database design for project management system

A Project Management Data Model

database design for project management system

Database designer and developer, financial analyst.

Project management is a booming field. In this article, we’ll examine a data model to support a project management app.

Project management is anything but an easy task. You are limited in many ways – materials, costs, human resources, and project deadlines spring to mind – but it’s still up to you to deliver a result on time.

If you think of building a pyramid, you can easily conclude it was a case of project management! It had a project sponsor (usually Pharaoh), a deadline (Pharaohs’ deadline ☺), human resources (mostly workers and slaves), material resources (stone blocks) and of course a project manager. A lot has changed since then, but the idea is still the same. We need to be as organized as possible if we expect to deliver a project result on time, up to its expected quality, and within its budget.

In this article, we’ll describe a data model that could run a project management application.

A Short Introduction to Project Management

Before we take a look at the model, we need to get some background on project management. I’ll run through some of the most popular terms and describe features that our application should include.

What is a project?

A project is a time-limited effort that, if completed successfully, will create something new and valuable.

In the introduction, we compared project management to building a pyramid. Nowadays, project management can mean building roads or cities, developing new software, defining new methodologies, etc. All of these imply that the project will deliver something completely new (or an improved version of something else).

What is project management?

Project management is the process of accomplishing a predefined goal within a set time period and budget. It requires a varied group of techniques, skills, and tools.

During the project management cycle, we’ll create and implement a plan for our project. We’ll track progress throughout. In some cases, we’ll have to make changes to cope with unplanned situations and events. If that happens, we’ll need to reallocate resources to critical activities and tasks in order to stay on schedule; in a worst-case scenario, we may have to alter our project plan.

In a perfect world, we could deliver project results on time, on budget and with the right quality. In real life, we need to balance scheduling, budgeting and quality during the entire process.

What are some project management terms I need to know?

There are a few popular project management approaches (Lean, PRINCE2, process-based, traditional, etc.) but we won’t go into these now. I’ll stick to the terms that are common in most project management methodologies. Some of these terms are:

What should project management software look like?

Project management software should be as simple as possible. It would be best to have the entire Gantt chart on one screen. We can expect that we’ll still need to scroll to see various parts, but we’ll have everything clearly visible on a single screen.

The Data Model

The data model consists of three main subject areas:

I’ll explain the Users and roles and Project and partners subject areas first. Then we’ll move to the Task and activities subject area, which is the central part of this model.

Section 1: Users and Roles

Users and Roles subject area

This section contains all the tables needed to store details about app users, project teams, and team members and their roles.

Some of the employees on our project will be able to log into our application, but most will not need to. Therefore, we need two separate tables: the user_account table and the employee table.

The user_account table contains everything we need to know about the app users. We’ll store the username and password needed for login and personal details like first_name , last_name , and email . The username and email values are UNIQUE in this table. The is_project_manager flag indicates if the user has the authority to make changes on the project. The last attribute in this table is the self-explanatory registration_time .

As I’ve already mentioned, any user with login rights could participate in the project, but that is not the requirement. On the other hand, most of the employees on the project won’t have login rights. Still, we need to store their details in order to relate them with tasks and activities. A list of all employees that are part of any project is stored in the employee table. The employee_code attribute is the alternate UNIQUE key of the table. The employee_name attribute stores the first and the last name of all employees on the project. If the employee has login rights, his user_account_id attribute will have his related ID number from the user_account table.

We’ll usually assign individual employees to a certain task or activity. There are some situations when we’ll use an entire team to complete a certain activity. In these cases, it would be wise to group all members of that team. Otherwise, we risk assigning activities to each employee separately. The team_member table serves that purpose in our model. We’ll store team_id , employee_id and role_id for all employees in a given team. Notice that employees can be assigned to a team only once; therefore the team_id – employee_id pair forms the UNIQUE key of this table. On the other hand, an employee could be a member of several teams.

The remaining two tables in this section are dictionaries. The team table lists all teams we’ve defined in our organization, while the role table lists all the roles that could be assigned to employees on the project. For example, some roles in a software development company are developer, consultant, and project manager. In both tables, the name attributes can contain only UNIQUE values.

