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Analysis of human resource management challenges in implementation of industry 4.0 in Indian automobile industry

Top management green commitment and green intellectual capital as enablers of hotel environmental performance: the mediating role of green human resource management, the study of knowledge employee voice among the knowledge-based companies: the case of an emerging economy.

PurposeA review of previous studies on the voices of employees and knowledge workers clarifies that paying attention to employees' voice is critical in human resource management. However, limited studies have been conducted on it, and much less emphasis has been placed compared to other human resource management activities such as human resource planning. Therefore, the voice of knowledge employees has been one of the critical issues that have attracted a great deal of attention recently. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of various comprehensive and integrated voice mechanisms. As a result, this study aims to design knowledge workers' voice patterns in knowledge-based companies specialising in information and communication technology (ICT) in Iran in May and June 2020.Design/methodology/approachThis study is a qualitative grounded theory research. We collected the data from a target sample of 15 experts in knowledge-based ICT companies using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Since all the participants had practised the employee voice process, they were regarded as useful data sources. Data analysis was also performed using three-step coding (open, axial and selective) by Atlas T8, which eventually led to identifying 14 components and 38 selected codes. We placed identified components in a paradigm model, including Personality Characteristics, Job Factors, Economic Factors, Cultural Factors, Organisational Policies, Organisational Structure, Climate Of Voice in the Organisation, Management Factors, Emotional Events, Communications and Networking, Contrast and Conflict and, etc. Then, the voice pattern of the knowledge staff was drawn.FindingsThe results showed that constructive knowledge voice influences the recognition of environmental opportunities and, additionally, it helps the competitive advantages among the employees. By forming the concept of knowledge staff voice, it can be concluded that paying attention to knowledge staff voice leads to presenting creative solutions to do affairs in critical situations. The presentation of these solutions by knowledge workers results in the acceptance of environmental changes, recognition and exploitation of new chances and ideas, and sharing experiences in Iranian knowledge-based companies.Practical implicationsStrengthening and expanding the voice of employees in knowledge-oriented companies can pave the way to growth and development towards a higher future that prevents the waste of tangible and intangible assets.Originality/valueCompanies' ability to engage in knowledge workers is a vital factor in human resource management and strategic management. However, the employee voice has not been involved integrally in the context of corporate.

Achieving Human Resource Management Sustainability in Universities

The sustainability of human resource management (HRM) is the basis for an organization’s future growth and success. This study aims to investigate achieving HRM sustainability in universities. We use a quantitative research method design to investigate the factors that affect HRM sustainability at universities. The study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2020 at Iranian state universities. As the study’s statistical population included 2543 employees, a sample size of 334 employees was calculated using the Cochran formula. A questionnaire with 32 statements based on a 5-point Likert scale was used to collect the data, which were analyzed using PLS3 software. The findings show that human resource practices, social factors, psychological factors, employer branding, and economic factors have positive and significant effects on HRM sustainability at universities. Findings indicate that it is essential to consider the implementation of adequate HRM practices and related socio-economic and psychological supports for HRM sustainability in universities that can lead to the competitiveness of the higher education institutions such as universities.

Relationship Model between Human Resource Management Activities and Performance Based on LMBP Algorithm

The research on the relationship between human resource management activities and performance is an important topic of enterprise human resource management research. There are some errors between the relationship between human resource management activities and performance and the real situation, so it is impossible to accurately predict the performance fluctuation. Therefore, the relationship model between human resource management activities and performance based on the LMBP algorithm is constructed. Using the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm and BP (back-propagation) neural network algorithm to establish a new LMBP algorithm, control the convergence of the new algorithm, optimize the accuracy of the algorithm, and then apply the LMBP algorithm to predict the risk of performance fluctuation under human resource management activities of enterprises, the indicators of human resource management activities of enterprises are determined, to complete the mining of enterprise performance data, the grey correlation analysis is combined, and the relationship model between human resource management activities and performance is built. The experimental samples are selected from CSMAR database, and the simulation experiment is designed. Using different algorithms to forecast the fluctuation of enterprise performance, the experimental results show that the LMBP algorithm can more accurately reflect the relationship between enterprise HRM and performance.

Inclusive human resource management in freelancers' employment relationships: The role of organizational needs and freelancers' psychological contracts

Student leadership programme: igniting the young minds.

Learning outcomes This case will help students to understand the following: Develop a basic understanding of competency building processes. Learn about the mentoring process and its application in leadership development. Develop awareness about the methodology for assessment of the effectiveness of training. Case overview/synopsis Dr A. R. K. Pillai founded the Indian Leprosy Foundation in 1970 in response to the national call by late Mrs Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India, to the public-spirited people to take up leprosy eradication. It collaborated with international agencies to reduce leprosy drastically in India from four million, in 1982 to around a hundred thousand cases in 2006. In 2006, the Indian Leprosy Foundation was renamed as Indian Development Foundation (IDF) as the trustees decided to expand the work of IDF in the areas of health, children’s education and women’s empowerment. Dr Narayan Iyer, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of IDF initiated a leadership development intervention called the Students’ leadership programme (SLP) for children in the age group of 12 to 14, from the urban poor households in 2014. It was a structured mentoring programme spanning over three months in collaboration with the schools. It aimed at incubating skills in the areas of leadership, teamwork, personality, behavioural traits and provided career guidance. It had a humble beginning in 2014 with a coverage of 50 students. Initially, IDF welcomed executives from the corporate sector as mentors. As there was a need to rapidly expand the scope of SLP to the other cities of India, IDF tied up with the graduate colleges and invited the students to be the mentors. The other objective behind this move was to create social awareness among the students from more affluent strata of society. IDF was able to dramatically increase the participation of the students through SLP by approximately up to 100,000 by 2020. However, rapid progress threw up multiple challenges. The teachers complained about the non-availability of the students for regular classes to teach the syllabus as the students were busy with SLP. The schools forced IDF to shorten the duration of SLP to two months. Also, many undergraduate mentors were unable to coach the participants due to lack of maturity and found wanting to strike a rapport with them. There was a shortage of corporate executives who volunteered for the mentoring, due to work pressures. Dr Narayan, CEO & National Coordinator and Ms Mallika Ramchandran, the project head of SLP at IDF, were worried about the desired impact of SLP on the participants and its sustainability due to these challenges. So, with the support of Dr Narayan, she initiated a detailed survey to assess the ground-level impact of SLP. The objective was to get clarity about what was working for SLP and what aspects needed to improve, to make the programme more effective. Overall feedback from the survey was very positive. The mothers had seen very positive changes in the participants’ behaviour post-SLP. The teachers had specific concerns about the effectiveness of undergraduate mentors. The need for a refresher course to inculcate ethical behaviour and the inadequacy of the two-month duration of the SLP to reinforce values were highlighted. Respondents also voiced the requirement to build responsible citizenship behaviours among the participants. Mallika was all for preparing a model to further enhance the effectiveness of SLP. Dr Narayan and Mallika embraced the challenge and they were raring to go to develop SLP as a cutting-edge leadership programme and to take it to new heights. Complexity academic level This case can be used in courses on human resource management in postgraduate and graduate management programmes. It can also be used in the general and development management courses and during executive education programmes to teach methodologies for evaluating the effectiveness of the training interventions, with emphasis on the voluntary sector. Supplementary materials Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject code CSS 6: Human Resource Management.

Sustainable human resource management: six defining characteristics

Socially responsible human resource management and employee ethical voice: roles of employee ethical self‐efficacy and organizational identification, feasibility of implementing the human resource payroll management system based on cloud computing.

