asterisk (*) – these cannot be skipped!

1. Determine the authors . When designing a research project, we recommend preparing an initial list and order of authors. Such a list authors should be based on established guidelines and should make explicit the estimated contribution of each individual to the project. We recommend that every research group establish and make known to its members the criteria for authorship on papers resulting from the work to be conducted. In so doing, the group may wish to make use of existing guidelines; see our essay on “Components of a Research Article.” 

A list of authors will ensure that all individuals to be involved in the project understand at the outset whether or not they can expect to be an author and, if so, what their contribution is to be. It should be viewed as a tentative list, as the final version should reflect actual contributions to the work. (Also, there may be more than one list as it might be anticipated that more than one paper will derive from a given project.)

2. Start writing before the experiments are complete. Start writing while you are still doing the experiments. Writing often evokes new ideas: you may realize that there are additional experiments to run or additional controls that you need to add. If you wait until you are done in the lab, have dismantled the equipment, and possibly moved on to another position, you will not have the opportunity to test these ideas.

3. Decide it is time to publish . It is time to publish when your findings represent a complete story (or at least a complete chapter), one that will make a significant contribution to the scientific literature. Simply collecting a given amount of data is not adequate.

4. Draft a title & abstract . Drafting a working title and an abstract helps define the contents of the paper, identifying which experiments you will publish in this paper, and which studies you will save for inclusion in another paper. (See our Components of a Research Article on the preparation of these two items.) 

*5. (Re)examine the list of authors . When you have now determined which experiments will be included in this paper you must select the authors and the order in which they will appear. If you have followed our advice to this point, you already have such a list. Reevaluate it based on the contributions that were made to those experiments and the additional contributions that will be made through the preparation of the manuscript. If a list already exists, make adjustments to ensure compliance with your guidelines. Of course, any changes should be done with caution and tact.

6. Determine the basic forma t. There are three basic formats for peer-reviewed research articles:

• Full-length research articles : These articles contain a comprehensive investigation of the subject matter and are viewed as the standard format. It uses the “IMRAD” format: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. (See “Components of a Research Article.”) 

• Short (or brief) communications : While not as comprehensive in scope as full-length research articles, these papers also make a significant contribution to the literature. Their length will be set by the journal but is usually 3500 words or less and will contain up to 2 tables and figures. Unlike full papers, methods, results, and discussions may be combined into a single section.

• Rapid communications : These articles quickly disseminate particularly “hot” findings, usually in a brief communication format. Articles that have immediate implications for public health would be appropriate for such a format, as might findings in a highly competitive and quickly moving field.

7. Select the journal . There are several factors to consider when choosing a journal. It is unlikely that one journal will have all the features you are looking for, so you may have to compromise. However, there is one essential feature you should not compromise on – manuscripts must be peer reviewed for publication if they are to be considered research articles .

Language : English has become the dominant form for international scientific communication. Thus, if you are interested in communicating your results widely to the international scientific community, then it is essential to publish in English. If, on the other hand, you wish to communicate to a more localized community (e.g., physicians in a particular geographical area), you might chose a journal that permits another language.

Focus : What type of research does the journal publish? Is its focus broad or narrow? Which disciplines are represented? What is the journal’s orientation – for example, is it clinical or basic, theoretical or applied?

Indexing : Is the journal indexed in the major electronic databases such as Medline, Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, or Current Contents?

Availability : Is the journal broadly available? Is there an online version of the journal? Are papers provided in PDF format?

Reputation : Although it can be rather subjective, there are several ways to gauge the reputation of a journal. Ask colleagues which journals they respect. Look at recent articles and judge their importance. Check the members of the editorial board and determine if they are leaders in their fields. Determine the journal’s impact factor (an annual measure of the extent to which articles in a given journal are cited. How selective is the journal in accepting papers for publication? Note, however, these ratings can be artificially inflated in journals that publish review articles, which tend to be cited more than research articles. See ). Try to find out the acceptance rate of the journal.

Format : Do you like the appearance of published articles – the format, typeface, and style used in citing references? If relevant, does the journal publish short and/or rapid communications?

Figures : Do figures published in the journal have the resolution that you need? Time to Print: Using the “date submitted” and a “date accepted” that are published on the article, along with the date of the issue, you can estimate the length of the review process as well as the time from acceptance to publication in print.

Charges : Some journals bill the author for page charges, a cost per final printed page. Most journals have a separate charge for color plates. This may be as much as $1000 per color plate. Many journals will waive page charges if this presents a financial hardship for the author; color plate charges are less-readily waived and would at least require evidence that the color is essential to the presentation of the data (e.g., to show a double-labeled cell).

Once you decide on a journal, obtain and read that journal’s instructions to authors. This document describes the format for your article and provides information on how to submit your manuscript. You can usually obtain a copy of the journal’s instructions to authors on its Web site or in the first issue of a new volume.

8. Stock the sections of your paper. As you think about your paper, store relevant material in folders marked Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. This will save time and avoid frustration when the writing begins. Stored items might include figures, references, and ideas.

*9. Construct the tables, figures, and legends . Yes, create figures and tables before the writing begins! The entire paper should be organized around the data you will present. By preparing the tables and figures (and their legends and appropriate statistical analyses), you will be certain of your results before you worry too much about their interpretation. You also may be able to determine if you have all the data you need. Note: except under unusual circumstance, you may not include any data that you have already published. (See “Components of a Research Paper.”)

*10. Outline the paper . An outline is like a road map. An outline details how you will get from here to there, and helps ensure that you take the most direct and logical route. Do not start writing without it! If you have coauthors, you may wish to get feedback from them before you proceed to the actual writing phase. And if you have “stocked” your sections (Step 8), those files should be useful here and in the writing that follows.