Section 2: Projects

Projects subject area

In the first section we defined the human resources needed to execute projects. In this section we’ll explain the structure needed to organize project details, partners, and clients.

The most important table in this section is the project table. It is where we’ll store all the projects we’re using our application to manage. For each project, we’ll include the following attributes:

In the project_manager table, we’ll store a list of all users who can manage projects, create new tasks and activities, assign employees to tasks and activities, and modify or delete existing tasks and activities. To assign a user as the manager of a certain project, that user should have the user_account . is_project_manager attribute set to True. The project_id – user_account_id pair holds only UNIQUE values.

Project stakeholders are all entities that have an interest in the successful completion of the project. These could be investors, government agencies, NGOs or not-for-profit organizations, etc. We’ll also likely work with clients, to whom we’ll deliver the project result. We’ll store these interested parties in the client_partner table. For each client or partner on any of our projects, we’ll store a full name, address, and other text details.

The last table in this section, the on_project table, relates clients and partners with projects. The attributes in this table are:

Section 3: Tasks and Activities

Tasks and Activities subject area

The last section in our model is also the core of our application. We’ll define tasks and activities here, relate them together, and relate them to other parts of the model.

A project is composed of multiple tasks and each task is composed of one or more activities. The task table will store the following details for each task:

Project tasks generally are done in order. One or more tasks may have to be finished for a new task to start. A list of all such prerequisite tasks is stored in the preceding_task table. We’ll define the task_id and preceding_task_id attributes here. The “preceding_task_id” attribute will store the ID of whatever task is immediately before the current task. The task_id – preceding_task_id pair forms the alternate UNIQUE key of this table.

Each task is composed of one or more activities. The activity table is very similar to the task table. The attributes in this table are:

Like tasks, activities may be ordered in a certain way, so we’ll need another table to store prerequisite activities. In the preceding_activity table, the activity_id – preceding_activity_id pair are UNIQUE.

The last table in this section (and in the model) is the assigned table. It is simple but very important. It relates employees with activities. When we assign an employee to a certain activity, we’ll also define their role (via role_id ) for that activity. Since activities are the smallest job unit, the same employee can’t be assigned to the same role in the same activity more than once.

We could assign a whole team to a certain activity, but the result would be the separate insertion of each team member into the assigned table. We could also assign an employee or even a team to an entire task but the database will store that information as employees assigned to single activities.

How Can This Project Management Data Model Be Used?

I hope that after reading this article you have at least a general idea of how you could build a project management app. I focused on the Gantt chart because it’s one of the most popular chart types for project management. Still, it’s not the only option we could use. We could go with some other graphical or textual representation. Charts are nice and clear, but what happens if your display size is limited? In that case, a simplified graphical or even textual application could be a reasonable option.

Help Improve This Model!

Project management is a really complex area. There are some different concepts and methodologies, but the main idea is the same. In this example, I went with the Gantt chart because most of us are visual types. On smaller projects, we might use a simple text-only To-Do List. In other cases, maybe the Gantt chart isn’t the best choice.

Please share your experience about the project management tools you’ve used, what you loved about them, and what you wanted to change. These suggestions could help us to improve this model significantly.

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database design for project management system

Use the Projects Access database template

Use the Access Project management database to manage projects and their associated tasks and employees. You can also search and filter project details, enter common tasks, and send or receive data via e-mail messages.

Note:  The Project management database template has been updated over the last few years. These instructions refer to the latest version of the template available for download. If the steps below don't match what you're seeing, you're probably using an older version of the template.

Using the database

In this article, we cover the basic steps of using the Projects desktop database template.

Prepare the database for use

To make sure all the database content is enabled, use the following procedure:

To make sure all the database content is enabled, in the Message Bar, click Enable this content .

For more information about enabling database content, see the article Decide whether to trust a database .