PurposeThe present study is descriptive research in terms of purpose, descriptive analysis in terms of nature and cross-sectional research in terms of time. The study’s statistical population includes all employees and managers of the China City Organization selected as sample members using random sampling method and Krejcie table of 242 people. The questionnaire was modified and revised based on the goals, tasks and mission of the target organization to collect information. In data analysis, due to the normality of data distribution, the structural equation modeling method is used to evaluate the causal model, reliability and validity of the measurement model. Evaluation and validation of the model are done through the structural equation model. Questionnaire-based model and data are analyzed using Smart PLS 3.0. The main purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of implementing the human resource payroll management system based on cloud computing technology.Design/methodology/approachNew technologies require innovative approaches for creating valuable opportunities in an organization to integrate the physical flows of goods and services and financial information. Today, cloud computing is an emerging mechanism for high-level computing as a storage system. It is used to connect to network hosts, infrastructure and applications and provide reliable services. Due to advances in this field, cloud computing is used to perform operations related to human resources. The role, importance and application of cloud computing in human resource management, such as reducing the cost of hardware and information software in hiring, job planning, employee selection, employee socialization, payroll, employee performance appraisal, rewards, etc., is raised. This way, human resource management teams can easily view resumes, sort candidates and observe and analyze their performance. Cloud computing is effective in implementing human resource payroll management systems. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of implementing the human resource payroll management system based on cloud computing technology.FindingsTesting the research hypotheses shows that the dimension desirability of ability and acceptance is provided in dimensions related to the minimum conditions required to implement cloud computing technology in the organization. For this reason, the feasibility of implementing the systems based on cloud computing in companies must be considered.Research limitations/implicationsThis study also has some limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the results. The study is limited to one region. It cannot be assured that the factors examined in other areas are effective. The research design for this study is a cross-sectional study. It represents the static relationship between the variables. Since cross-sectional data from variable relationships are taken at a single point in time, they are collected in other periods. As a proposal, future researchers intend to investigate the impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems based on cloud computing.Practical implicationsThe research also includes companies, departments and individuals associated with systems based on cloud computing.Originality/valueIn this paper, the feasibility of implementing the human resource payroll management system based on cloud computing is pointed out, and the approach to resolve the problem is applied to a practical example. The presented model in this article provides a complete framework to investigate the feasibility of implementing the human resource payroll management system based on cloud computing.

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Human Resource Management Review

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Research leap

A Study on Contribution of Digital Human Resource Management towards Organizational Performance

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International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration Volume 7, Issue 5, July 2021, Pages 43-51 A Study on Contribution of Digital Human Resource Management towards Organizational Performance DOI: 10.18775/ijmsba.1849-5664-5419.2014.75.1004   URL: 1 Dr. A.Varadaraj, 2 Dr. Belal Mahmoud Al Wadi 1 professor, Alliance School of Business Bengaluru, India 2 Assistant Professor- Learning and Development Consultant, LEVENBERT for Studies and Consulting – Sultanate of Oman

Abstract: Digital (HRM) Human Resource Management is digital upgrading in the field of Human Resource management. The working process of DHRM will take place through mobile, electronic media, social media through the internet, and also with the help of IT (information technology). All these resources will make HRM more significant in the present situation. Digital HRM is capable of doing Human work by the means of software, through several apps, and with the internet embedded in it. Digital Human Resource will assist organizations through the optimization of Social, Mobile, Analytics, and Cloud (SMAC) technology, towards management and responsibility in helping them to ensure that assumptions and expectations within the organization drive the right behavior. Digitalization in HRM will make it more efficient and relevant in the future. Without digital transformation, HRM will lag far behind the demands of the organization worldwide. This research paper tries to highlight the role of digital HRM in improving the performance of the organization. The data used for this research are secondary. The outcome of the research would be very important for a business organization to implement digital human resource management and also for improving and enhancing organizational performance.

Keywords: Organization, Business firm, Digitalization, Business strategy, Business enhancement.

1. Introduction

The rapid growth in technology has increased the digital performance of the organization, its impact on society, and the workflow of the organization. The digital revolution has an impact on organizations at all levels. Furthermore, it puts pressure on organizations and its employee to adapt to the rapidly changing world and the increase of digital technology. Digitalization has become a buzzword in the business world and is recognized as something organizations must embrace in order to stay relevant (Goldstein, 2015; Kontić and Vidicki, 2018).

Nowadays, technology in computers has replaced all manual work (Cöster et al., 2019).Smart computer programs such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), also has replaced non-repetitive intellectual tasks that can access a bigger amount of information, commonly known as „Big data‟ (Makridakis, 2017; Shah et al., 2017). The traceability also increases as more digital tools are connected to the internet, the „Internet of Things‟ (Ebersold and Glass, 2015).  Digitalization pervades everything that can be digitized (Halid et al., 2020).  not only changes how people communicate and interact as humans but in turn also transforms how organizations operate (Larkin, 2017).

Previous research focuses on digitalization for marketing and business performance such as customer preferences, buying behavior, and customer relationship management. However, how it affects the organization internally is less discussed in the field of academic research, especially about HRM. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate deeper into HRM in the digital age. More specifically, this study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the HRM digital research field and its relationship with organizational performance.

2. Literature Review

To know more about digital human resources one should first understand the exact meaning of it. (Sˇušnjar et al., 2016) defined DHRM as a practice that is highly used for recruiting, selecting, socializing, training, and developing the career opportunity for the participants as well as for the organization to take the right employee to work in the organization.

(Bredin & Söderlund, 2011; KAVANAGH et al., 2009)  explained DHRM as practices relating to the relationship between the employees and the organization in which they work. Also, HRM The development of information technology has played a key role in the evolution of DHRM.

(Maditheti, 2017) in this business world, all technologies are re-appearing in a new form in order to attract and gain more recruitment of employees in the organization. The main transformation took place in HRM from conventional HRM to a Digital HRM by implementing new policy and strategy to attract organization.

(Saini, 2018) described DHRM as maintaining all HRM work with the help of technology, through several applications and internet-connected to it.

(Iwu, 2016) conducted study at sub-Saharan African universities found that maximum percentage of employees agreed that E-HRM would increase their performance,  also studied the impact of digitization on HR development, talent management, and performance at work. The findings of the research indicate that there is a positive impact of digital transformation on all variables.

(Tripathi & Kushwaha, 2017) strongly recommended that organizations to bring forward digitization in the HRM practices as it has become very significant these days.

(Shah et al., 2017) shown that digitization of HRM processes enables to remove many routine tasks, to reduce the risk of human error, and empower experts to solve important issues, enabling them to use their knowledge and skills more effectively in solving business problems.

Therefore, based on previous research it shows that execution of digital HRM is important for an organization to improve their performance and maintain relevance in the digital era.

2.1 HRM and Digital HRM

In the present scenario, business is conducted with the needs and demands for the international business motive, also goods transfer takes place from one country to another, services, managerial knowledge, and technology transfer also takes place between countries. Globalization made the entire world small in the means of communicating with others. The financial and economical patterns of the world have been integrated with better advancement.

In today’s digital world where digital human resource management plays a prominent function when compared to conventional human resource management due to the demand of the organization. Many organization needs high-efficient Digital Human Resource Management for better organizational performance. The HR department must welcome digital transformation in HR and must also upgrade the policy of HR according to the need for digital transformation. Digital Human resources management faces many challenges and difficulties in order to give the best quality of work for the organization across the world. In order to achieve in the competitive market structure organization must expand the trading globally.

It is difficult for Human Resource Management to adapt themselves to a digital transformation and dealing with complexity while shifting the work process and its progress to a digital platform. Digital Human Resource in today’s world plays an important role in the organization and other business operation by the means of creating momentum and internal capability.

