Question Title

* 1 . what is your age, * 2 . what is your ethnicity, * 3 . what is your highest completed level of education, * 4 . i have a facebook account., * 5 . if you have a facebook account, about how often do you access it, * 6 . which additional social media websites do you access regularly, * 7 . what percentage of children in your child's school district do you think has been cyberbullied, * 8 . please indicate your agreement to the following statements by marking the corresponding boxes., * 9 . how many children do you have, * 10 . one or more of my children have their own facebook accounts., * 11 . for the following questions, please indicate which of the following practices you currently use in your household for the children in the above questions..

Cyberbullying Research Paper

In its traditional sense, ‘bullying’ can be defined as an aggressive intentional and repeated behavior of a group or an individual against a victim who cannot defend him or herself. Cyberbullying is an aggressive and repeated behavior carried out online, using electronic forms of contact, such as mobile phones, emails and social networks. Whereas cyberbullying can take many forms, major types of online aggressive behavior are text messages, pictures and videos, phone calls, emails, instant messaging and bullying via websites. The advent and wide spread of electronic communication technologies gave rise to new forms of bullying, which take place in cyberspace but might have serious negative consequences for victims in real life, leading even to isolation, suicides or serious psycho-social disorders. Whereas the aggressive behaviors via electronic channels might seem milder, the implications of cyberbullying for the victims can be as hard as the consequences of bullying in its traditional sense or even worse than that.

The availability of Internet and popularity of social networks along with the seeming anonymity of interactions make cyberbullying the dominant bullying form among modern youths. According to the findings of one of the recent studies conducted by Slonje and Smith (2007), 22% of students experienced cyberbullying at least once (p. 148). At the same time, about 7% of students are continually cyberbullied and they experience repetitive aggressive attacks. The responses of victims mainly depend upon their peers’ awareness of the bullying incidents. Thus, a bullying incident known to more people is more offensive than that known only to a victim. For this reason, in most cases victims tell only their best friends about the unpleasant experiences of cyberbullying in which they were victims. Thus, parents and teachers are often unaware of the bullying instances taking place in certain groups of students and thus, adults cannot help students overcome their difficulties or interfere and try to influence the situation and the behavior of all the participants of the conflict. In some cases (about 10%), students even decide not to tell anyone about being bullied. Importantly, different forms of cyberbullying can result in different levels of public awareness of the incident. For example, the bullying instances involving pictures and video clips usually become known to about 43% of a class, whereas about 37% of people know about phone calls and only29% of the group know of text messages. Taking into account the fact that there’s a direct relationship between the level of awareness of a particular incident and the victim’s perception and response to it, it can be stated that the intention to conceal cyberbullying cases is one of the coping strategies aimed at neutralizing the possible aftermath and consequences of victimization.

Along with the differences in awareness levels and implications of different forms of cyberbullying, the responses to cyberbullying in different individuals can vary, depending on their age, gender and other psychosocial characteristics. Thus, Snell and Englander (2010) stated that girls are more often get involved in cyberbullying, both as victims and actual bullies, whereas boys more often take part in physical bullying (p. 510). The main explanation for this difference is that in most cases females prefer indirect relational aggression, whereas males choose physical aggression often taking the form of fights. The major types of relational bullying chosen by girls can be successfully carried out online. The main manipulative strategies include gossiping, spreading rumors, betrayals or excluding victims, depriving them of the feel of belonging. The cyberbullying can take the form of threats, harassing or humiliation on the basis of appearance, ethnic or psycho-social characteristics. Thus, girls can be attacked for not complying with the generally accepted beauty standards or for not belonging to certain social groups and not being involved in popular social activities. Whereas bullies can easily find an excuse for attacking their peer, too shy, introvert and overweight individuals are most likely to become victims of bullying attacks. Therefore, the individual peculiarities which previously could make students objects of traditional bullying have now been transferred to cyberspace, making some individuals victims of aggressive attacks and revealing the overall lack of tolerance and empathy in modern community.

Even taking place online, cyberbullying may have serious consequences for its victims in the real world. Thus, continuous attacks and repetitive abuses may influence an individual’s self-perception, self-esteem and overall psychological wellbeing. In some cases, the abusive messages may have almost hypnotic effect on a person. A skinny girl, who is constantly called fat, can end up believing this claim and distorting her own body image under the influence of someone whose only goal is to have fun and boost their own self-esteem. Along with the unhealthy messages sent by mass media and beauty industry, cyberbullying attacks distort self-perception of modern females, having a negative impact on their eating habits and relations with others (Willard, 2007, p. 28). Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are extreme but widely spread consequences of distorted body image and cyberbullying. Therefore, repetitive aggressive attacks can have long-lasting effects on personal development and psycho-social well-being of a victim. Consequently, the new form of bullying taking place in the cyberspace requires further research and measures for increasing the students’ awareness of the potential threats of Internet use and the most effective coping strategies.

Cyberbullying is an important problem of modern education system. Taking place in cyberspace, these repetitive aggressive actions often become known to large groups of students, whereas there’s a direct link between the number of people who are aware of bullying and the victimization process. Even though girls are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying than boys, the victimization as a result of aggressive attacks in the form of offensive pictures, video clips, text messages or phone calls can have serious negative consequences for the psycho-social wellbeing of both male and female students.

Reference List

Slonje, R. & Smith, P. (2007). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 29(2), 147 – 154.

Snell, P. & Englander, E. (2010). Cyberbullying victimization and behaviors among girls: Applying research findings in the field. Journal of Social Sciences 6(4), 510 – 514. Retrieved from

Willard, N. (2007). Cyberbulling and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats and distress. Malloy Inc.: New York, NY.

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[A cyberbullying study: Analysis of cyberbullying, comorbidities and coping mechanisms]


Introduction: Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying. This bullying is committed by means of an electronic act, the transmission of a communication by message, text, sound, or image by means of an electronic device, including but limited to, a computer phone, wireless telephone, or other wireless communication device, computer, games console or pager. Cyberbullying is characterized by deliberately threatening, harassing, intimidating, or ridiculing an individual or group of individuals; placing an individual in reasonable fear of harm; posting sensitive, private information about another person without his/her permission; breaking into another person's account and/or assuming another individual's identity in order to damage that person's reputation or friendships.

Literature finding: A review of the literature shows that between 6 and 40% of all youths have experienced cyberbullying at least once in their lives. Several cyberbullying definitions have been offered in the literature, many of which are derived from definitions of traditional bullying. In our study we asked clear definition of cyberbullying. Few studies explicate the psychosocial determinants of cyberbullying, and coping mechanisms. The authors of the literature recommend developing resiliency, but without analyzing the resilience factor.

Objectives: The first aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents and adults engaged in cyberbullying. The second aim was to examine the coping mechanisms and comorbidity factors associated with the cyberbullied people.

Methodology: The sample was composed of 272 adolescents (from a high school) and adults (mean age=16.44 ± 1). The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to identify profiles of cyberbullying. Coping mechanisms were investigated using the Hurt Disposition Scale (HDS) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). Comorbidities were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Liebowitz's Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ).