*11. Write the first draft . Write the first draft of the entire manuscript. If you are writing with coauthors, you may wish to assign different aspects of the manuscript to different authors. This can save time, allow more individuals to feel that are making substantive contributions to the writing process, and ensure the best use of expertise. However, it also can lead to a mixture of styles. Thus, if you take this approach, be certain that the final product is carefully edited to provide a single voice. “Components of a Research Article” discusses what goes into each section of the manuscript. For a more extensive presentation of this and many other aspects of preparing a paper, see Day (1998). At this point, do not worry about it being intelligible. That comes later.

Some people recommend that you begin your writing with the Introduction and continue through in order each section of the paper. This can help ensure flow. However, others suggest that you start wherever you wish – anything to get rid of that blank screen or piece of paper. Whatever your approach, heed the advice of Charles Sides (1991): “If you try to write and edit at the same time, you will do neither well.” And because editing is often a lot easier than writing, push through this step as quickly as possible. If you are taking much more than two full days, you have probably paused to edit!

*12. Revise the manuscript . This step involves three major tasks, each to be carried out in the order given:

Make major alterations : Fill in gaps, correct flaws in logic, restructure the document to present the material in the most logical order.

Polish the style : Refine the text, then correct grammar and spelling.

Format the document : Make your manuscript attractive and easy to read. It is important to do the tasks in the stated order. Otherwise, you may find yourself spending a lot of time revising material that you later delete.

*13. Check the references . Ensure that the citations are correct and complete. Do one last literature search to make certain that you are up to date. (See “Components of Research Article” on the matter of reference selection.)

*14. Write the final title and abstract . Many changes are made during the editing process. Make certain that your title and abstract match the final version of your article.

*15. Reread the journal's Instructions to Authors.  Review the details of how the manuscript is to be formatted and submitted. Revise where necessary.

*16. Prepare the final illustrations . Ensure that your tables, figures, and figure legends are complete, clear, self-contained, and in the format required by the journal. Do not allow any chance for misunderstanding.

*17. Get feedback on your manuscript and then revise your manuscript again . Getting feedback is one of the most important things that you can do to improve your article. First, be sure your co-authors have had a chance to read and comment on the draft. Then, when it is ready, give the manuscript to some colleagues. Indicate when you would like to receive their comments, and what levels of information you would like (e.g., comments on the science, logic, language, and/or style). After you get their comments, revise your manuscript to address their concerns.

Do not submit your manuscript until you feel it is ready for publication. Once it is accepted, further changes in your manuscript will be difficult and may also be costly.

*18. Submit the manuscript to the editor . Follow the Instructions to Authors to determine what items you need to submit, how to submit them, and to whom you should send them. Note that some journals permit (or even require) a “pre-review,”i.e., a letter indicating the content of the article so that the editors can determine whether they will accept the manuscript for a full review. At this point you may wish to list possible reviewers (or individuals to be avoided). If necessary, contact the editor to be sure that the manuscript was received. And if after a month you have not received a response concerning the acceptability of your manuscript for publication you may wish to contact the editor about this, too.

*19. Deal with reviewers' comments . Most manuscripts are not accepted on the first submission. However, you may well be invited to resubmit a revised manuscript. If you choose to do so, you will need to respond to the reviewer comments. Do this with tact. Answer every concern of the reviewers, and indicate where the corresponding changes were made in the manuscript if they were, indeed, made. You do not need to make all of the changes that the reviewer recommended, but you do need to provide a convincing rationale for any changes that you did not make. When you resubmit the manuscript, indicate in your cover letter that this is a revised version. An alternative is to submit the manuscript to another journal. However, if you do so, it may still be best to take the reviewer comments into consideration. Even if you feel that the reviewers have misunderstood something in your paper, others might do the same. Of course, if you submit to another journal you probably will need to modify the format. And please note: You may not submit your manuscript to more than one journal at a time!

*20. Check the proofs . Once the manuscript is accepted and prepared for print, the publisher will send the corresponding author page proofs of the article. This may be accompanied by a list of queries, such as missing information regarding a reference. The proofs may be sent via e-mail or as hard copy. If there is a chance that you will be away when the proofs arrive, have a plan for making certain that they are received and you are notified. You may only have 24–48 hr to return the proofs. Carefully correct any typos and factual errors. And read the manuscript for clarity – this is your last chance! 

However, try to limit changes to editorial queries plus minor modifications. If you think anything more major is required, you must first get permission from the journal editor and be prepared for additional costs and publication delays.

20+. Celebrate! As Robert Day says in How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper (1998), “The goal of scientific research is publication…. A scientific experiment, no matter how spectacular the results, is not complete until the results are published.” Your experiment – at least one phase of it – is now complete. Enjoy the moment!

Selected Bibliography

For a more complete set of references on writing, see the web site ( ).

Council of Biology Editors, Committee on Graduate Training in Scientific Writing (1968) Scientific Writing for Graduate Students: A Manual on the Teaching of Scientific Writing. New York: Rockefeller University Press. (This was subsequently revised, see Woodford below.)

Day, R.A.(1998) How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 5th Edition. Phoenix: Oryx Press. Fischer, B.A., Zigmond, M.J.(2004) Components of a Research Article. .

Institute for Scientific Information. Sides, C.(1991) How to Write and Present Technical Information. USA: Oryx Press.

Woodford, F.P.(1999) How to Teach Scientific Communication. Reston, VA: Council of Biology Editors.