(Maditheti, 2017) the main motive of the HR manager in present scenario is to adapt to the change in the business market structure and to implement the necessary change and enhance the performance in order to make successive plans for the organization. The efficiency of HRM will be seen through the recruitment process mainly.

In an Internet-based Society, it would be very helpful for the human Resource Management Department to try to understand and analyze the relationship between Human Resource and Information Technology. The analysis must be implemented in HR for enhancing the performance of HR along with the integration of Information technology. Adaption of digital technology will create a complete balance between efficiency and innovative aspect of any organization. Due to Human Resource management being a central unit for many organizations it is responsible for designing the organizational structure, the collaboration between the two is highly significant.

3. Conceptual View on Digital Hrm

3.1 how digital hrm work.

research paper related to human resource management

Figure 1: Digital HR agenda

(Halid et al., 2020) proposed a framework highlighting the 4th Industrial Revolution on how digital technology has completely changed the organization, society, operating structure of the organization, life style of employees, etc.

(Maditheti, 2017)Thus, in order to be relevant in this era, digitization is something that an organization has to bring in specifically in managing HR. For example, traditional methods of recruitment and selection cannot reach the wide geography of millions of people at once. However, technology has made recruiting more efficient and effective to distribute information more attractively. Unilever is the multinational consumer goods company accessing worldwide has now adapted a digital platform for hiring new employees. Now the company is fully experimenting with digital platforms like online games, social media, AI for the further recruitment process.

With the digital media, employees will know the complete structure involved in the training process and they can attend the training program for any location by attending the training class through an online platform. Digital Human Resource Management is very helpful in HR process and it also plays an important role for organizational development. Proposed a framework on how digital technology plays a significant role by enhancing the performance of the organization through the cloud-based network and helping in certain processes like analytics, talent management analysis, borderless teams, etc.

(Larkin, 2017) the digital transformation in Human Resource Management can be classified into 3 main groups as

(Saini, 2018) Inward: if an organization is classified under inward it means that the organization is embedded with digital technology and the employees working in the organization communicate through digital means like mailing, video calls with mobile devices. The performance of the employees is carried out through digital means.

(Saini, 2018) Outward- if an organization is classified under outward it means that the management of the organization is trying to make the employees involved in digital means by using smartphones to perform their work. By performing their work through mobile phone an employee can be work from any place, anywhere, at any time. Through this, the involvement of the employees in their work will increase.

(Saini, 2018) if an organization is classified under across it means that the change in the organization is bigger. Digitalization in HR will help in bringing innovation, collaborations, and efficient strategy in the organization. Digitalization makes the organization to attain a global position because they share and gain knowledge from their collaborative global organization.

3.2 Elements of Digital HRM

In the present digital world Human resource Management have adapted technology to stand it the competitive digital world. Human Resource Management has to transform from conventional to digital form. The following elements are required to make a transformation in HRM.

A. Digital workforce

In the millennial era, current generations are considered the digital workforce, they have internet-connected devices and web-based applications and services have always fascinated their everyday lives. By having these employees, the organization needs to be digital in order to engage with a digital employee [27]. Therefore, digital HRM is embedded with mobile apps, design thinking, video, behavioral economics, and the use of system analytics [15].

B. Digital Work and Task

The work in organization has taken huge transformation utilizing a digital platform in works as well as in management. Every organization in this present scenario must make integrate digitalization in the work process which will help in reducing manual work. Organizations also need to use digital tools and media to connect and communicate with the employee. Work and task in organization also need to organize digitally.

 C. Digital Support Management 

This involves planning, implementing, and using digital technologies to support HRM activities such as payroll processing, reward and compensation, performance management, training, and development, etc.

D. Updated HR Technology

(Saini, 2018) There is a significant change in conventional human resources and its changing pattern towards digital human resources through a cloud-based networking system. The human resource field has shifted from conventional operation to mobile device based operation. Social and mobile functionality is considered an important need for recruitment selection.

3.3. Benefits of Digital Human Resource Management

research paper related to human resource management

Figure 2: Digital HR old vs  new rules

Today’s world has completely changed by the means of living style, work pattern, the organizational structure of the business, and the way how it is carried out. DHR will be impacting on every aspects of HRM. Initially DHRM helped the managers and employees of the organization to have a mindset changing to implementing technology, managing the organization digitally, all these will lead to a biggest change in the organization.

Highlights that digitalization changes the way employees communicate and interact in the workplace, what they expect from their employer and careers, where work location is and when work is conducted. Since, the evolution of digitalization impacts organizations at many levels, thus it needs development and adaption of new knowledge and new ways of working.

4. Case Study on Digital Human Resource and its Practice in a Popular Business Firm

Digitalization is a very significant topic which gained a lot of attention among the business firm, several entrepreneurs, organizations, and industries. This section will elaborate the use of Digital HR by several leading organizations across the world, its benefits, and the importance of Digital HR in the organization. These case studies highlights the organization using digital HR.

4.1. Anchor Trust

Anchor Group is one of the top leading Non-for-profit housing organization based in the United Kingdom. They wanted the recruitment process to be in a better way and to take the best candidate to work in the organization. Their main motive was to take more employees to work in the organization in the right manner. For the recruitment process, they utilized Chabot which was embedded in Facebook Messenger with several sets of questions which allows the management to engage with the candidate directly by sharing the screen of their device. They also created clear social media campaigns for guiding the participants in the recruitment process and by guiding them to use Chat bot. FB analysis helped the organization to find out which questions will be suitable for most of the target participants for recruitment. By developing and launching Chat bot, the recruitment process of Anchor Trust improved in all aspects.

The traditional recruitment process of Anchor trust was by making the participants apply on the organization website in which the conversation rate was just 2 percent but through Chat bot the conversation rate was about 25 percent. The cost gained by social media campaign for recruitment through the traditional method was 50 GBP but now it was about 18 times higher than before. And the number of the applicant for a month reached about 80 percent.

research paper related to human resource management

Figure 3: Chatbot created by Anchor trust for improving recruitment process

4.2. Deloitte- (Making Learning all Fun and Games)

In January 2013 Harvard Business reviewed published an article pointing out Deloitte’s – Made learning a game. This suits as a wonderful example of how gamification can improve a serving digital platform and its environment. Deloitte wants to improve the training programs known as the DLA (Deloitte Leadership Academy). It is considered as one of the difficult task site training is difficult to make the participants to completely understand it.

But in order to make the training program interesting, they implemented several gaming elements like designing, playing and competition in the real world in a form of a gaming world. Deloitte was able to interact with the users through embedding missions, video lectures, tests, and quizzes. The outcome of this training program revealed that nearly 38 percent of users come back to Deloitte Leadership Academy every week.

research paper related to human resource management

Figure 4: Gamification created by Deloitte for enhancing the existing digital process

4.3. Walmart- (Automation as a Way to More Meaningful Work)

Walmart is one of the leading retail corporations that always wanted to be innovative in all means. This organization always looks for an opportunity to be innovative and to seek the attention of not only customers but also employees. So Walmart has developed an automation process for the employees to contact the customers directly.

The outcome of this process was found in the fast-growing shopping area. They decreased the number of cashiers by making the customers experience self-checkout and trainer the workers utilizing to be the best personal shoppers. Walmart created a virtual platform for training and preparing workers for any situation to occur in the future. The shift in the working process has given a higher amount of satisfaction for the employees as well as the customers who are shopping.