Results: Almost one student in three was involved in cyberbullying (34.9% as cyber-victim, 16.9 as cyberbully); 4.8% of our sample was concerned by bullying as a victim. The victims of bullying were also victims of cyberbullying. The mean age of victims of cyberbullying was 17.84 ± 5.9 years, and the mean age of victims of bullying was 16.3 ± 4.5 years. Correlation coefficient was significant for HAD, LSAS, BVAQ scales with CQ. The retaliatory variable of HDS scale was not significant. Finally, the coping strategies of students who reported victimization were explored. These strategies include coping, telling someone, figuring out the situation, and avoidant coping. The results showed for the victims of cyberbullying, that they take longer to recover from a stressful event, compared to victims of bullying.

Conclusion: Results have indicated the importance of further study of cyberbullying because its association with comorbidities was distinct from traditional forms of bullying. The biggest risk factor for the adolescents is the severity of the consequences. These are: the adoption of the avoidance coping strategy, the occurrence of offline bullying during the situation, the adoption of the self-control coping strategy, the variety of cyberbullying acts, the victim's level of self-blame, the victim's perception of the duration of the situation, and the frequency of cyberbullying victimization.

Keywords: Adolescents; Anxiety; Cyberbullying; Depression; Harcèlement; Internet; Mécanismes d’adaptations; Resilience; Youth.

Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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Cyberbullying Data 2019

Presents data on cyberbullying from a 2019 national survey of middle and high school students in the United States.

This study surveyed a nationally-representative sample of 4,972 middle and high school students between the ages of 12 and 17 in the United States. Data were collected in April of 2019. Click on the thumbnail images to enlarge.

Cyberbullying data victimization chart

Cyberbullying Data: Victimization

We define cyberbullying as: “ Cyberbullying is when someone repeatedly and intentionally harasses, mistreats, or makes fun of another person online or while using cell phones or other electronic devices. ” Approximately 37% of the students in our sample report experiencing cyberbullying in their lifetimes. When asked about specific types of cyberbullying experienced in the previous 30 days, mean or hurtful comments (24.9%) and rumors spread online (22.2%) continue to be among the most commonly-cited. Thirty percent of the sample reported being cyberbullied in one or more of the twelve specific types reported, two or more times over the course of the previous 30 days.

Cyberbullying Data: Offending

We define cyberbullying as: “ Cyberbullying is when someone repeatedly and intentionally harasses, mistreats, or makes fun of another person online or while using cell phones or other electronic devices. ” Approximately 15% of the students in our sample admitted to cyberbullying others at some point in their lifetime. Posting mean comments online was the most commonly reported type of cyberbullying they reported during the previous 30 days (9.3%). About 11% of the sample reported cyberbullying using one or more of the eleven types reported, two or more times over the course of the previous 30 days.

Cyberbullying Data: Gender

Adolescent girls are more likely to have experienced cyberbullying in their lifetimes (38.7% vs. 34.5%). This changes when reviewing experiences over the previous 30 days, where boys are slightly higher. In this sample, boys were more likely to report cyberbullying others during their lifetime (16.1% vs. 13.4%) and in the most recent 30 days (8.1% vs. 4.6%). The type of cyberbullying tends to differ by gender; girls were more likely to say someone spread rumors about them online while boys were more likely to say that someone threatened to hurt them online. As with 2016, boys reported significantly more involvement in every type of cyberbullying offending behavior we asked about. In the past, this has varied by type of behavior.


For this study, we contracted with two different online survey research firms to distribute our questionnaire to a nationally-representative sample of middle and high school students. We had two different versions of our survey instrument which allowed us to ask a variety of questions to subsamples of each group. All students were asked questions about experiences with bullying and cyberbullying, digital self-harm, sexting, and sextortion. Overall we obtained a 15% response rate, which isn’t ideal, but is higher than most generic Internet surveys.

With any imperfect social science study, caution should be used when interpreting the results. We can be reassured somewhat in the validity in the data, however, because the prevalence rates are in line with results from our previous school-based surveys. Moreover, the large sample size helps to diminish the potential negative effects of outliers. Finally, steps were taken to ensure valid responses within the survey instrument. For example, we asked the respondents to select a specific color among a list of choices and required them to report their age at two different points in the survey, in an effort to guard against computerized responses and thoughtless clicking through the survey.

Study made possible through the support of Facebook Research .

Select publications from this data set:

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (In press). Bias-Based Cyberbullying Among Early Adolescents: The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Forthcoming in the Journal of Early Adolescence .

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2020). It is Time to Teach Safe Sexting. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66 (2), 140-143.

Blog posts based on this data set:

February 28, 2022 – Vicarious Supervision: Preventing Problematic Behaviors Online through Positive Parent-Child Relationships

September 29, 2021 – Bullying During the COVID-19 Pandemic

November 17, 2020 – Digital Resilience

July 14, 2020 – Current Efforts to Curtail Teen Sexting Not Working

November 19, 2019 – Sextortion: More Insight Into the Experiences of Youth

July 9, 2019 – Bullying Because of Religion: Our Latest Findings and Best Practices

May 29, 2019 – School Bullying Rates Increase by 35% from 2016 to 2019

Related posts

cyberbullying research paper questionnaire

How honest do you think the subjects really were on your surveys/questionnaires? Do you allow for a certain percentage that will be assumed as not being forthcoming? Also, thank you all so much for putting out any information regarding cyber bullying. I think it is imperative for people young and old alike to know that it’s just not okay to participate in cyber bullying but that it can happen to anyone- even a bully at some point in time. Doesn’t make it okay though. I do not bully anyone, I don’t want to be that kind of person. So It helps to know I’m not alone and that the best of us can be the focus* of someone’s bullying (aka victim* of cyber bullying)

Hi Reney! Thanks for commenting on our site. It is true that some people might not be giving us the whole story when we survey them. We include some measures to minimize dishonest answers, but it is possible for respondents to not tell us truthful responses. That said, we feel the number who would do this would remain relatively stable from survey to survey. So we can look at changes over time as being relatively reliable. Also, there is really no better way to understand these behaviors than to ask individuals. We do so anonymously and so really hope they are truthful.

Cyberbullying is increasing treated by researchers as another form of bullying manifested in the cyberspace. But, is it so simplistic? Afterall, the cyberspace lets humans to act in the most unshackled, unrestraint fashion. Hiding behind the screen, with a tap on the touchscreen or a click of the mouse, cyberbullies can inflict some of the most despicable harms onto others, relentlessly and remorselessly. It is a different ballgame, is not it? This has been the case with Hana Kimura, Monika Lewinsky, Sulli (K-pop star), and many others. Rather than seeing it as a cyber vs. noncyber bullying, mustn’t we must recognize cyberbullying as a mindset problem? This inevitably bring (human) intentionality into the discussion; no?

Hello! I would like to cite this page, as it is super helpful! Do you have a suggested citation, please? Thank you!