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This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:

Published on 1.3.2023 in Vol 25 (2023)

Prevalence Patterns and Onset Prediction of High Myopia for Children and Adolescents in Southern China via Real-World Screening Data: Retrospective School-Based Study

Authors of this article:

Author Orcid Image

Original Paper

1 State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Guangzhou, China

2 Institute of Biopharmaceutical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China

3 Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen Eye Institute, Shenzhen, China

*these authors contributed equally

Corresponding Author:

Yehong Zhuo, MD, PhD

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science

Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases

7 Jinsui Road, Tianhe District

Guangzhou, 510060

Phone: 86 13352828998

Fax:86 020 66618962

Email: [email protected]

Background: Patients with high myopia have an increased lifetime risk of complications. The prevalence patterns of high myopia in children and adolescents in southern China are unclear. Early identification of high-risk individuals is critical for reducing the occurrence and development of high myopia and avoiding the resulting complications.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of high myopia in children and adolescents in southern China via real-world screening data and to predict its onset by studying the risk factors for high myopia based on machine learning.

Methods: This retrospective school-based study was conducted in 13 cities with different gross domestic products in southern China. Through data acquisition and filtering, we analyzed the prevalence of high myopia and its association with age, school stage, gross domestic product, and risk factors. A random forest algorithm was used to predict high myopia among schoolchildren and then assessed in an independent hold-out group.

Results: There were 1,285,609 participants (mean age 11.80, SD 3.07, range 6-20 years), of whom 658,516 (51.2%) were male. The overall prevalence of high myopia was 4.48% (2019), 4.88% (2020), and 3.17% (2021), with an increasing trend from the age of 11 to 17 years. The rates of high myopia increased from elementary schools to high schools but decreased at all school stages from 2019 to 2021. The coastal and southern cities had a higher proportion of high myopia, with an overall prevalence between 2.60% and 5.83%. Age, uncorrected distance visual acuity, and spherical equivalents were predictive factors for high myopia onset in schoolchildren. The random forest algorithm achieved a high accuracy of 0.948. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.975. Both indicated sufficient model efficacy. The performance of the model was validated in an external test with high accuracy (0.971) and a high AUC (0.957).

Conclusions: High myopia had a high incidence in Guangdong Province. Its onset in children and adolescents was well predicted with the random forest algorithm. Efficient use of real-world data can contribute to the prevention and early diagnosis of high myopia.


Patients with high myopia have an increased lifetime risk of complications such as cataract formation, retinal detachment from retinal holes or tears, myopic foveoschisis, peripapillary deformation, dome-shaped macula, myopic choroidal neovascularization, and glaucoma [ 1 ]. The number of patients with high myopia is increasing annually and will reach 938 million people by 2050 [ 2 ], which could lead to significant global productivity loss, with East Asia having the highest potential burden [ 3 ].

In the clinic, parents usually ask questions such as “will my child develop high myopia in the coming year” and “what is the possibility of the myopia of my child developing into high myopia in the future” even though their child has undergone only one ophthalmic examination. While it is well known that the risk of high myopia is relatively high in children with myopia onset during early school age [ 4 ], predicting the specific possibility of myopia development in a certain child is difficult for ophthalmologists.

The answer could be obtained by evaluating real-world screening of large-scale data. China promulgated guidelines for myopia prevention and control in children and adolescents in 2021 [ 5 ], emphasizing the role of regular vision screening and electronic vision health records to improve the prediction, prevention, early control, and the diagnostic accuracy of myopia by screening for visual acuity (VA) and noncycloplegic autorefraction (NCR) in schools. The determination of VA combined with NCR is a clinically appropriate and low-cost methodology that may provide a model for screening and for epidemiological studies [ 6 , 7 ].

Artificial intelligence (AI) may help in obtaining useful information from this screening data. Wang et al [ 8 ] trained and validated a random forest algorithm to yield uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and spherical equivalents (SE) that predict myopia progression in children. Lin et al [ 9 ] developed an algorithm to predict SE and the onset of high myopia up to 8 years ahead by considering variables including age, SE, and annual progression rate. Furthermore, some researchers detected myopia using machine learning based on ocular images [ 10 - 12 ]. However, these studies have not attempted to retrospectively predict the risk of high myopia using large-scale screening data.

Our study describes the prevalence patterns of high myopia from vision-screening data obtained from millions of children and adolescents in southern China. It also illustrates the method for using real-world screening data in research. An AI model aided in identifying the risk factors for high myopia occurrence and predicting the onset of high myopia at an early stage with high accuracy using real-world data for the first time.

Ethics Statement

This retrospective and school-based study was approved by the institutional review board or ethics committee of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China (2021KYPJ185), and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR; identifier: ChiCTR2200057391). The need for consent was waived because all data sets were deidentified before transfer for data analysis.

Study Population and Data Source

Myopia screening was conducted in Guangdong Province, southern China, which included 21 cities with 115.21 million permanent residents. Guangdong’s gross domestic product (GDP) increased to 12,436.967 billion in 2021 [ 13 ]. Using electronic vision screening from Guangdong Eyevision Medical Technology Co, Ltd, the data collected included student ID, name, sex, location, class, grade, school type, UDVA, NCR, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, height, weight, sexual maturity, and other ophthalmic diseases or surgeries. Sexual maturity was defined as the occurrence of menstruation or spermatorrhea.

Screening Procedures

The staff of the participating schools received training from the administration, and local experienced certified optometrists performed the ocular examinations. UDVA was assessed monocularly using a Chinese standard logarithm VA chart (GB11533-2011) in an illuminated cabinet (WSVC-100, Wenzhou, China). LogMAR VA scores were recorded. Eyesight was measured at least thrice without cycloplegia using Topcon KR-1 (Topcon Co, Tokyo, Japan). Measurements were repeated if one measurement deviated from the other two by >0.5 D. Three reliable measurements were averaged for analysis.