IBM is one of the leading organizations with nearly 500,000 employees and they are creating a path for digital HR by experimenting new digital Human Resource Management. For managing the employees and their working process they developed Checkpoint using the FB which will help in increasing the engagement of workers, goal management, and alignment. IBM has shut the conventional Learning management and replaced it with a digital learning platform. With this digital platform, employees can easily publish their work which they consider important for themselves, and developing their work by learning or gaining knowledge through the internet. IBM has developed a career management system to empower the employees and also helps them to seek new jobs, to find new assignments by looking into peers’ working patterns.

4.5. RBC (Royal Bank of Canada)

RBC is trying to re-invent the experience of the employees through digitalization. They have created a new digital human resource management team along with information technology for security and infrastructure purpose. They created an application called Embard through which the employees know more about their work, know about the organization culture, and the employees can meet the team through an online platform. RBC has planned for developing an application for Compelling Careers through a digital platform and also to develop a digital system for career development, learning and job transaction.

5. View on Digital Hr from the Perspective of Other Countries

1. Digitalization takes places in Human Resource management since the traditional HR pushed themselves to be part of this digital world.

2. 56 % of companies worldwide have restructured their human resource program to bring digital technology and mobile phones.

3. 51% of company’s worldwide have implemented digital technology in the organization.

4. From the survey report it showed that almost 33% of organization are using AI to deliver better Human Resource Solution, and 40% of them have developed mobile application to deliver significant human resource solution for business organization.

research paper related to human resource management

Figure 5: Digital HR practice worldwide and its percentage of utilization

The human Resource Department has undergone a massive evolution in the past 5 years. Especially in the past 3 years many companies are implementing or collaborating with cloud-based systems in the HR platform. The human Resource department necessarily needs a new revolution on the whole structure, by restructuring the field with skilled HR professionals, implementing analytics, etc. but in the present scenario, digital management practice has gained more importance among organizations. Now the present Human Resource management has changed to a digital form which tries to focus on people, organization, employees, and work, etc. now the resulting human Resource Practice will be termed as Digital Human Resource. Digital HR was developed based on the effort made for several years.

In the 1960s ad 1970 HR mainly focused on automating transactions, maintaining an efficient system, personal operation, etc.

In the 1980s HR focused on a service organization by completely redesigning it and it was considered as the core practice for business success, and it was the time where HR was completely implemented in organization for business motive.

In the 1990s and 2000s, HR was restructured again with the motive of integrating it with talent management which can be done along with the implementing of a new process for employee recruitment, performance management, compensation, and learning.

In the present situation, HR mainly focuses on making this field be the best department in the aspect of business organization. They want an integrated, digital experience at work—one designed around teams, productivity, and empowerment—and HR is expected to deliver it.

6. Conclusion

Digital Human Resource Management is considered as the basic need in the aspect of business organization. Every business organization has a long way to go by adopting digitalization. Digital HRM helps in maintaining a strong relationship between management and its employees. By preparing a strategy for DHRM will help in organizational performance. This study tries to highlight the importance of DHRM in the aspect of the organization and by enhancing the recruitment process by creating an application by the top leading organization. The outcome of the research paper will act as an important aspect for researchers to implement further research on DHRM.

Every organization should develop its digital strategy to improve productivity. In the present scenario, DHRM is considered a more significant and growing research topic as well as an important topic for a business organization. With the use of DHR practice and through social media, the internet, AI, and other technology organization can maintain their performance and employees’ quality standard for the smooth running of the organization.

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HRM and its effect on employee, organizational and financial outcomes in health care organizations

Human Resources for Health volume  12 , Article number:  35 ( 2014 ) Cite this article

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One of the main goals of Human Resource Management (HRM) is to increase the performance of organizations. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the multidimensional character of performance and linked HR practices to various outcome dimensions. This study therefore adds to the literature by relating HR practices to three outcome dimensions: financial, organizational and employee (HR) outcomes. Furthermore, we will analyze how HR practices influence these outcome dimensions, focusing on the mediating role of job satisfaction.

This study uses a unique dataset, based on the ‘ActiZ Benchmark in Healthcare’, a benchmark study conducted in Dutch home care, nursing care and care homes. Data from autumn 2010 to autumn 2011 were analyzed. In total, 162 organizations participated during this period (approximately 35% of all Dutch care organizations). Employee data were collected using a questionnaire (61,061 individuals, response rate 42%). Clients were surveyed using the Client Quality Index for long-term care, via stratified sampling. Financial outcomes were collected using annual reports. SEM analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses.

It was found that HR practices are - directly or indirectly - linked to all three outcomes. The use of HR practices is related to improved financial outcomes (measure: net margin), organizational outcomes (measure: client satisfaction) and HR outcomes (measure: sickness absence). The impact of HR practices on HR outcomes and organizational outcomes proved substantially larger than their impact on financial outcomes. Furthermore, with respect to HR and organizational outcomes, the hypotheses concerning the full mediating effect of job satisfaction are confirmed. This is in line with the view that employee attitudes are an important element in the ‘black box’ between HRM and performance.

The results underscore the importance of HRM in the health care sector, especially for HR and organizational outcomes. Further analyses of HRM in the health care sector will prove to be a productive endeavor for both scholars and HR managers.

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One of the main goals of Human Resource Management (HRM) is to increase the performance of organizations [ 1 ]. Pfeffer [ 2 ] emphasized the importance of gaining competitive advantage through employees and noted the importance of several Human Resource (HR) practices necessary to obtain this advantage. Huselid [ 3 ] stressed the use of an integrated and coherent ‘bundle’ of mutually reinforcing HR practices over separate ones. Notwithstanding the substantial volume of research on the link between HRM and performance, the exact nature of this relationship within the health care sector remains unclear [ 4 ]. This can be considered problematic, as studying HRM in the health care sector and its effect on performance has both practical and academic relevance [ 5 ].

However, performance is not a concept that can be easily defined and conceptualized. According to Guest [ 6 ] it is better to use the concept of ‘outcomes’ instead of performance. One can then distinguish three different outcomes: 1) financial outcomes (profits, net margin, market share), 2) organizational outcomes (productivity, quality, efficiency, client satisfaction) and 3) HR outcomes (employees’ attitudes and behaviour) [ 7 ]. Dyer and Reeves [ 7 ] noted that HR and organizational outcomes are more proximal outcomes, for example, closely linked to the HR practices adopted by an organization, whereas financial outcomes are more distant, as they are less likely to be directly affected by HR practices. Moreover, specific HR outcomes are often used as intermediate outcomes that bridge the ‘black box’ between HR practices and financial or organizational outcomes [ 8 ].

This multidimensional perspective of outcomes seems especially relevant for health care organizations, as financial outcomes are certainly not the only - or even primary - objective [ 9 ]. Notwithstanding the large amount of research on HRM in health care, few studies have explicitly addressed the multidimensional character of performance and linked HR practices to various outcome dimensions [ 4 ]. In this article, we therefore add to the literature by examining several outcome dimensions of health care organizations. The research question we will address is as follows: ‘ To what extent are HR practices in health care organizations related to multiple outcome dimensions?’

First, we will provide a brief background on the link between HRM and outcomes with a specific focus on the health care sector. Next, we will develop several hypotheses. Thereafter, the methods and results of the data analysis are provided. The article ends with a conclusion regarding the effects of HRM on various outcomes in the health care sector.

HRM and outcomes

Studying the relationship between HRM and performance outcomes is an important research theme [ 1 , 10 , 11 ]. In an overview article, Boselie et al . [ 12 ] identified the main research issues within the field. These primarily concern the conceptualization and measurement of the central concepts and several theoretical issues about their relationship. These issues remain important in the contemporary debate [ 1 ]. The concept of performance has been discussed above. HRM is commonly defined as a set of employee management activities, but there is no consensus regarding which HR practices should be included in a ‘comprehensive HRM checklist’ [ 12 ]. Even more important is the question as to whether one should examine discrete HR practices or employ a systematic HRM approach. According to the systems approach, one should regard interrelated HR practices that affect performance as a ‘synergistic whole’. In this study we follow the systems approach, as this was proven valuable in earlier studies [ 13 ].