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cyberbullying research paper questionnaire


NCICCNDA - 2017 (Volume 5 - Issue 22)

A survey on cyberbullying.

cyberbullying research paper questionnaire

Creative Commons License

Abstract: With the advancement of communication technologies and rapid growth of internet, data is generated abundantly at a complex rate. Significantly, Social networks has become one of the powerful tool for data generation and data exchange. SNS users meet other people through online community in real and virtual world in cyberspace. The rise in popularity of social networking has significantly contributed to the growth in offensive behaviors giving birth to one of the most critical problem called as cyber bullying. This paper presents survey about various approaches used for identification, detection of cyber bullying in social networks and its effects on web users.

KeywordsSNS(social networking services). TEDAS(Twitter-based Event Detection and Analysis System), LSF (Lexical Syntactic Feature), CDE(Crime and Disaster related Events),


Internet has become one of the most important useful source of information in recent years. Internet users from all over the world utilize and access varieties of social media and social network services (SNS) as a fundamental of their personal networking, relationship collaboration, transferring and sharing of knowledge within the communities. To discuss on this, further, the term Online Social Networking is defined as social software that has been used to develop social networks [1]. Also, the sites that

provide Online Social Networking services assists users in forming an impression or perception, in maintaining and acquiring new relationships in the SNS [2]. We can deduced that SNS users meet other people through online community in real and virtual world in cyberspace, allowing users to demonstrate their social networks clearly and maintain connection and networking with others.

Social media has become broadcast medium for many bloggers to broadcast the information in the form of blogging. Twitter is a micro-blogging service that evolved as a disruptive platform that is meant for the users to broadcast their daily activities, feelings and opinion by posting simple tweets (messages) within their friends network. The topics range from daily life to current activities, experience sharing, personal opinions and other interests. The social networks such as Face book, LinkedIn, Twitter, MySpace etc., has significantly embarked the way of sharing the information across the globe. Around 6.5 trillion active Twitter users [3] and is become part of their life, where everyone can share the information and opinion on, as anyone of this amount of users can't live without

Twitter. Hence, we can say that micro-blogging tools such as Twitter, facilitates the sharing of ones user short messages either publicly or within a social network, depending on the users privacy setting.

With the recent popularity of Twitter, it is important to know why and how people use this tool, as Twitter can sometimes used to abuse for unethical by irresponsible users to cyber bully and post something bad and harm individuals personally. The emergence of these SNSs has caused an increase in cyber bullying circumstances, particularly among the teenagers[4]. Hence, it is important to identify the cyber bullying event and the attacking messages in social media.

Though cyber bullying might not cause any physical damage initially, however, it likely caused destructive psychological effects, like low self-esteem, mental depression, suicide consideration and even suicide [5]. A fatal cyber bullying incident had happened on MySpace SNS[6], whereby Megan Meier, a 13-year-old teen became increasingly distressed by the online harassment being directed at her, and eventually decided to end her life by hanging herself in her bedroom in 2006. Hence, recognizing the cyber bullying event itself is not efficient in combating cyber bullying per se, as we need to identify the real user of the cyber bully in order to arrest them for justice, and to prevent further similar cases to happen.

It is reported in The Star Online (2014) that a total of 389 cyber bullying reports were lodged by Internet users to the Cyber999 Help Centre in 2013 in Malaysia, which draw a 55.6% upsurge from 250 cases in 2012. Hence, by referring to this statistic, we can deduced that cyber bullying not only happened to the foreign teenagers (as mentioned earlier), it has haunted the SNS users especially in Malaysia and caught the attention of the government in addressing this social problem. However, currently theres no any existing system that can detect the cyber bullying event based on the location of the cyber bullying event happened in our country and report the mentioned cases to police.

Thus, its a motivation to create a web-based application,

i.e. the Cyber bullying Detection System on Twitter, with the key function to effectively discover the cyber bullying related tweets from Twitter and providing reasonable solution thereafter. With this system, the users can identify the cyber bullying related tweets based on the keywords and populate it in a news feed form. By doing this, it

allows users to determine the identities of the cyber bullies and the victims from the cyber bullying tweets.

Besides that, the cyber bullying detection system is effectively useful in detecting the locations of the cyber bullies and/or the victims thru a demographic representation, by processing the captured tweets. Also, it will allow the users to generate reports to higher authorities, i.e. police reports, based on cases severity and needs.

In conclusion, with the advent of this cyber bullying detection and solution system in Twitter, it will help the authorities to monitor, regulate or at least decrease the harassing incidents in cyberspace in Malaysia. With the implementation of this system, this will also help to raise the cyber bullying awareness among the Twitter users, and posting the tweets responsibly in the social media, as posting irritating tweets is illegal and bullies can be convicted under the Computer Crimes Act, the Penal Code or the Juvenile Act, depending on the nature or severity of the case [7].


The rise of social media platforms in recent years brought up huge information resources that involve new approaches to study the respective data. The social media has now gained enormous attention of the research community, as there are trying to gather, analyze and comprehend, the structure and the interconnection of the users profile, while taking consideration of the interactions among the users populations. This is because people nowadays utilize Social media such as Twitter not only during leisure time, but also at workplace to keep up with whats new and whats happening with one another, and people tend to spend most of their time expressing their feelings and their daily life experience and opinions through Twitter[8].

Twitter is currently one of the most popular micro blogging platforms [9]. Users interact with this system through Web interface, mobile application, instant messaging (IM) agent or sending SMS updates. The users can actually choose to make their updates or profiles public or only availble to their followers (friends). There are several researches being done to investigate the usage and the communities in Twitter. Java, A.,[10], investigate the motivation of research users in adopting this specific micro blogging platform, i.e. Twitter. As mentioned in this research, theres still a shallow studies that have been done on this form of communication and information sharing, and hence, further study on the topological and geographical structure of Twitters social network have been carried out in this research in attempting to comprehend the user intentions and community structure in micro blogging.

Cyber bullying can be defined as a type of harassment (or bullying) that takes place online, via e-mail, text messaging, or online forums, such as social networking sites. Social networks provide ideal background for data gathering and information that might enable the criminals to execute their crime, for example, by determining ones

that is a vulnerable or suitable victim. We categorized these kind of crime as cyber-related crime and we are expanding its definition to include cyber bullying as one of the serious offense in cyber realm as it has resulted in death [11].

Statistical report investigated by Cyber Security Malaysia in 2007 showed that 60 cases have been reported involving cyber bullying. Although the report illustrated some isolated cases, however, the fact that this issue has already happened in many countries around the world. Not only that, based on the study by Norton Online 2010, Malaysian children spent an average of 19 hours a week on the internet [12], while the same survey also found that nine out of ten children in Malaysia has been exposed to negative experiences or element from the online use. According to the report by Cyber Security Malaysia, most cyber bullies and their victims have close contact including their close friends, ex-spouses and former colleagues. Thus, the existing problem required serious attention and solution. Cyber bullying is a serious sign and should be addressed by all parties and their concerns on the matter are necessary including parents, teachers, and the surrounding community at large.