Inclusion Criteria and Outcome Definitions

Our screening data encompassed 13 cities in Guangdong Province (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Zhuhai, Huizhou, Qingyuan, Heyuan, Shanwei, Shantou, Shaoguan, Yangjiang, Yunfu, and Jieyang). The cities have different populations, GDPs, and locations that show broad statistical variation as representing the whole province. Children and adolescents aged 6-20 years were recruited between 2019 and 2021. The right eye was arbitrarily selected to represent a specific individual. Individuals with missing records, other eye diseases, or eye surgeries were excluded.

Noncycloplegic SE was calculated in accordance with the standard formula: SE = sphere + ½ × cylinder. Screening myopia was defined as a UDVA of ≥0 logMAR and an SE of ≤–0.5 D. It was further subdivided into low myopia (–6 D<SE≤–0.5 D) and high myopia (SE≤–6 D) according to the IMI myopia definition and classification [ 14 ]. In the cohort study, high myopia progression was considered a shift in SE from the low myopia range toward the high myopia window during observation. BMI was calculated as the weight (in kg) divided by the square of the height (in m). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated as follows: MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 × (systolic pressure – diastolic pressure). The 13 cities were divided into 3 levels based on GDP: first-level cities with a per capita GDP of >100,000, second-level cities with a GDP between 50,000 and 100,000, and third-level cities with a GDP of <50,000.

Data Processing and Feature Selection

Figure 1 shows a flowchart for quality control for the data sets in this study. The first step was to compile an original data set from the electronic vision-screening data (data set 1). The next step was cleaning data set 1 and manually removing data that were not qualified for analysis because of invalidation, repetition, and abnormality. Only 1,285,609 records from 13 cities between 2019 and 2021 that met the inclusion criteria were included in data set 2. Data set 2 was used to describe the prevalence patterns of high myopia among different age groups, sexes, school stages, and GDPs.

To visualize the relationship between high myopia and per capita GDP in cities in Guangdong Province from 2019 to 2021, we applied the random oversampling method to balance the distribution in data set 2. By selecting the ratio of primary school to middle school to high school as 2:1:1 in each city, we successfully obtained a newly balanced data set 3.

Additionally, 2657 participants with high myopia and complete data were selected from data set 2 to determine risk factors and form data set 4. The SE value of the right eye was used in multivariable linear regression analysis. Six factors, namely age, sex, BMI, MAP, sexual maturity, and per capita GDP, included in the screening data, were selected as potential risk factors. Permutation importance was used to measure the influence of the factors on the predicted results.

In data set 2, a total of 16,760 participants with a 3-year examination period were selected, of whom 380 participants presented high myopia during observation and 14,948 did not present high myopia in the 3 years. Considering this imbalance between participants (approximate 1:39), we randomly selected 1000 records from 380 subjects with replacement (random oversampling) and 1000 records from 14,948 subjects without replacement (random undersampling) to reach a new balance. The main outcome was high myopia onset, scored as 0 or 1, with 0 representing negative samples and 1 representing positive samples. Finally, data set 5 was formed, which included 2000 records to predict the onset of high myopia.

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Algorithm Development and Evaluation Metrics

Data set 5 was randomly split into a training set and a test set at a 4:1 ratio; a 5-fold cross-validation (CV) approach was used during training. Several machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression, a support vector machine, a k-nearest neighbor algorithm, and a random forest algorithm were applied to derive the classification results. Accuracy, precision, and recall were calculated to assess the prediction results for the training, CV, and test sets, respectively. Precision represents the percentage of true positive predictions among all positive samples, whereas recall indicates the percentage of true positive predictions among all correct predictions. Since we aimed to raise an early warning for cohorts at risk, recall was more persuasive than precision. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve described the relationship between the true and false positive rates by setting different probability values as classification thresholds. A larger area under the ROC curve (AUC) indicated better efficacy. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) curve assessed the model’s performance. The largest distance between the 2 curves (K-S value) was calculated for the train, CV, and test sets separately. Finally, the model’s performance was validated by applying it to an independent hold-out group from Shenzhen Eye Hospital. These records, available for external validation, were obtained from 2547 individuals with a 3-year follow-up from 2019 to 2021 (age range 6-16, mean 8.78, SD 2.39 years), of whom 47 subjects exhibited high myopia and 2500 did not during the 3 years of observation.

Statistical Analysis

Data were processed and analyzed using the R programming language [ 15 ] and Python 3.8 [ 16 ]. Continuous variables are shown as mean (SD) or median (IQR) and categorical variables as frequencies. The normal distribution was tested using visual response and K-S and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Comparisons were performed using independent samples t tests, 1-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, or the chi-square test, as appropriate. All P values were 2-tailed, where P <.05 was statistically significant.

Characteristics of the Study Population

In total, 1,285,609 participants were obtained in the 3 years of screening ( Table 1 ). There were 658,516 (51.2%) males. The average age was 11.80 (SD 3.07, range 6-20) years. The incidence of high myopia differed in 2019 and 2021, with females having a higher rate (for both years, P <.001), but not in 2020 ( P =.70). The overall prevalence of high myopia was 4.48% (2019), 4.88% (2020), and 3.17% (2021).

Figure 2 shows that the rate of high myopia increased exponentially with age, from 0.43%, 0.57%, and 0.33% under 7 years to 13.97%, 13.67%, and 13.97% over 18 years in 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of high myopia from the age of 11 to 17 years, with an annual growth of >1%. The 3-year overall prevalence of high myopia was 1.25% (95% CI 1.23%-1.28%), 5.60% (95% CI 5.53%-5.68%), and 12.09% (95% CI 11.95%-12.22%) among participants in primary, middle, and high schools, respectively ( P <.001). However, the rate of high myopia declined annually. Specifically, the prevalence over this period decreased from 1.33% to 1.08%, 5.88% to 5.02%, and 12.22% to 11.78% among participants in primary, middle, and high schools, respectively (for all, P <.001, Figure 3 ).