In addition to conceptualization, there are also important measurement issues concerning HRM. Does one measure HR policies at the company level (for instance by asking HR managers) or at the individual level (practices as experienced by employees)? Nishii and Wright [ 14 ] refined this issue by distinguishing among intended, actual and perceived HRM. The notion behind this is that there may be differences within organizations among the HR policy designed by the HR department (intended HRM), the HR practices implemented by line managers (actual HRM) and the perceptions of employees (perceived HRM). This study focuses on perceived HRM, following the Thomas Theorem: if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences [ 15 ]. Thus, if employees believe that specific HR practices are employed in the organization, they will act according to that belief.

An important theoretical issue that has dominated the field in the last decade concerns the precise nature of the mechanism linking HRM and performance outcomes. This issue is called the ‘black box’, i.e., the mediating link between HRM and performance. In recent years, many suggestions have been made regarding the nature of this ‘black box’ [ 14 , 16 ], but most scholars emphasize the perceptions and experiences of employees as the main linking mechanism [ 12 ]. HR practices forge a psychological contract between employer and employee that in turn affects these perceptions and experiences. In this article, job satisfaction is used as a mediating variable linking HRM to various outcomes [ 17 , 18 ].

HRM and outcomes in the health care sector

In the last two decades, several studies on HRM and performance have been conducted in the health care sector [ 19 , 20 ]. In their review of health care studies, Harris et al . [ 4 ] concluded that HR practices are often related to patient oriented performance outcomes. They also noted the importance of conducting additional research on the ‘black box’ issue. Furthermore, many health care studies relate HRM to organizational and HR related outcomes [ 21 – 25 ]. However, studies focusing on financial outcomes - which have been extensively addressed in the private sector HRM literature - seem rather scarce.

This study focuses on the Dutch care sector (home care, nursing care and care homes). Its contribution concerns two elements discussed in the literature. First, we apply a multidimensional performance perspective, and we will therefore consider three outcome dimensions: financial, organizational and HR. This is innovative because although many health care studies have analyzed care - an organizational outcome - and HR outcomes, financial indicators have received much less attention. Moreover, we are unaware of health care sector studies that have examined the relationship between HRM and these three outcome dimensions simultaneously. The second contribution concerns the ‘black box’ issue. Many studies use employee attitudes as an outcome variable. However, an important interpretation of the ‘black box’ implies that employee attitudes will mediate the link between HRM and performance [ 13 ]. Using job satisfaction as indicator of employee attitudes, we will test whether this holds for all three outcome measures considered in this article. This leads to the following three hypotheses:

H1: job satisfaction mediates the relationship between HR practices and financial outcomes in health care organizations.

H2: job satisfaction mediates the relationship between HR practices and organizational outcomes health care organizations.

H3: job satisfaction mediates the relationship between HR practices and HR outcomes in health care organizations.

Before discussing our data, it is important to shortly describe the structure of the Dutch health care sector. In general, the Dutch health care system can be described as a mix of public and private provider agents, mainly based on public funding [ 26 ]. More specifically, Dutch health care is divided into short-term care (‘cure’-sector, for instance provided in hospitals) and long-term care (‘care’-sector, for instance provided in nursing homes). This research focuses on organizations that provide long-term care. This includes organizations providing home care, somatic care and psychogeriatric a care and is mainly financed using public funds. Next to this, citizens also pay a relatively small private fee.

A central explanation for the limited number of studies focusing on objective and multidimensional outcome data is that such data are difficult to collect. This study has the advantage of being able to use data from the ‘ActiZ Benchmark in health care’. This benchmark was developed by ActiZ - an important Dutch employer association - in cooperation with PwC - for the period 2010 to 2015. The benchmark measures and compares the performance of three different health care sectors (home care, nursing care and care homes) and contains employee data, client data and financial performance data. We analyzed the data gathered from autumn 2010 to autumn 2011. In total, 162 organizations participated during this period. This is approximately 35% of all organizations providing home care, nursing care and care homes in the Netherlands ( ).

The data will be analyzed at the organizational level. Thus, data collected at the employee or client level will be aggregated. Other variables, such as financial performance indicators, do not need to be aggregated, as they are (only) available at the organizational level. With respect to financial outcomes, we will consider the net margin. With respect to organizational outcomes, we will focus on client satisfaction, and absence due to sickness will be considered to capture HR outcomes. Job satisfaction - which also can be regarded as an (proximal) HR outcome - will be used as a ‘black box’ variable mediating the relationship between HR practices and outcomes. The measurement of HR practices is discussed below.

First, most financial performance data on health care organizations are publicly available and based on annual reports. This information is stored in databases (available at and ) (in English: healthcare information and annual reports). We discussed this information with an accountant from PwC. To gather employee data, a questionnaire was distributed to all employees, and a total 1 of 61,061 individuals completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 42%. Only the responses of employees with direct interactions with clients were used in our analysis (job functions such as nursing, care, client-related domestic support and occupational therapy), due to their relationship with the organizational outcome (client satisfaction). This resulted in a database of 48,145 employees. Within this employee database, each question was answered by at least 90.7% of the respondents. Of the valid respondents, 92% were women. This is consistent with Dutch averages for employees in home care, nursing care and care homes, which is predominantly a female profession [ 27 ]. As age is subdivided into categories in our study, we could only say something about the predominant age category. The predominant age category is 46 to 55 years (36.9%) which suggests that the average age is slightly above the average age of 41 years [ 27 ]. Clients were surveyed using the Client Quality Index (CQi) for long-term care [ 28 , 29 ]. The CQi employs a stratified sampling method, through which an independent agency surveys a representative client sample for each organization. Three groups are constructed: home care clients, somatic care clients (in nursing homes or care homes) and psychogeriatric care clients (in nursing homes or care homes). Home care clients are asked to complete a survey; somatic clients are interviewed using a survey as a guide. For psychogeriatric clients (suffering from cognitive issues such as dementia), an authorized representative completes a survey.

To ensure the comparability of the employee data with the client and financial performance data, we only included organizations with information in all three databases. This resulted in a database with 85 organizations.


The dataset constructed as described above has the potential to increase our understanding of the relationship among HR practices, job satisfaction and outcomes. However, it also has limitations. The data are not gathered with academic objectives in mind; instead, its primary goal is to be practically useful for the organizations involved. This implies that items used in this study are only partly based on validated scales and existing theory. To determine the reliability of the scales, we have computed reliability statistics where possible. Cronbach’s Alpha is used as a measure of reliability. It indicates how consistently the observed variable measures the latent dimension (prescribed norm is > .70).