Some previous research has discussed cyber bullying in social media. A research have been conducted to detect offensive language in social media of which incorporating a users writing style, structure and specific cyber bullying content as features to predict the users potentiality to send out offensive messages[13]. The technique that has been used to identify offensive language is the Lexical Syntactic Feature (LSF) approach and it is successful detecting some offensive content in social media, which has achieved precision of 98.24%, and recall of 94.34% and also succeeds in detecting users who sent offensive messages, achieving precession of 77.9%, and recall of 77.8% (Chen et al. 2012).

Besides that, another research paper proposed an architecture of a platform that automates the analysis of online social network behavior with the ultimate goal of tracing harmful content (Vanhove T, Leroux P, Wauters t, Turck F.D., 2013). This pluggable architecture made up of several components based on predetermined requirements,

i.e. performance, scalability, reusability and extendibility. Analysis modules detect inappropriate content and high risk behavior after which domain services accumulate these results and flag user profiles if necessary. This platform uses text, image, audio and video based analysis modules to detect inappropriate content or any high risk behavior. With this system, the moderators of social networks will be able to quickly and accurately scan the network feed and made intervention if required[14].

With the rapid and wide coverage of Twitter, events can be discovered in an instant manner by monitoring and observing the incoming tweets. The event detection system, Twitter-based Event Detection and Analysis System (TEDAS), (R. Li, K. H. Lei,R. Khadiwala, Chang, 2012) employs an adapted information retrieval architecture that

covers an online processing and an offline processing part. The offline processing is based on a fetcher accessing Twitters API and a classifier to mark tweets as event- related or not event related. Not only have that, this system can help in identifying and examining events by exploring rich information from Twitter. From this research, there are three main functions proposed, which are detecting new events, ranking events based on their priority, and generating spatial and temporal patterns for the events detected. The TEDAS system is mainly focus on the Crime and Disaster related Events (CDE), for instance car accidents. For classifying tweets as CDE events, three features are taken into consideration, that is content features (e.g., inclusion of lexicon words), user features (e.g., number of followers), and usage features (e.g., number of retweets). Furthermore, at system level, it not only explored valuable and novel features from the Twitter, it also assist in classify and rank tweets, and predicting the locations from tweets also be made possible, as well as retrieving most of CDE tweets based on millions of tweets and users, with a set of well-defined words. The architecture of TEDAS is shown as the Figure 1 below. From this literature, we can see that it only covered the CDE related events, for which it is lacking the cyber bullying related events detection. Hence, in this research, we are going to focus on the cyber bullying detection, particularly in Twitter social media.

Figure 1: System Architecture of TEDAS.

Another similar event detection system, a Semi-supervised Targeted Event Detection (STED) system (Hua, T., Chen, F., Zhao, L., Lu, CT., Ramakrishnan, N., 2013) that helps users to automatically detect and interactively visualize events of targeted type from twitter, for instance, crimes, civil unrests, and disease outbreaks[15]. The STED model first applies transfer learning and label propagation to automatically generate labeled data, thereafter acquired a customized text classifier based on mini-clustering, and eventually applies fast spatial scan statistics to estimate the locations of events. With STED, a user can query for events pertaining to their specific interests and analyze its spatial and temporal features. Thereafter, target-interest variables that covers time, location, topic and keywords can be set in the system interface. Users are allowed to choose date and topic, as well the keywords in the right part of the interface. Also, the users can find the detailed

information of corresponding event by clicking on one of the ballons, where it represent the tweets ranked by their relativity to users interests. With the system proposed, STED can also possibly investigate the targeted interested events spatially and temporally, by using the historical statistics analysis interface, given a city and historical period range.

Walking through these research papers, it is promising to implement my proposed research with similar functionalities that made possible through the TEDAS and STED system. From the mentioned researches, it is possible to create a web-based system that recognize the cyber bullying tweets, identify the cyber bullying users (cyber bullies and victims), detect the locations of the victims and cyber bullies thru a demographic representation in a map feed, as well as to populate the cyber bullying tweets in my system interface.

In a recent study on cyber bullying detection, gender specific features were used and users are categorized into male and female groups. It is limited only to gender feature. In other study9, NUM and NORM features were devised by assigning a severity level to the bad words list ( NUM is a count and NORM is a normalization of the bad words respectively. The dataset consisted of 3,915 posted messages crawled from the Web Site, It showed only 58.5% accuracy, which is very less accuracy.

Proposed a system allowing OSN users to have a direct control o the messages posted on their walls4. This is done by using flexible rule-based system, this system allows users to customize the filtering criteria to be applied to their walls, and a Machine Learning based classifier will automatically label messages using content-based filtering. This approach is incapable of capturing more complex relationships at a deeper semantic level.

In a research work by Massachusetts Institute of Technology a system to detect cyber bullying through textual context in YouTube video comments is developed. The system classifies the comment in a range of sensitive topics such as sexuality, culture, intelligence, and physical attributes and determining what topic it is. The system shows less precise classification outcome and increased false positives. In- using a bag-of-words approach examined a baseline text mining system and improved by including sentiment and contextual features. Even with those models, a vector machine learner produce a recall level of 61.9%.

In bullying traces is identified using a variety of natural language processing techniques. Online and offline instances of bullying are traced. To identify the bullying they use sentiment analysis system and Latent Dirichlet Analysis to identify topics. In this method, the instances of bullying is not accurately detected.

Other interesting works in this area performed harassment detection from comments and chat datasets provided by a

content analysis workshop (CAW). Various features were generated including: TFIDF as local features; sentiment feature, which includes second person and all other pronouns like you, yourself, him, himself and foul words; and contextual features. Increased false positive is its limitation. Research on online sexual predators detection associate the theory of communication and text- mining methods to analyze difference between predator and victim conversations, as applied to one-to-one communication such as in a chat-log dataset. The as usual methods are based on the keywords. It involves high semantic and contextual work.

Generally most existing systems are focusing on effects after cyber bullying incident and there is no system for online cyber bullying detection. Intelligence techniques are also not used in cyber bully detection. The proposed system is to detect the cyber bullying activities and classify them as Flaming, Harassment, Racism and Terrorism, which helps to prevent the cyber bullying victims from facing effects of cyber bullying and take necessary actions like blocking, law enforcement or taking corresponding legal actions accordingly.

Until now, very few implementation has been done to identify and detect the activities of cyber bullying on social networks. Cyber bullying has become a menace in social networks and it requires extensive research for identification and detection over web users. We have proposed a brief summary about various approaches used for identification, detection of cyber bullying in social networks and its effects on web users.

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Cyberbullying in covid-19 pandemic decreases research of internet habits of croatian adolescents.

cyberbullying research paper questionnaire

1. Introduction

1.1. cyberbullying: challenges of conceptualization and operationalization, 1.2. cyberbullying in the covid-19 pandemic—research results from different countries, 1.3. parental role and cyberbullying experiences, 2. materials and methods, 2.1. measures, 2.2. sample, 3.1. internet usage during the pandemic, 3.2. experiencing and committing violence, 3.3. violence by role: comparison 2017–2020, 3.4. parental activities as predictor of cyberbullying (2020), 4. discussion, 5. conclusions, 6. research limitations, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, acknowledgments, conflicts of interest.