There were significant differences in the prevalence of high myopia in cities with different per-capita GDP levels. The high myopia rate in cities with the second-GDP-level cities was significantly higher than that in the first- and third-level cities for all 3 years ( P <.001); in first-level cities, it declined from 4.28% in 2019 to 1.12% in 2021 ( P <.001). However, high myopia in third-level cities increased from 2.46% (2019) to 3.33% (2021; P <.001) but was stable in second-level cities between 5.03% and 5.38%.

a The minimum age was 6 years.

b The maximum age was 20 years.

c GDP: gross domestic product.

d Including 4 cities: Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Guangzhou, Foshan.

e Including 2 cities: Huizhou and Yangjiang.

f Including 7 cities: Heyuan, Jieyang, Qingyuan, Shantou, Shanwei, Shaoguan, and Yunfu.

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Prevalence of High Myopia Stratified by Per Capita GDP

Figure 4 shows us the proportion of high myopia and economic development levels in southern China. The proportion of children and adolescents with high myopia varied between 2.60% and 5.83% in 2019, 2.97% and 5.18% in 2020, and 3.53% and 5.31% in 2021 with coastal and southern cities more affected. In 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, the rate of high myopia correlated with the economic level ( r =0.83, P =.02), with Guangzhou (the capital city) having a rate of 3.93% ( Figure 5 ). However, there was a weak correlation between 2020 and 2021 ( r =0.05 and 0.41, respectively; for both P >.05).

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Determining the Risk Factors for High Myopia

Figure 6 shows that age was a significant risk factor for the progression of high myopia with the highest permutation importance, followed by MAP and GDP. Sexual maturity, BMI, and sex were not significantly correlated with high myopia.

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Prediction for the Onset of High Myopia

Because MAP, GDP, sexual maturity, BMI, and sex reduced the model’s predictive performance, age, UDVA, and SE of the first 2 years were selected as predictors. T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding showed that the data points were separable, thus revealing the feasibility for prediction ( Figure 7 ). Compared to logistic regression, the support vector machine, and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm, the random forest algorithm achieved the highest accuracy ( Table 2 ). We adopted a grid search to explore optimal hyperparameters, resulting in 100 estimators with a maximum depth of 19 for each tree. The model achieved an accuracy of 0.939 for the CV set and 0.948 for the test set. The recalls of the CV and test sets were 0.964 and 0.949, respectively, indicating that most positive cases were correctly predicted. According to the AUC score, there was a 97.5% chance for positive samples to have higher probabilities than negative ones in the test set, again demonstrating sufficient model efficacy. The K-S value was 0.895 for the test set, indicating that the most positive and negative samples were successfully differentiated ( Figure 8 and Table 3 ). Our algorithm showed reliable performance in the external validation, with high accuracy (0.971), AUC (0.957), and K-S value (0.846), demonstrating the ability of the model to generalize data.

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a CV: cross-validation.

b AUC: the area under the curve.

c K-S: Kolmogorov-Smirnov.

Principal Findings

Real-world research is important for public health and epidemiologic investigations [ 17 ]. Our study was based on real-world vision screening records, which included students’ age, sex, location, class, grade, school type, UDVA, NCR, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, height, weight, and sexual maturity. We best attempted to identify the prevalence pattern of high myopia for children and adolescents in southern China in different years, ages, school types, and cities. We selected age, UDVA, and SE as predictors and generated a random forest algorithm for predicting the onset of high myopia for the first time.

NCR was the main outcome of our research, which corresponds to Chinese large-scale myopia screening practices. Next, we included the combination of UDVA and NCR as a cutoff to screen for high myopia in large-scale school screening, aiming to reduce the gap between screening myopia (based on NCR) and its real-world prevalence. We acknowledge that the gold standard for refraction in children and adolescents is refraction with cycloplegia [ 14 ]. Therefore, children suspected with high myopia through our prediction model were warned and referred for a cycloplegic examination. Effective intervention should be conducted immediately to prevent the development of high myopia in the following year.

As confirmed in our study, the prevalence of high myopia in children and adolescents from southern China was higher than the global prevalence (4.0%) [ 2 ]. The incidence rate of high myopia rose exponentially with age, with an average growth of >1% annually from the age of 7 to 11 years; increasing prevalence rates of high myopia were observed among individuals in elementary, middle, and high schools. There are several epidemiological studies of myopia in China. Among screened university students in Shanghai (in 2012), 19.5% had high myopia [ 18 ]. In Wenzhou City (in 2019), the prevalence of high myopia in elementary, middle, and high school students was 0.95%, 6.90%, and 12.98%, respectively [ 6 ]. In Chengdu City (in 2019), the prevalence rate was 1.7% among children aged 3-14 years [ 19 ]. These studies were cross-sectional descriptions of the incidence rate of high myopia in different years, cities, and populations, but they did not mention the developmental patterns of high myopia with age. Nevertheless, these studies showed that the prevalence of high myopia had worsened and become a global concern.

We also found a relationship between high myopia and economic development. A published report has shown that economic growth is negatively associated with the vision of school children in China. Every 100% increase in GDP was associated with a 20% increase in the relative risk of moderate to severe visual impairment [ 20 ]. Our results were consistent with those of previous studies, with coastal and southern cities (which had higher GDPs) being more affected. This could be because areas with high GDP per capita tend to be wealthier and have more developed school systems. The explanation lies in the link between GDP and education, with intensive education systems as the causal factor [ 21 ]. Guangzhou had a relatively low rate of high myopia. We speculate that eye health education has been widely promoted in first-level cities. Parents pay more attention to their children’s vision and have more hospitals available. This suggested that comprehensive myopia prevention and control initiatives are crucial, and the results from Guangzhou are worth promoting in other areas.