HR practices

The employee questionnaire contains five indicators that are often used in HRM and performance research: training and development, performance related pay, teamwork, job design, and autonomy. In the overview article by Harris et al . [ 4 ] the measurement of HRM in health care is discussed. They stated that HR practices that should be adopted in HRM systems incorporate high performance work practices found to have had a positive effect on performance in other sectors (the so-called best practices) without derogating the specific health care context. The first two indicators included by us are the most frequently used in research [ 12 ]. The other three also score relatively high on the list of the most common practices (ranked 5, 10 and 11) [ 12 ]. However, HRM and performance research exhibits little consistency in the selection of HR practices to measure HRM. Boselie et al . [ 12 ] analyzed 104 important HRM and performance studies and identified as many as 26 different HR practices used in different studies. No single agreed, or fixed, list of HR practices or systems of practices exists to measure HRM [ 30 , 31 ]. Nevertheless, a certain consensus regarding the measurement of HRM has emerged in the academic literature on HRM and performance during the last decade. More than half of the articles published after 2000 made use of AMO (Ability, Motivation and Opportunity) theory [ 30 ]. AMO theory proposes that an HRM system should be designed to meet employees’ needs for skills and motivation and, after meeting those needs, provide them with opportunities to use their abilities in various roles [ 32 ]. The underlying idea is that employees will perform well if they have the requisite abilities, when they are motivated and when they obtain the opportunity to profile themselves [ 32 ]. By using the five HR practices indicated above, all three dimensions of AMO theory are covered. Lepak et al . [ 33 ] have listed concrete HR practices that influence employees’ AMO. In this respect, training and development are expected to improve employees’ abilities (A), performance related pay is an HR practices to motivate employees to perform (M), and teamwork, job design and autonomy are HR practices that are considered as opportunities to perform [ 30 ]. These five HR practices are also regularly part of the measurement of HRM in health care studies [ 21 , 24 , 34 ].

Training and development was measured using three items. A sample item is: ‘My organization pays enough attention to my career’. Responses were given using a five-point Likert scale (‘totally disagree’ to ‘totally agree’). All standardized loadings were greater than .5. Cronbach’s alpha was .77.

Performance related pay was measured using one item: ‘My organization provides additional financial rewards to employees with exceptional performance’. Responses were provided on a four-point Likert scale ranging from ‘never’ to ‘always’.

Teamwork was measured using two items. A sample item is: ‘Our organization encourages me to work together with other work units/teams or individuals within the organization’; (four-point Likert scale, ‘never’ to ‘always’). All standardized loadings were greater than 0.5, and they were all statistically significant. Correlation between the two items is .547 ( P  < .001).

Job design was measured using three items. A sample item is: ‘My tasks are clear’ (four-point Likert, ‘never’ to ‘always’). All standardized loadings were greater than 0.5, and they were all statistically significant. Cronbach’s alpha was .85.

Four items were used to measure autonomy . A sample item is: ‘I can make decisions independently’ (four-point Likert, never to always). All standardized loadings were greater than .5, and they were all statistically significant. Cronbach’s alpha was .76.

As stated above, we followed the systems approach and therefore combined the five indicators into one HR system variable. As our analysis is at the organizational level, we aggregated the employee data. In this type of analysis, only variables with sufficient variance across organizations are included. To determine whether the data could be aggregated, the intraclass correlation (ICC) was computed. Aggregation is permissible when the variance between groups is larger than the variance within groups. For all HR practices, aggregation was permissible: training and development (F = 11.400, P  < 0.01), performance related pay (F = 20.455, P  < 0.01), job design (F = 7.728, P  < 0.01), teamwork (F = 14.240, P  < 0.01), autonomy (F = 8.391, P  < 0.01), as was the overall HRM variable (F = 9.667, P  < 0.01).

Job satisfaction was measured by one item: ‘I enjoy going to work’ (F = 6.586, P  < 0.01) (five-point Likert, ‘never’ to ‘always’). Nagy [ 35 ] noted that measuring job satisfaction with a single item ‘is more efficient, is more cost-effective, contains more face validity, and is better able to measure changes in job satisfaction’.

The net margin is defined as the ratio of a firm’s net profits to its total revenues. It indicates what share of each euro/dollar earned is translated into profit. It is stated as a percentage:

The organizational outcome is measured by focusing on client satisfaction. Clients were asked about their satisfaction with the treatment they received. This indicator consists of five items. A sample item is: ‘Do the caregivers have enough time for you?’ (four-point Likert, ‘never’ to ‘always’). We must note that the Association of Client Quality only provides aggregated scales, partly because of privacy issues. Thus, the reliability statistics and ICC cannot be computed. However, the robustness of the CQi - which is most often analyzed at the organizational level - shows that aggregation seems appropriate [ 25 , 26 ].

The HR outcome measure considered is absence due to sickness. Absence due to sickness can be considered a key HR outcome as the decision of employees to be absent affects the available human resources and is a critical success factor for the continuation of work processes within the organization (for example, see [ 36 ]). Absenteeism due to sickness is calculated in percentages, using a standard formula developed by Vernet [ 37 ]. In brief: for every employee, each day he/she calls in sick is multiplied by the part-time factor and disability factor pertaining to that day. These days are then summed and divided by the total number of working days. Maternity leave is excluded. This is calculated for the organization as a whole.

Control variables

We also included control variables, such as gender (1 = female) and age (1 = up to 25 years; 2 = 26 to 35 years; 3 = 36 to 45 years; 4 = 46 to 55 years; 5 = 56 years and older). Furthermore, we included diversity of care to determine whether the relationship among the variables differs for organizations employing a diverse set of care activities as supposed to more specialized organizations. It ranges from a minimum of one to a maximum of six as there are six different forms of care in our sample: hospital care, extramural residential care, extramural personal care, day activities, maternity care and youth care b .

Method of analysis

The hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation. SEM allows us to test the full conceptual model simultaneously. Furthermore, SEM allows us to simultaneously analyze the direct and indirect relationships among the independent and the dependent variables. Finally, SEM also enables us to compare different models [ 38 ]. We used AMOS version 21 IBM SPSS (see ) to develop the SEM model.

As our hypotheses include mediation effects, we employed bootstrapping [ 39 ]. This method estimates the parameters of a model and their standard errors strictly from the sample without reference to any theoretical sampling distribution. In our study, we created 200 samples (with replacement) from the available observed sample.

Results and discussion

Table  1 presents the means, standard deviations and correlations of the variables. As perception variables are measured on various scales (1 to 5 or 1 to 4), we recoded them into a 1 to 10 scale to ease interpretation. The results show that employees perceive a relatively large number of HR practices (M = 6.08 on a 1 to 10 scale). Employees are on average satisfied with their jobs (M = 8.15). Client satisfaction is also quite high: 8.63. With respect to absence due to sickness, the average score is .06 (6%). Finally, the average value for the net margin was .03, showing that for each 100 euros of revenue, 3 euros accrue as profits. Furthermore, the correlations show that HR practices are related to the outcomes as expected. For instance, HR practices are positively and significantly related to client satisfaction. As some of the bivariate correlations are in the medium to high range, we conducted multicollinearity tests. The variance inflation factor (VIF) values were all well within the acceptable range, with the highest being 2.05 [ 40 ]. Thus, our results are not adversely affected by multicollinearity.

To test the proposed relationships, a structural equation model was developed, as shown in Figure  1 . Only the statistically significant relationships are described ( P  < .05). The numerical scores on all lines indicate standardized regression coefficients (beta), and the scores in brackets are the explained variance. The overall model fit was tested using several indices. The model fit values were CMIN 24.146 (df 19, p .191) and .962 (comparison fit index (CFI)), implying that the model had a very good fit. Additionally, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), with a value of .057, also indicated that the model had a good fit.

figure 1

Result of Structural Equation Modeling.

We can now discuss the hypotheses in detail. First, we tested the hypothesis that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between HR practices and financial outcomes in the Dutch care sector. The results show that this indirect effect is not statistically significant (see Table  2 ). We therefore reject the first hypothesis concerning a mediating effect. This could imply that the effect of HR practices on financial performance is direct and not mediated by job satisfaction. The results indeed show a positive and significant relationship between these variables (β = .267, P  < .05), implying that a greater use of HR practices is directly related to improved financial outcomes.