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Vejmelka, L.; Matkovic, R.; Rajter, M. Cyberbullying in COVID-19 Pandemic Decreases? Research of Internet Habits of Croatian Adolescents. Information 2022 , 13 , 586.

Vejmelka L, Matkovic R, Rajter M. Cyberbullying in COVID-19 Pandemic Decreases? Research of Internet Habits of Croatian Adolescents. Information . 2022; 13(12):586.

Vejmelka, Lucija, Roberta Matkovic, and Miroslav Rajter. 2022. "Cyberbullying in COVID-19 Pandemic Decreases? Research of Internet Habits of Croatian Adolescents" Information 13, no. 12: 586.

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Bullying Research Paper

This sample bullying research paper features: 4600 words (approx. 15 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 28 sources. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.


Bullying defined.

Stability of Bullying Roles

The Bully-Victim

The peer group, parenting and home environment, sibling relationships, school factors, internalizing problems, academic performance, delinquency and criminality, impact beyond victims.

Future Directions and Conclusion

Bullying Research Paper

More Bullying Research Papers:

Bullying has received worldwide attention in the last 30 years as a form of aggressive behavior that can have a significant negative impact on the physical, emotional, and academic development of victims. The first major contribution to the academic study of bullying was made by Dan Olweus, who wrote the first scholarly book in English to deal with bullying. The book was written in response to the suicide of three bullied boys in Norway and reported a high prevalence of school bullying (20 % of Norwegian children reported having some involvement) as well as discussed the success of the world’s first bullying prevention program (Olweus 1993). Olweus’ work opened the way for an explosion of research on bullying, which expanded from an initial interest in schools to include broader contexts such as the workplace, prisons, and sibling relationships. While much of this work is of interest, showing that bullying has the potential to affect a significant proportion of the population, this review focuses on school bullying, as this is the area that has attracted the most research interest to date.

The international literature is repleted with definitions of school bullying, most of which seem to accept that bullying is any type of negative action intended to cause distress or harm that is repeated and targeted against individuals who cannot defend themselves. When research on bullying started in the 1980s, bullying was perceived to comprise only episodes of physical or verbal aggression where the victim was physically attacked or called names. In recent years, the definition of bullying has broadened to include other forms of aggression that are relational in nature and aim to damage the victim’s peer relationships and their social status such as spreading of malicious gossip and social exclusion. Fighting between people of approximately equal strength, a one-time attack, or a good-natured teasing and play fighting are not counted as bullying.

The advent and widespread use of electronic means of communication such as mobile phones and the Internet has made it easier to bully anonymously, through the use of pseudonyms and temporary accounts, at any time and in any place involving a wide audience. This development has meant that the definition of bullying has had to be expanded to account for what the literature refers to as “cyber-bullying” or “electronic bullying.” A nationally representative survey of 7,508 adolescents in the United States in 2005 found that 8.3 % had bullied others and 9.8 % had been bullied electronically at least once in the last 2 months (Wang et al. 2009). In the same year in England and Wales, a survey of pupils aged 11–16 found that 22 % had been cyber-bullied at least once or twice in the last couple months (Smith et al. 2008). The most common form of cyber-bullying internationally is sending threatening and/or nasty text messages.

Bullying Prevalence and Continuity

National variation in bullying.

There are large variations across countries in the prevalence of bullying perpetration and victimization. In an international survey of health-related symptoms among school-aged children, the percentage of students who reported being frequently bullied during the current term ranged from a low of 5 % to 10 % in some countries to a high of 40 % in others (Due et al. 2005). The prevalence of bullies in primary school ranges, in most countries, between 7 % and 12 % and remains at those levels in secondary school (around 10 %). It is unclear whether these differences in prevalence reflect genuinely different levels of engagement in bullying among countries or, at least partly, result from different meanings of the term “bullying” in different countries and differences in methodologies and samples used.

An example of why valid comparisons between countries are not possible is Portugal where the bullying rate is high compared to other countries. Berger (2007) in her analysis found that one detail of educational policy in Portugal may account, among other things, for this higher rate of bullying. In Portuguese schools, children are asked to repeat sixth grade unless they pass a rigorous test. This practice results in at least 10 % of all sixth graders (more often boys) to be held back 2 years or more, and these older, bigger children are almost twice as likely to bully compared to the class average. This suggests that the difference in prevalence rates between countries may be, at least partly, accounted for by external factors including national differences in school policies and environments but also differences in the methodologies used (self-reports vs. peer and/or teacher reports), students’ differing levels of cognitive ability, cultural differences in reporting, and different meanings of the term “bullying” in different countries.

The Importance of Age in Bullying

Despite variations in prevalence, it is a universal finding that bullying victimization is more frequent among younger children and steadily declines with age. A range of explanations have been put forward to explain these age differences (Smith et al. 1999a, b). Compared to older children, younger children are less likely to have developed the appropriate skills and coping strategies to deal effectively with bullies and avert further victimization. Younger children are also less likely to refrain from bullying others due to socialization pressure. Finally, there is evidence that younger students adopt a more inclusive definition of bullying when responding to prevalence surveys, and this may, at least partly, account for the higher reported frequency of bullying victimization in primary school. For example, younger pupils might find it more difficult to distinguish between bullying and fighting, broadening the use of the term bullying to include aggressive behaviors that involve no imbalance of power. Within the general trend of decreasing bullying victimization over time, researchers have observed an abrupt increase in bullying during the transition from primary to secondary school which may reflect some students’ attempts to establish dominance hierarchies in the new school environment. Relational forms of bullying take precedence over physical modes of attack as children grow older and their social skills improve.

There is some controversy in the literature as to the stability of bullying victimization in primary school. Some studies have reported that bullying victimization is relatively stable over a period of up to 4 years in primary school and often continues in secondary school. Other studies have found that only a relatively small proportion of children (around 4–5 %) are victimized repeatedly over time in primary school.

In secondary school, the stability of both bully and victim roles is considerably higher than in primary school according to teacher, peer, and self-reports. It is estimated that two out of three male bullies remain in their role over a 1-year period. Despite the moderate to high stability of the victim and bully roles in secondary school, prevalence rates are lower than in primary school. This suggests that a small number of victims are targeted consistently and systematically in secondary school.

Stability in bullying victimization has been explained in two ways. Firstly, it has been observed that victims select social environments that reinforce the risk of victimization, for example, they are more likely to have friends who are less accepted by the peer group and often victimized themselves. Secondly, victims often lack the social skills to break through in new environments, and this increases the risk that they are labeled as victims and locked in that role over a long period of time. It is important, therefore, to acknowledge that although for some children bullying victimization will be situational, for others it will develop into a trait.

Gender Differences in Bullying

The view that males are more likely to bully and be bullied than females has been dismissed in recent years following a better understanding about the different forms aggressive behavior such as bullying can take. Although males are more likely to engage in physical forms of bullying such as pushing and hitting, females are, according to some studies, more adept at employing relational forms of aggression (e.g., social exclusion, spreading of nasty rumors) against their victims especially during adolescence. No consistent gender differences have been identified in the use of verbal bullying (e.g., calling names, nasty teasing). This suggests that overall gender differences are not as pronounced as originally thought and that bullying is not a male problem.