We extracted factors such as age, sex, location, MAP, BMI, and sexual maturity from the data set for further analysis and found that age was the most important risk factor, followed by MAP, GDP, sexual maturity, BMI, and sex. Behavioral and environmental factors such as economic development, time spent outdoors, physical activity, green scenery exposure, sunlight exposure, near-work activity, smartphone overuse, diet, and sleep, which have been reported as the main factors of myopia onset and progression [ 20 , 22 - 24 ] cannot be investigated in large-scale vision screenings. Our analysis of risk factors of high myopia is based on a review by the International Myopia Institute, with the conclusion that the two major risk factors for myopia are high educational pressures and deprivation of time outdoors [ 25 ]. We found that age is a significant factor because it implies a higher cumulative exposure to educational pressures. Sexual maturity is not linked with increased age and hence educational exposure. Links to BMI are probably mediated by little time for physical activity and, as a result, little time outdoors. Sex is relevant, but it has a small effect on high myopia. MAP was negatively correlated with high myopia. This is consistent with an ocular blood flow measurement in healthy youths, which showed that patients with high myopia had a lower MAP than those with low myopia and those with emmetropia [ 26 ]. We speculated that systemic blood pressure affects ocular blood circulation, leading to high myopia.

To make full use of large-scale data from real-world vision screening and to provide immediate and timely warnings for high myopia onset, we studied the influence of related factors on high myopia incidence based on machine learning. Age was the most significant risk factor. MAP, GDP, sexual maturity, BMI, and sex affected high myopia, but they were not significant predictors and they reduced the predictive performance of the model. Finally, 3 variables—UDVA, SE, and age—were included to develop a random forest algorithm to predict the onset of high myopia in the following year. The results showed that prediction accuracy was >95%, which was reasonable and clinically acceptable. Although Lin’s [ 9 ] model could predict SE and the onset of high myopia at 18 years of age as early as 8 years in advance, it was complicated and confined to patients with cycloplegic refraction and annual progression rates. Wang’s prediction model was derived from 2740 cycloplegic autorefraction data [ 8 ], showing UDVA, SE, axial length, flat keratometry reading, sex, and parental myopia as predictive risk factors. However, it could not be applied widely because obtaining such a high volume of information through myopia screening is difficult. In this regard, our research was more practical in predicting the onset of high myopia in vision screening because only age, UDVA, and NCR were included.

The strengths of our study include the large sample size and the real-world nature of the data. Owing to some weaknesses of internal validity, study design, incomplete or incorrect data entry, or selection bias [ 27 ], many challenges must be addressed when using real-world screening data. Through special sampling and selection of statistical methods, we used real-world large-scale data collected from vision screening to illustrate the prevalence patterns of high myopia in children and adolescents in southern China and efficiently predicted the onset of high myopia in large-scale screening for the first time. We aimed to build a model, which could predict high myopia in children and adolescents, and deduce the relationship between high myopia and different factors to formulate a policy against high myopia. Future research could include a more thorough analysis of the results to incorporate improvements in the methodology.


High myopia had a high incidence in Guangdong Province. Its onset in children and adolescents was well predicted by the random forest algorithm. Efficient use of real-world data can contribute to the prevention and early diagnosis of high myopia. In the future, we aim to develop a smartphone app that allows people to input their age, UDVA, and NCR to predict the risk of high myopia. The adaptation of network- and smartphone-based myopia prediction platforms will provide a new model for vision screening, and it can dramatically improve vision health in the subsequent generations.


We would like to thank Guangdong Eyevision Medical Technology Co, Ltd, for the electronic vision-screening data. This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2020YFA0112701); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82171057); Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, China (202102010216); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31970752); Science and Technology Planning Project of Shenzhen Municipality (JSGG20191129110812708); and Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (KCXFZ20211020163813019). The funding agencies had no role in the conduct or interpretation of the study.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Authors' Contributions

YHZ, PQ, and SZ acquired the funding, supervised the study, had full access to all the data in the study, and took responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. They contributed equally. JG, YTZ, and QH designed the study, took part in the interpretation of the results, and wrote the manuscript. They contributed equally. SM, HG, and QS took part in the data analysis. JM, ZL, DF, and XZ were involved in the data collection. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.


Edited by T Leung, G Eysenbach; submitted 12.05.22; peer-reviewed by D Agarwal, L Zhou; comments to author 15.11.22; revised version received 05.12.22; accepted 26.01.23; published 01.03.23

©Jieying Guan, Yingting Zhu, Qiuyue Hu, Shuyue Ma, Jingfeng Mu, Zhidong Li, Dong Fang, Xiaohua Zhuo, Haifei Guan, Qianhui Sun, Lin An, Shaochong Zhang, Peiwu Qin, Yehong Zhuo. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 01.03.2023.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

Oil - It's Time To Get Serious

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Bullish And Bearish Trends of Crude Oil Trading

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We've survived 2/3 of Q1 so far, and March is going to be a pivotal month for the oil market going forward. Why is it so important?

Since the end of 2022, our messaging to readers has been to survive Q1. Oil market balances were going to show builds, and it was a matter of how much we were going to build. In addition, it was also a period in which the market was going to test just how low oil prices will go amidst the builds. So far, we've held the important technical support levels around $73 to $75. Given the balances we are seeing so far, global liquid builds have averaged +0.8 million b/d, or in line with our estimate.

Global balances

At the moment, we are expecting Q2 balances to show a small draw of 0.29 million b/d, but this assumption does not assume any further production loss from Russia.