The second hypothesis proposed that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between HR practices and organizational outcomes. The results show that this is indeed the case. Therefore, our second hypothesis is supported by the data.

Finally, we tested the hypothesis that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between HR practices and HR outcomes in the Dutch care sector. The results indeed show that the indirect relationship between HRM on the HRM outcome sick absenteeism is significant. Therefore, our third hypothesis is also supported by the data.

The final step in the analysis was the examination of the control variables. In organizations with more female employees, clients are more satisfied with the delivery of services. Moreover, the percentage absence due to sickness is lower in these organizations. With respect to age, the results show that absence due to sickness is higher in organizations in which the average age is relatively high. Finally, the diversity of care is positively associated with absence due to sickness. In other words, organizations engaging in a diverse set of care activities have more absence due to sickness than more specialized organizations.

Finally, model validity was achieved through cross-model validation. Camilleri [ 41 ] suggests pursuing cross-validation in three phases. In the first phase, the data are divided into two data sets. One dataset consists of a random selection of 20% of the data collected from respondents; the second dataset consists of a random selection of 80% of the data collected. In the second phase, SEM via path analysis that calculates the structural fit index (measured by R 2 ) is conducted for both datasets. The third phase consists of examining the differences between the calculated structural fit indices obtained for each dataset. The extent of model validity is determined by the similarity in the variance accounted for by each dataset. The results of the cross-model validation are presented in Table  3 . As the differences in the explained variance are small, the cross-model validation provided satisfactory results.

The main contributions of this study to the literature on HRM and performance in the health care sector concerns the use of a multidimensional performance perspective. In this respect, we examined three different outcomes: financial (net margin), organizational (client satisfaction), and HR (sickness absence). The analysis includes job satisfaction, which can be regarded as a ‘black box’ variable: a mediating variable connecting HR practices and performance.

The results confirm the basic notion that HRM and performance within the health care sector are linked. Our final SEM model shows that HRM is - directly or indirectly - linked to all three outcomes. When organizations apply - according to their employees - more HR practices, this is associated with greater client satisfaction, less sickness absence, and a better net margin. With respect to organizational and HR outcomes, the hypotheses regarding the mediating effect of job satisfaction are confirmed. This is in accordance with the perspective that employee attitudes are an important component of the ‘black box’ between HRM and performance. In this respect, our study showed that higher job satisfaction is associated with higher organizational performance. More specifically, in line with the assumption, our research showed a positive association between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction because if employees are satisfied with their jobs, they are likely to behave toward customers in ways that yield positive service experiences. A more extensive use of HR practices leads to more satisfied employees. This greater satisfaction ‘reflects’ on the clients, as satisfied employees will do more for them [ 42 ]. Moreover, satisfied workers are less likely to call in sick than less satisfied workers.

HR practices are directly related to financial outcomes, although the explained variance is small. Furthermore, we found that job satisfaction does not mediate the relationship between HRM and net margin. As we mentioned in the introduction, financial outcomes are a distant outcome of HRM. In fact, the literature about strategic management informs us that organizations can use different strategies to achieve their objectives [ 43 ]. In addition to a high performance strategy, organizations can also employ a low cost strategy [ 44 ]. Boxall and Purcell [ 45 ] describe the ‘mass service market’ - which includes care - as a ‘service market with some quality differentiation’. Organizations can follow various strategies to become (financially) successful. One possible strategy implies investing in employees, which will likely result in more satisfied employees. Another strategy implies cutting costs, which will result in reduced investments in employees and (most likely) less satisfied employees. The finding that HRM has a direct effect on financial outcomes may be because a low cost strategy also implies the use of certain HR practices, for instance performance management. It can thus lead to financial success without positively affecting the satisfaction of employees.

We conclude this article by presenting some limitations. An important limitation of this research - but also of many other studies in this area - is the hidden assumption that the same mix of HR practices will work for all organizations. Therefore, the inclusion of HR strategy in research designs will be an important addendum.

The possibility of considering various data sources (employee, client and ‘objective’ performance data) is an important - and unique - advantage of this study. However, it also has some drawbacks. The scales used are not based on previous academic literature. In further research, validated scales should therefore be employed. Moreover, a disadvantage of using secondary data is that not all the desired research concepts were covered in the data.

A further limitation is the sample size. Although the underlying dataset is large, the data were aggregated at the level of 85 health care organizations. This could be considered quite low. However, Bentler and Chou [ 46 ] recommended a ratio of sample size to free parameters of at least 5:1. In our analysis, the model tested was simple, and the ratio of the number of free parameters to the number of cases did not fall below under 5:1. Related to this, several studies using SEM with a small sample size are available [ 47 – 49 ]. Nevertheless, future studies might attempt to replicate the findings using larger sample sizes.

Furthermore, the results of this study should be interpreted in light of the study’s context and sample. The study was conducted in the Netherlands, which features a social health insurance scheme in health care financing and a mix of public and private provider organizations in health care provision [ 26 ]. This is in line with other ‘Bismarck’ countries, such as Belgium, Germany and France [ 26 ]. It would be interesting to replicate our study to test the proposed model in other countries using different kinds of health care systems.

In conclusion, our empirical results underscore the importance of HRM in the health care sector. We can state that HRM makes a difference, especially for HR and organizational outcomes. Its impact on financial performance is less strong. Job satisfaction links HR practices and organizational and employee outcomes. In conclusion, further analyzing HRM in the health care sector will be a productive endeavour for both researchers and practitioners.

a In some countries this terminology is no longer used. However, according to the organization of the care in the Netherlands, ‘psychogeriatric care’ is supposed to be the correct terminology.

b In this variable, more distinct forms of care are included than are analyzed in our study. We use this variable, however, as a proxy for the complexity of the organization.


Ability, Motivation and Opportunity

comparison fit index

Client Quality Index

Human Resources

Human Resource Management

intraclass correlation

root mean square error of approximation

structural equation modeling

variance inflation factor.

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The authors would like to thank the reviewers, Gulin Gedik, Sandra Leggat, How Lee, Mario Monteiro and Amani Siyam for their useful suggestions by earlier versions of this manuscript. The authors would also like to thank American Journal Experts for editing this manuscript.

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BS, BV and LT have contributed to the manuscript by drafting the manuscript (all sections). BV has furthermore contributed by conducting the statistical analyses. RJP and ML have contributed by designing the datasets which form the foundation of the manuscript and by acquisition of data. SvB has contributed by drafting the manuscript and revising it critically. All authors approved the final manuscript.

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Vermeeren, B., Steijn, B., Tummers, L. et al. HRM and its effect on employee, organizational and financial outcomes in health care organizations. Hum Resour Health 12 , 35 (2014).

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Best Human Resources Management Research Topics

Human Resources Research topics -Evergreen

If you are studying human resource management, you would agree that it is too broad a subject to underate. The value of human resources cannot be ruled out. Human capital is the most crucial asset in the business world. For this reason, students studying HRM write human resource management assignments such as essays, research reports, research papers, term papers, dissertations, and theses. As a business student or studying behavioral sciences or pursuing an MBA, you probably need to select the best human resources topics to write about, primarily when the assignment prompt does not provide any.

This article covers a rich list of trending, hot, and exciting human resources topics to get you started. Unlike other lists you probably have come across, we believe ours is good because we have categorized the topics based on the human resource areas such as training, talent management, professional and career development, leadership, change management, compensation, performance management, training, and development, to mention a few.

Equal Employment Opportunity HR Research Topics

Talent Management Research Topics

Here are some talent management research topic ideas that you can use for your HR essay, research paper, term paper, or dissertation.