Characteristics of Children and Adolescents Involved in Bullying

There is some controversy in the literature about the profile of bullies. Initially, studies described children who bullied others as insecure, anxious individuals who have low self-esteem, are unpopular among their classmates, and use aggressive strategies to resolve conflicts. This stereotype was later disputed by research that suggested bullies are socially competent and have superior theory of mind skills (i.e., awareness of others’ mental functions and states) and good levels of social intelligence, knowing how to attain goals without damaging their reputation. Linked to this, there is also debate concerning whether bullies lack empathic skills. Some research suggests that bullies understand the emotions of others but do not share them. The inconsistencies across studies may be, at least partly, due to different definitions of bully status and different methodologies employed. Studies which have distinguished between “pure” bullies and bully/victims have revealed that “pure” bullies have few conduct problems, perform well at school, are popular among their classmates, and do not suffer from physical and psychosomatic health problems.

There is more consensus on the profile of “pure” victims. Research has identified that “pure” victims exhibit elevated levels of depression and anxiety, low self-esteem, and poor social skills. Hawker and Boulton’s (2000) meta-analysis found that peer victimization is more strongly concurrently associated with depression than with anxiety, loneliness, or self-esteem. Another meta-analysis by Card (2003) found that the strongest correlates of the victimization experience are low self-concept, low physical strength, low school enjoyment, poor social skills, and high internalizing and externalizing problems. It was unclear from these reviews of cross-sectional studies, however, whether internalizing problems lead to victimization or vice versa.

The recent body of longitudinal research on bullying and peer victimization more widely suggests that the relationship between internalizing problems such as depression, anxiety and loneliness, and victimization is more likely to be reciprocal, that is, internalizing problems contribute to victimization and vice versa. A metaanalysis of 18 longitudinal studies examining associations between peer victimization and internalizing problems in children and adolescents concluded that internalizing problems both precede and follow peer victimization experiences (Reijntjes et al. 2011). It is worth noting, however, that the path from psychological maladjustment to victimization has not been replicated in all studies. For instance, Bond et al. (2001) found no support for the hypothesis that emotional maladjustment invites victimization.

Recent work suggests that bullying might arise out of early cognitive deficits, including language problems, imperfect causal understanding, and poor inhibitory control that lead to decreased competence with peers, which over time develops into bullying. Research does not support the assertion that physical appearance (e.g., wearing glasses) is a risk factor for being bullied at school. The only physical characteristic that has been associated with an increased risk of victimization is low physical size and strength. There is less evidence on how equality characteristics influence victimization. There is no consistently robust evidence to suggest that ethnic minority children are more at risk of being bullied at school. Sexual orientation has rarely been investigated in longitudinal studies as a possible risk factor of bullying victimization, but there is some, mainly qualitative, evidence of sexual minorities being targeted in secondary schools. There is stronger evidence that children with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to victimization in mainstream settings, although it might be other characteristics of disabled children that make them more vulnerable to victimization such as lack of friends rather than the disability per se.

Olweus (1993) was the first researcher to identify a small proportion of victims of bullying that he called “provocative victims” or “bully-victims,” who bully other children as well as being bullied by them. Research has identified that bully-victims are the most troubled group among children and adolescents involved in bullying incidents. This group displays the highest levels of internalizing problems, including depression, anxiety, low selfesteem, and loneliness. At the same time, they score high on externalizing problems such as aggression, impulsivity, hyperactivity, and conduct problems. Other research has shown that bully-victims display higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism than either bullies or victims. Bully-victims use aggressive strategies to cope with stressors at school that increase the risk of further victimization and rejection from peers.

Besides the traditional roles of bully, victim, and bully-victim, research has identified that all students take on a role when bullying episodes emerge. Salmivalli et al. (1996) distinguished between six different roles children can take in bullying situations: the bully (leader), the reinforcer (encourages and provides audience), the assistant (follower/helper, e.g., holds the child down), the defender (helps the victim and/or tells bullies to stop), the outsider (stays away from bullying situations), and the victim. Subsequent research established that the three roles of bully, reinforcer, and assistant are closely correlated with each other and, therefore, cannot usefully discriminate between children. In kindergarten, the three most commonly held roles are those of the bully, the victim, and the defender. Fewer students are defenders by middle school, and the majority becomes witnesses or bystanders when bullying takes place. Such passive behavior, although not directly encouraging of bullying, provides a permissive context for bullies that allows them to continue harassing their victims.

Environmental Influences on Bullying

There is clear evidence that parenting styles are related to bullying behavior. Studies indicate that bullies are more likely to have parents who are authoritarian and punitive, disagree more often, and are less supportive. The parents of bullies are more likely to have been bullies themselves when they were young. Victims, on the other hand, are more likely to have been reared in an overprotective family environment. Bully-victims tend to come from family backgrounds that are exposed to abuse and violence and favor the use of harsh, punitive, and restrictive discipline practices. This group reports little positive warmth in their families and more difficulties in communicating with parents.

Family characteristics are related to bullying victimization in different ways for boys and girls. Boys are more prone to victimization when the father is highly critical or absent in his relationship with his son, thus failing to provide a satisfactory role model. Victimization in boys is also associated with maternal overprotectiveness which may hinder boys’ search for autonomy and independence, whereas victimization in girls is more strongly related to maternal hostility which may lead to anxiety and decreased sense of connectedness in relationships.

Very little research has examined longitudinal associations between early home environment and subsequent bullying behavior. The few studies that exist suggest a link between low emotional support and subsequent bullying behavior at school. Parents who are disagreeable, hostile, cold, or rejecting tend to have children who are at risk of becoming aggressive in the future. In a small longitudinal study, Schwartz et al. (1997) found that bully-victims at 10 years were significantly more likely than the other groups to have had experiences with harsh, disorganized, and potentially abusive home environments 5 years earlier. Mother-child interactions at 5 years were characterized by hostile, restrictive, or overly punitive parenting. They were significantly exposed to higher levels of marital conflicts and more likely to come from marginally lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Bullies were found to be exposed to adult aggression and conflicts, but not victimization by adults, and were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. These findings need to be replicated in larger samples before any safe conclusions can be drawn.

More recently, there has been interest in how sibling relationships affect the development of bullying behavior. There is international evidence that children who are victimized at school are more likely, compared to other groups, to be victimized by their siblings at home. Wolke and Samara (2004) found that more than half of victims of bullying by siblings (50.7 %) were also involved in bullying behavior at school compared to only 12.4 % of those not victimized by siblings, indicating a strong link between intrafamilial and extrafamilial peer relationships. Those who were both victimized at home and at school had the highest behavior problems and were the least prosocial. Similar evidence exists in relation to bullying perpetration, suggesting that those who bully at school tend to exhibit similar behaviors towards their siblings at home.

A number of school factors have also been implicated as correlates of bullying behavior. One of the most consistent findings in the international literature is that the number and quality of friends at school is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, protective factor against bullying victimization. Having friends is not sufficient in itself to protect against victimization. For instance, when at-risk children have friends with internalizing problems, who are physically weak or who themselves are victimized, the relation of children’s behavioral risk to victimization is exacerbated.