Looking at the physical market and the time spreads, it appears the market is also anticipating a small draw. It's not the same type of backwardation we are used to last summer, so we don't expect large draws to take place.

Keep in mind also that product inventories appear to remain bloated in China as indicated by the latest Singapore refining margins . While mobility data continues to improve in China and economic data has surprised to the upside so far, we need product overhang to disappear, product tightness to return, and meaningful backwardation to return.

Why is it time to get serious?

Since June of last year, oil prices have been in a downtrend. For the oil bulls that believe in the structural oil bull thesis, Q1 was an exception, and can only be tolerated if it was just a one-quarter mismatch. And as we stated above, March will show us glimpses of what Q2 looks like. So with Russia reducing production by ~500k b/d and China's data surprising to the upside, if both the physical oil market and the financial side fail to gain traction, then we are awfully wrong in our thesis and assumption. And while it's always easier to use hindsight and look back on where we missed, this is not a mistake we can afford this time around.

So it is time to get serious because everything we had said about the oil market needs to happen, or we are simply wrong.

Let's rehash what needs to happen again:

Total liquids

It's time to get serious. If we are right that Q1 was a blip, then everything we laid out should start to show signs of change.

HFI Research, #1 Energy Service

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For energy investors, the 2014-2020 bear market has been incredibly brutal. But as the old adage goes, " Low commodity prices cure low commodity prices ." Our deep understanding of US shale and other oil market fundamentals leads us to believe that we are finally entering a multi-year bull market . Investors should take advantage of the incoming trend and be positioned in real assets like precious metals and energy stocks. If you are interested, we can help! Come and see for yourself!

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HFI Research specializes in contrarian investment analysis. We help you to find clarity in a world of uncertainty. We take contrarian thinking very seriously and believe that the only way to obtain a real edge in the market is to possess a contrarian investment thesis. We share our investment analysis with premium subscribers through daily and weekly reports.

HFI Research Premium currently includes:

Oil Market Fundamentals - Our daily oil market report that discusses the current oil market fundamentals and the incoming price trend.

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Real-Time Trade Notifications - We actively trade oil and natural gas ETNs. In addition, we also issue real-time trade notifications on individual stocks.

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Disclosure: I/we have no stock, option or similar derivative position in any of the companies mentioned, and no plans to initiate any such positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it. I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples / How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

What is an article.

Almost all writers and academics reference other people’s writing in their works. Referencing demonstrates that you have researched your topic, are well versed in its arguments and theories, and it also helps avoid charges of plagiarism.  

The Harvard citation system is just one of many referencing styles – and which style you choose is normally guided by the institution or publication you are writing for.

In this article, you will learn how to use the Harvard citation system to reference the following types of articles:

Properly citing article details in the reference list will help the readers to locate your source material if they wish to read more about a particular area or topic.

Information you need:

If accessed online:

Journal articles

Academic or scholarly journals are periodical publications about a specific discipline. No matter what your field is, if you are writing an academic paper, you will inevitably have to cite a journal article in your research. Journal articles often have multiple authors, so make sure you know when to use et al. in Harvard style . The method for referencing a journal article in the reference list is as follows:

Reference list (print) structure:

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312.

Note that the article title uses sentence case. However, the title of the journal uses title case. Additionally, the volume number comes immediately after the journal title followed by the issue number in round brackets.

If the original material you are referencing was accessed online, then the method for citing it in the reference list will be the same as that in print, but with an additional line at the end.  

Reference list (online) structure:

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).  

Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312. Available at: (Accessed: 08 October 2020).

In-text citation (print or online) structure:

In-text citations are written within round brackets and start with the last name of the author followed by the year published, both separated by a comma.

You can also mention the author within the text and only include the publication year in round brackets.


In this article (Shepherd, 2020) deals with…  

According to Shepherd (2020), when peer support is available…  

Talking about the secondary education system, Shepherd (2020, p.299) suggests that…

Newspaper articles

Even if you are referring to an incident which is public knowledge, you still need to cite the source.  

The name of the author in a newspaper article is referred to as a byline. Below are examples for citing an article both with and without a byline.  

Reference list (print) structure:  

Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s).

Hamilton, J. (2018). ‘Massive fire at local department store’, The Daily Local, 10 August, p. 1.

Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Gambino, L. (2020) ‘Kamala Harris and Mike Pence clash over coronavirus response in vice-presidential debate,’ The Guardian, 8 October. Available at: (Accessed: 8 October 2020).

Reference list structure, no byline:

The basic reference list structure for the reference is the same for both print and online articles. If information isn’t available, simply omit it from the reference.

Newspaper name (Year published) ‘Article Title’, Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

The Chronicler (2016) ‘Local man wins lottery jackpot twice in one year’, 30 May, p. 14. Available at: (Accessed: 1 October 2020).

In-text citation structure (print or online):

The last name of the author and date are written in round brackets, separated by a comma. The method is similar to referencing journal articles in in-text citations.

(Hamilton, 2018)

In his paper, Gambino (2020) mentioned that…

For articles accessed online which do not have an author, the name of the publication is mentioned in place of the author’s name and is italicized.

( The Chronicler , 2016)

Magazine articles  

The structure of magazine articles is similar to that of a journal article.

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Ornes, S. (2020). “To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan”, ScienceNews, (198), p.2.

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Ornes, S. (2020) ‘To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan’, ScienceNews, (198), p.2. Available at: (Accessed: 3 October 2020).

  In-text citation (print or online) structure:

(Author last name, Year published)

(Ornes, 2020)

Published October 29, 2020.