HRIS topics for Dissertations, Essays, and Research Paper

Professional/Career Development HR Research Topics

Performance Management and Appraisal Topics

Recruitment and Selection Research Topics

If you are interested in either recruiting and labor markets or selecting in human resources, you can choose a list of interesting research topics.

Risk Management and Worker Protection HR Topics

General/ Interesting Human Resource Research Topics

Trending Research Topics in Human Resources

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Now that we have ourselves a comprehensive list of current and trending human resources management research topics, what happens when you finally settle on one? If you are writing an essay, learn how to write the best one from our experts. We have an essay writing guide for any academic level.

If you are writing a research paper, our quick research paper writing guide can also come in handy. If you are writing a research proposal or dissertation , our blog section is full of helpful material.

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research paper related to human resource management

Human Resources Research Paper Topics For 2023

02 May 2022

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✍️How to choose a Human Resources topic for your project?

Human Resources is one of the most popular and essential topics for the business minded. If you remember your basic economics, you may remember that the basic components necessary for production in any kind of economy are Land, Capital, and Labor.

Human labor is an essential resource that keeps a business running. Like any other resource, it must be managed. This is where the term “Human Resources” and Human resources research topics come in.

Having relevant data for research paper is easy if you know where to look. There are lots of online sources and books in libraries to use in your task. Make sure you spend enough time on planning before writing your task.

Need help with writing a research paper?

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How to choose a Human Resources topic for your project?

Selecting research topics in human resource management is not as simple as simply choosing the title and proceeding to write it. In order to get a good grade, the paper must be original and well researched. It needs to cover all relevant aspects of the chosen HR topics. Writing a hr related research topics is a very structured and analytical process. This is true for all fields, including human resources research topics.

The first step is topic selection. This is where we can help you. This page features a list of over 90 human resources topics. If you are having problems coming up with your own ideas, please choose hr related research topics from this list instead.

These titled papers all have a great deal of material about human resource management research topics out there. They are each trending topics in hrm topics for research and have plenty of resources available out there on the internet. Each of them is also relevant to the actual field of human resources management.

So, while writing a hr related research topics is not a typical or common activity for an HR employee, it will give you a lot of insights and information. These insights could give you a leg up in the future when you have graduated from School and College.

Human Resources Management Research Topics

At most large companies, ‘Human Resources’ is an entire department of its own. Most other departments at the company typically deal with producing a good or service. Others, like the public relations department, work with the media and other external affairs. Hence, there are many ways to approach HR research topics.

Stuck with finding the right title?

Get plenty of fresh and catchy topic ideas and pick the perfect one with PapersOwl Title Generator.

Equal Employment Opportunity HR Research Topics

Career Development HR Research Topics

Those who are interested in working in the field could take their first steps by writing a paper on human resource management topics. There is a huge variety of possible human resource topics for research papers, so it is likely that everyone will find some aspect of it they enjoy.

Research Topics on Recruitment and Selection

Studying human resources is a crucial part of management studies. Whether you are a college or university student, you can buy paper online to save time and effort. There are lots of reputable services that can provide excellent assignments to boost your academic performance.

Build your thesis statement

This is AI-powered online tool that lets you create a thesis statement about any topic you need.

HR Risk Management Topics

With so many moving parts working together in one company, it is natural for confusion or conflicts to arise. In order to make sure all these departments, employees, and managers work together, Human Resources is essential. In companies with hundreds of employees, their job simply cannot be understated.

Workplace Safety HR Topics

Trending HR Topics

HR is one of the most dynamic fields of work currently available. It is at the crossroads of psychology, sociology, accounting, and business. In the last few years, there have been many exciting changes in how human resources are handled, due to the rise of virtual platforms and working from home.

Only time will tell if these changes are temporary or permanent. But whichever way they go, our list of HR topics for research project 2023 will always be here for perusal.

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Is The World Heading Towards De-Globalization Due To Uncertain Conditions , Malay Kumar Ghosh

Globalization, Glocalization, Regionalization, Localization with Global approach, Hyper Localization and De-globalization are the buzz word for the present Global Economics . The world is going through metamorphic challenges due to international conflicting interest and national sovereignty changes in geo economic, military, political, diplomatic spectrum and demographic variations. Changes which not only transforming the world dynamics but have also affected the fate of countries relying on Globalization or Localization approach.

Thomas Friedman once stated “The world is flat ”. Localization, Colonization, Regionalization, or Globalisation are the international phenomena which cannot be stopped at will or desisted. Globalisation has gone through …

Flexible Work Arrangements And Its Impact On Work-Life Balance , Anurag Shanker 2023 University of Lucknow

Flexible Work Arrangements And Its Impact On Work-Life Balance , Anurag Shanker

“Flexible work arrangements” is a strategic part of the ecosystem of progressive organizations. There has been exponential increase in organizations that offer flexible work arrangements to their employees. Flexible work arrangements encompass various components which individually and collectively help in improving the overall wellbeing of the employees. The relaxations provided under flexible work arrangements improve the work-life balance of the employees significantly.

Impact Of Behavioural Competencies Of Healthcare Personnel On Patient Satisfaction And Its Estimation , PRITHA CHANDA, Soma Roychowdhury 2023 Department of Business Management, University of Calcutta

Impact Of Behavioural Competencies Of Healthcare Personnel On Patient Satisfaction And Its Estimation , Pritha Chanda, Soma Roychowdhury

Present study deals with various behavioural competencies of healthcare employees and their relationship with patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator of how a healthcare organization is performing. The relationship between patient satisfaction and different competencies (interpersonal, individual, motivational and generic) of the employees serving patients has been established statistically enabling it to estimate and predict patient satisfaction based on their competency values. Moreover, the perception of colleagues working closely with the employees has been found to be useful to estimate the same helping the HR managers to get an idea about the areas of improvement for the employees.During the …

More Than A Bulleted List: Rethinking The Traditional Resume As A Way To Present The Unique Personality Of An Applicant , Andrew Alleman White 2023 Liberty University

More Than A Bulleted List: Rethinking The Traditional Resume As A Way To Present The Unique Personality Of An Applicant , Andrew Alleman White

Masters theses.

Every business has its own unique culture, and the traditional resume fails to denote the personality and individualism of the applicant; this leads to wasted time interviewing the wrong applicants and missed opportunities to employ culturally beneficial employees. A culturally beneficial employee is one that fits the company culture and improves the performance of the entire team with both their skills and personality. The most advanced technologies available, are still using the traditional resume as a baseline for the sourcing, sorting, and evaluation of a potential hire. Even with the implementation of artificial intelligence to sort through the predetermined meta …

The Relationship Between Self-Leadership And The Implementation Of Integrity And Transparency In The Palestinian Public Sector Institutions: “Ministry Of Finance As A Model” , Diab Ali Jarrar Dr, Marwa Said Zaki Farah 2023 Alquds open university

The Relationship Between Self-Leadership And The Implementation Of Integrity And Transparency In The Palestinian Public Sector Institutions: “Ministry Of Finance As A Model” , Diab Ali Jarrar Dr, Marwa Said Zaki Farah

Journal of the association of arab universities for research in higher education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي.

The study aimed to identify the importance of self-leadership and its relationship with the application of integrity and transparency in the Palestinian public sector institutions. To achieve this objective; the study adopted the descriptive analytical approach, and a questionnaire was prepared with variables that were derived after an in-depth review of the relevant literature, and it was distributed using a stratified relative sample to a sample of (259) respondents, and it was analyzed through the (SPSS25) program. The study was supported with planned interviews with specialists in law, Psychology, sociologists, key employees in the ministry of finance. The study came …

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