More recent work on the role of class structure and climate on bullying has shown that variations in peer structure and dominance hierarchies influence the stability of bullying victimization. For example, victims in primary school classes with a more pronounced hierarchical structure are less likely to escape their victim role compared to those in classes with less clearly marked hierarchies (Sch€afer et al. 2005).

Consequences of Bullying

There has been a growing interest in recent years to investigate the long-term effects of bullying involvement on children’s and adolescents’ social, emotional, behavioral, and academic development using longitudinal samples. The results of these studies suggest that victims and bully-victims manifest more adjustment problems than bullies. Victims and, especially, bully-victims are more likely to show elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness; perform less well academically; and display conduct problems. The only negative long-term outcome that has consistently been reported in the literature for bullies is their involvement in later offending. There is also some initial evidence that bullying perpetration is a significant risk factor of poor academic performance.

Several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated negative associations between peer victimization and a range of internalizing problems, including loneliness and low self-esteem. A meta-analysis of 23 cross-sectional studies of the association between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment found that peer victimization was more strongly concurrently associated with depression than with anxiety, loneliness, or self-esteem (Hawker and Boulton 2000).

Over the last decade, research on bullying is increasingly reliant on longitudinal methodologies to disentangle whether victimization contributes to internalizing problems or vice versa. It has been argued, for example, that children who display internalizing behaviors (e.g., anxiety or shyness) are more at risk of being targeted by peers due to their inability to cope effectively with provocation. The majority of longitudinal studies investigating associations between peer victimization and psychological maladjustment have found evidence for both directions.

There is some longitudinal evidence that bullying involvement has a negative impact on academic performance, although more studies are needed to reach a definitive conclusion. A US longitudinal study that began in 2002 with a sample of about 1,700 adolescents found that being a bully had a stronger negative effect on self-perceived academic competence over time than being a victim after controlling for demographic background variables and baseline academic competence (Ma et al. 2009). Furthermore, only bully status predicted lower self-reported grades.

Despite showing fewer adjustment problems than victims and bully-victims, bullies are at an increased risk of later delinquency and criminal offending. A recent meta-analysis of studies measuring school bullying and later offending found that school bullies were 2.5 times more likely than noninvolved students to engage in offending over an 11-year follow-up period (Ttofi et al. 2011). The risk was lower when major childhood risk factors were controlled for, but remained statistically significant. The effect of bullying on later offending was especially pronounced when bullying was assessed in older children. The longitudinal association between bullying perpetration and later offending has been replicated in many countries, including Australia, Canada, and Europe.

Finally, there is evidence that bullying and victimization have a negative impact not only on the individual children involved but also on bystanders. Children who witness bullying incidents report increased anxiety, less satisfaction with school, and lower academic achievement. There is also evidence that in school classes where a lot of victimization is taking place, school satisfaction among students is low.

Bullying Interventions

Following the development of the first anti-bullying program by Dan Olweus in Norway in the 1980s, a considerable number of anti-bullying interventions have flourished around the world to reduce bullying behaviors and protect victims. These fall under four broad categories: curriculum interventions generally designed to promote an anti-bullying attitude within the classroom; whole-school programs that intervene on the school, class, and individual level and address bullying as a systemic problem; social and behavioral skills training; and peer support programs including befriending and peer mediation. A systematic review conducted in 2004 evaluated the strength of scientific evidence in support of anti-bullying programs (Vreeman and Carroll 2007). The review concluded that only a small number of anti-bullying programs have been evaluated rigorously enough to permit strong conclusions about their effectiveness.

Whole-school interventions were found to be more effective in reducing victimization and bullying than interventions that focused only on curriculum changes or social and behavioral skills training. Targeting the whole school involves actions to improve the supervision of the playground, having regular meetings between parents and teachers, setting clear guidelines for dealing with bullying, and using role-playing and other techniques to teach students about bullying. The success of whole-school interventions, relative to other stand-alone approaches, supports the view that bullying is a systemic, sociocultural phenomenon derived from factors operating at the individual, class, school, family, and community level. Hence, interventions that target only one level are unlikely to have a significant impact.

A more recent systematic review of school-based anti-bullying programs found that, overall, these programs are effective in reducing bullying perpetration and victimization by an average of 20–23 % and 17–20 %, respectively (Farrington and Ttofi 2009). The interventions that were found to be most effective were those that incorporated parent training/meetings, disciplinary methods, and videos; targeted older children; and were delivered intensively and for longer. There is less robust evidence on the effectiveness of peer support programs that include activities such as befriending, peer counseling, conflict resolution, or mediation, and a systematic review suggested their use may lead to increases in bullying victimization.

More recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of virtual learning environments to reduce bullying at schools. The basic feature of these programs is a computer-based environment that creates a highly believable learning experience for children who find themselves “present” in the situation that causes emotional distress and, as a result, learn experientially how to deal with school problems. An example of such a program is “FearNot,” an intervention that was developed to help victims of bullying explore the success or otherwise of different coping strategies to dealing with bullying victimization through interactions with “virtual” victims of school bullying. The evaluation of this intervention found that the victims that received the intervention were more likely to escape victimization in the short term than victims in control schools who did not interact with the software (Sapouna et al. 2010). These results suggest that the use of virtual environments might be an engaging and useful component of whole-school anti-bullying policies that merits further testing. A key finding that emerged from this research is that interventions are more likely to be successful if they have the support of teachers and other school personnel and there is a strong commitment to reduce bullying in the school community. This is considered to be one of the reasons behind the huge success of the Olweus’ prevention program that has not been replicated to date.

Although an abundance of knowledge has emerged in recent years regarding the correlates of bullying behavior, there is still relatively little known about the causal processes and mechanisms associated with the bully and victim status. Longitudinal studies, which track bullies and victims over time, offer one of the best chances of disentangling the antecedents of bullying perpetration and victimization from its consequences, and these should form a key part of future research in this field. Another approach which shows much promise is the cutting-edge attempt to unravel the causes of bullying behavior made by researchers investigating biological and environmental influences and the way these influences interact.

One of these studies, involving 1,116 families with 10-year-old twins, found that the tendency for children to be bullied was largely explained by genetics (73 % of variance) and less so by environmental factors that were unique to each child (Ball et al. 2008). Another study of 506 six-year-old twins found that variance in victimization was accounted for only by shared and non-shared environmental influences (29 % and 71 %, respectively) and was not related to the child’s genetic predisposition (Brendgen et al. 2008). These discrepancies might be explained by differences in methodologies used, as studies drew on different informants to assess bullying victimization (mothers and peers, respectively). Although results to date have been contradictory, future breakthroughs in this area have the potential to transform radically the study of bullying.

To understand more fully how bullying behaviors develop, future research will also need to investigate in more depth how individual and classroom level factors interact to cause involvement in bullying. It is not currently understood whether the relationship between risk factors and bullying is the same across different school and class environments or the extent to which consequences of bullying and victimization are dependent on class-and school-level factors.