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  7. All Medical Research Articles

    Harvard Medical School has created a large department dedicated to developing and teaching young scientists about the emerging field of computational medicine. This field uses new mathematical techniques to make sense of the thousands of numbers generated in experiments measuring various molecules. Analyzing such "big data" was once unimaginable.

  8. 14 Websites to Download Research Paper for Free

    14 best free websites to download research papers are listed below: 1. Sci-Hub Sci-Hub is a website link with over 64.5 million academic papers and articles available for direct download. It bypasses publisher paywalls by allowing access through educational institution proxies.

  9. How to publish your research

    Step 1: choosing a journal Step 2: writing your paper Step 3: making your submission Step 4: navigating the peer review process Step 5: the production process Step 1: choosing a journal Choosing which journal to publish your research paper in is one of the most significant decisions you have to make as a researcher.

  10. Research

    Here's What the Experts Know. Dreaming, memory-making, problem-solving: A lot happens during the most active sleep phase. By Carolyn Todd. Take Water. Add Sodium Chloride. Chill and Squeeze Into ...

  11. How to Get Research Experience

    A research project might require you to first take coursework in basic lab sciences, statistics, or another advanced topic specific to the project. Other PIs may prefer to train you "on-the-job" through their graduate or post-doc students. This will impact when you are ready to join a project. Finding the right research project.

  12. 3 Ways to Find Research Articles

    How to Find Research Articles Download Article methods 1 Using Free Academic Search Engines 2 Accessing Scholarly Databases 3 Identifying Articles about Primary Research Other Sections Related Articles References Co-authored by Jennifer Mueller, JD Last Updated: October 29, 2022 References

  13. What's the difference between a research article (or research study

    A research paper is a primary source...that is, it reports the methods and results of an original study performed by the authors. The kind of study may vary (it could have been an experiment, survey, interview, etc.), but in all cases, raw data have been collected and analyzed by the authors, and conclusions drawn from the results of that analysis. ...

  14. How to get published in an academic journal: top tips from editors

    1) Focus on a story that progresses logically, rather than chronologically. Take some time before even writing your paper to think about the logic of the presentation. When writing, focus on a ...

  15. 10 Best Online Websites and Resources for Academic Research

    For journal articles, books, images, and even primary sources, JSTOR ranks among the best online resources for academic research. JSTOR's collection spans 75 disciplines, with strengths in the humanities and social sciences. The academic research database includes complete runs of over 2,800 journals.

  16. What Is Peer Review?

    The most common types are: Single-blind review. Double-blind review. Triple-blind review. Collaborative review. Open review. Relatedly, peer assessment is a process where your peers provide you with feedback on something you've written, based on a set of criteria or benchmarks from an instructor. They then give constructive feedback ...

  17. Why Companies Should Help Every Employee Chart a Career Path

    In fact, in a Pew Research survey, 63% of people who changed jobs in 2021 cited a lack of advancement opportunities as a reason. 1 And a 2022 McKinsey study noted that a lack of career development and advancement was the most common reason given for quitting a previous job. 2. What's more, the landscape has become more challenging.

  18. 5 free and legal ways to get the full text of research articles

    5 free and legal ways to get the full text of research articles By Carol Hollier on 07-Apr-2021 13:23:17 1. Use your library if you have one! If you are affiliated with a university, you probably have free library access to the full text of millions of research articles. The library will have subscribed to these journals on your behalf.

  19. Submit your paper

    Now that your article is published, you can promote it to achieve a bigger impact for your research. Sharing research, accomplishments and ambitions with a wider audience makes you more visible in your field. This helps you get cited more, enabling you to cultivate a stronger reputation, promote your research and move forward in your career.

  20. Some whales use vocal fry to find and catch their food, new research

    Well, new research in the journal Science now shows that the same type of vocal fry is what allows certain kinds of whales to find and catch their food. Science reporter Ari Daniel has more.

  21. 'Let's get real': scientists discover a new way climate change

    Previous research attempts to understand the energetic costs of climate warming for ectotherms were limited in one important respect. ... Write an article and join a growing community of more than ...

  22. LibGuides: What Kind of Article Do I Need?: Introduction

    Introduction. You may be wondering about the kind of article you need to support your research for an assignment. This guide can help! Read below for an explanation of research versus non-research articles, and use the tabs at the top of this guide to learn more about the different types of articles that fall within those categories, as well as ...

  23. Research Article

    Research articles always consist of a title, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and references sections, and many include a supplemental materials section. There are strategies for making each section most helpful to the reader. •

  24. Twenty Steps to Writing a Research Article

    Twenty Steps to Writing a Research Article Published: Article reproduced with permission from Beth A. Fischer and Michael J. Zigmond, Survival Skills and Ethics Program, University of Pittsburgh THE PROCESS OF MOVING FROM IDEA to published manuscript can be a daunting one.

  25. Journal of Medical Internet Research

    Background: Patients with high myopia have an increased lifetime risk of complications. The prevalence patterns of high myopia in children and adolescents in southern China are unclear. Early identification of high-risk individuals is critical for reducing the occurrence and development of high myopia and avoiding the resulting complications.

  26. Oil

    I do much more than just articles at HFI Research: Members get access to model portfolios, regular updates, a chat room, and more. Learn More » Artystarty/iStock via Getty Images

  27. What are the benefits of adding a pre print of Article in RG ? Will

    Get help with your research. Join ResearchGate to ask questions, get input, and advance your work. Join for free. Log in. All Answers (2) 3rd Mar, 2023. Ajit Singh.

  28. How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

    Journal articles. Academic or scholarly journals are periodical publications about a specific discipline. No matter what your field is, if you are writing an academic paper, you will inevitably have to cite a journal article in your research. Journal articles often have multiple authors, so make sure you know when to use et al. in Harvard style ...