Finally, another area that would benefit from more attention is the investigation of resilience to bullying. Some initial evidence suggests that maternal warmth has an environmental effect in protecting children from negative outcomes associated with victimization (Bowes et al. 2010). However, we still know relatively little about the factors that promote resilience to bullying and victimization among at-risk children, and also what role bullying has to play in increasing resilience. We also know little about the factors that help victims cope better with the effects of victimization.

To conclude, what the recent flurry of research activity has highlighted is how complex the bullying phenomenon is and that, although much has been learned to date, there is clearly a great need to understand how variables describing the family, school, class, and community environment interact with individual characteristics to determine who gets bullied and who bullies others. Research should neither be blind to nor discouraged by these complexities.


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78 Cyber Bullying Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best cyber bullying topic ideas & essay examples, 💡 interesting topics to write about cyber bullying, 👍 good essay topics on cyber bullying, ❓ questions about cyberbullying research, 💯 free cyber bullying essay topic generator.

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Bullying Survey for Students Questions + Sample Questionnaire Template

Bullying surveys are important tools for collecting data and gathering information about the prevalence and nature of bullying in educational settings. They can help schools and educators identify areas where bullying is a problem, and implement strategies and interventions to address it. Bullying surveys can be administered to students, teachers, and other school staff, and may ask questions about the frequency and severity of bullying behaviors, the types of bullying that occur (e.g., physical, verbal, cyber), and the relationships between the bully and the victim. They may also ask about the impact of bullying on individuals and the school community and the effectiveness of school policies and interventions in addressing bullying. By collecting and analyzing data from bullying surveys, K-12 Institutions and Universities can create more targeted and effective strategies to prevent and address bullying. This can lead to a safer and more positive school environment for all students, which is essential for their academic and social development.

Advantages of the running anti-bullying surveys using this survey template:

Related templates and questionnaires, course evaluation and improvement survey template, graduation exit survey template, teacher evaluation & student course evaluation survey.

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Another crucial advantage of our service is our writers. You may have asked yourself, ‘I’d like to pay someone to write a paper for me, but who exactly will that person be?’ Once you order a paper, our managers will choose the best writer based on your requirements. You’ll get a writer who is a true expert in the relevant subject, and a perfect fit is certain to be found due to our thorough procedure of selecting.

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Questions our customers ask

Can someone write my paper for me.

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  1. Dreaded Cyberbullying Research Paper Questionnaire ~ Museumlegs

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  2. Estimated model for the Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CBQ).

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  1. (PDF) The Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire ...

    The present study outlines the development of the Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CWCBQ) and tests of its reliability and construct validity over a total of five questionnaire...

  2. PDF A Comprehensive Survey on Cyberbullying Perceptions at a Major

    4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology of this new study consisted of a survey of the perceptions of full-time and part-time faculty members at the university. The survey consisted of a cyberbullying definition (Tokunaga, 2010) and 47 items: - 6 demographic questions; - 7 fundamental knowledge of cyberbullying questions;


    This survey paper projects on cyberbullying detection and the recent research works carried out in this research dimension. Certain machine learning algorithms are also applied apart from...

  4. Cyberbullying: Impacting Today's Youth

    this survey, in 2011 it was estimated that 2.2 million students experienced cyberbullying (Meier, n.d). This means that 9% of the student population has reported experiencing cyberbullying, ... victimized by cyberbullying. This research paper summarizes what the literature has already


    Cyber bullying is an online aggressive behaviour in the digital space. Bullying is a form of peer aggression which can be as damaging as any form of conventional aggression (Mickie, 2011). The problem investigated in this research concerns cyber bullying that disturbs university students psychologically and emotionally.

  6. Cyberbullying Survey

    Cyberbullying. Please only complete this survey if you have at least one child between the ages of 11-18. You have been invited to participate in a research study to get your thoughts on cyberbullying. It is important parents who do and do not use social media platforms answer all the questions in order to determine your understanding of ...

  7. Cyberbullying

    Cyberbullying Research Paper Words: 963 Sociology 18th May, 2021 In its traditional sense, 'bullying' can be defined as an aggressive intentional and repeated behavior of a group or an individual against a victim who cannot defend him or herself.

  8. [A cyberbullying study: Analysis of cyberbullying, comorbidities and

    Comorbidities were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Liebowitz's Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ). Results: The victims of bullying were also victims of cyberbullying.

  9. 2021 Cyberbullying Data

    Adolescent girls are more likely to have experienced cyberbullying in their lifetimes (50.9% vs. 37.8%). This difference is not as dramatic when reviewing experiences over the previous 30 days, where rates are very similar (21.9% of boys and 23.7% of girls have been cyberbullied recently).

  10. Cyberbullying Data 2019

    Presents data on cyberbullying from a 2019 national survey of middle and high school students in the United States. This study surveyed a nationally-representative sample of 4,972 middle and high school students between the ages of 12 and 17 in the United States. Data were collected in April of 2019. Click on the thumbnail images to enlarge.

  11. A Survey on Cyberbullying

    This paper presents survey about various approaches used for identification, detection of cyber bullying in social networks and its effects on web users. KeywordsSNS (social networking services). TEDAS (Twitter-based Event Detection and Analysis System), LSF (Lexical Syntactic Feature), CDE (Crime and Disaster related Events), INTRODUCTION

  12. Cyberbullying in COVID-19 Pandemic Decreases? Research of Internet

    Online contacts and other activities on the Internet came into focus given the increased use during the COVID-19 pandemic. The online environment is a setting for problematic Internet use, including cyberbullying, and research so far shows that inclusion in cyberbullying depends on the amount of screen time. Increases in screen time during the pandemic could affect the growth of the prevalence ...

  13. Bullying Research Paper

    This sample bullying research paper features: 4600 words (approx. 15 pages), an outline, and a bibliography with 28 sources. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help.

  14. Cyberbullying : a literature review

    A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Masters of Arts or Masters of Education Approved: ... questions about cyberbullying like how often does it occur, what form does it take, who does the bullying, who is bullied, and whether and who they tell. The students were not

  15. 78 Cyber Bullying Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    Questions About Cyberbullying Research We will write a custom essay specifically for you for only $11.00 $9.35/page Learn More Why Does Online Anonymity Increase Cyberbullying Among Teenagers? Are Laws Effective Strategy Address Issue Cyberbullying? Are Schools Doing Enough About Cyberbullying? What Are the Causes of Cyberbullying?

  16. Bullying Survey for Students Questions + Sample Questionnaire Template

    Our free questionnaire consists of questions you can customize and modify to suit the needs of your educational institution to stop bullying and provide students with a healthy environment to study and excel. We firmly believe that for students to thrive and enjoy their days at school, they must first feel safe and be themselves.

  17. Cyber Bullying Research Paper

    Cyber Bullying: The Mean Side of Media and how it is Affecting Students of All Ages Steven Smith Queens. University of Charlotte. fAbstract This paper explores how cyber bullying has become a serious problem in schools of all levels. The new technologies that have grown in popularity over the past decade have enabled classroom bullying to go ...

  18. Cyberbullying Research Paper Questionnaire

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