Add employees

To begin using the Projects database template, the first step is to add employees, so that you have someone to assign projects and tasks to. Use this procedure to manually add employees, or see the next section to add employees from your Outlook contacts.

On the Project List form, click Employee List .

On the Employee List form, fill in the details of each employee.

To enter more detailed information about an employee, double-click the employee's name in the Employee List form, and enter the information in the Employee Details form.

Click Close to return to the Project List form.

Add contacts from Microsoft Outlook

If you use Microsoft Outlook, you can add employees from that program without having to re-type the information.

On the Employee List form, click Add From Outlook .

In the Select Names to Add dialog box, select the names that you want to add to the database.

Click Add , and then click OK .

Add a new project

On the Project List form, click New Project .

On the Project Details form, fill in the details of the project, and then click Close .

Edit an existing project

On the Project List form, double-click the project that you want to edit.

On the Project Details form, add or edit the details of the project.

On the Project Details form, click Add Task .

On the Task Details form, fill in the details of the task, and then click Close .

Access displays the new project in the Project Tasks list on the Project Details form.

Edit a task

On the Project Details form, click the Project Tasks tab.

Double-click the task that you want to edit.

On the Task Details form, edit the details of the task, and then click Close .

Add a common task

Common tasks are tasks that are frequently used in many different projects, such as budgeting or training. After you enter a common task, it can be added to any project in the Project database without having to re-enter the task details.

On the Project Details form, click Common Tasks .

Select the check box next to each common task that you want to add to the project. Add new common tasks to the end of the list.

Click Close to return to the Project Details form.

Filter the Project List

On the Project List form, you can filter the list of projects, and save your favorite filters for future use.

Apply filters by right-clicking the form and selecting the filters you want.

Click Save Filter .

On the Filter Details form, enter a filter name and description, and then click Close .

Use the Filter Favorites box to apply a saved filter, or click (Clear Filter) to remove the filter.

Display project or employee details

The Project Details form and the Employee Details forms let you view and enter more information about a project or employee. To display the Project Details form or the Employee Details form:

On the Project List form or the Employee List form, double-click the item that you want to see.

Add attachments

On the Project Details form, the Task Details form, and the Employee Details form, you can add pictures and other attachments.

On any Details form, double-click the Attachments field (on the Employee Details form, double-click the picture icon).

In the Attachments dialog box, click Add .

In the Choose File dialog box, browse to the folder that contains the file.

Select the file you want to add, and then click Open .

In the Attachments dialog box, click OK .

Note:  You can attach multiple files for each item, including different file types such as documents or spreadsheets.

Display reports

The Projects database includes several reports, including Open Projects , Task Details , Employee Address Book , and more. To display a report:

On the Project List form, select the report that you want to display from the Reports list.

To print a report:

Click File > Print .

You can create your own custom reports. For more information, see the article Create a simple report .

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database design for project management system

Database Structure and Design Tutorial

What are your database diagram needs, requirements analysis: identifying the purpose of the database, database structure: the building blocks of a database, creating relationships between entities, database normalization, multidimensional data, data integrity rules, adding indexes and views, extended properties, sql and uml, database management systems.

With a reliable database design tool like Lucidchart, a well-designed database gives users access to essential information. By following the principles on this page, you can design a database that performs well and adapts to future needs. We’ll cover the basics of laying out a database as well as ways to refine it for optimal results.

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Want to make a database diagram of your own? Try Lucidchart. It's quick, easy, and completely free.

The database design process

A well-structured database:

Designing an efficient, useful database is a matter of following the proper process, including these phases:

Let’s take a closer look at each step. Note that this guide deals with Edgar Codd’s relational database model as written in SQL (rather than the hierarchical, network, or object data models). To learn more about database models, read our guide here .

Understanding the purpose of your database will inform your choices throughout the design process. Make sure you consider the database from every perspective. For instance, if you were making a database for a public library, you’d want to consider the ways in which both patrons and librarians would need to access the data.

Here are some ways to gather information before creating the database:

Start by gathering any existing data that will be included in the database. Then list the types of data you want to store and the entities, or people, things, locations, and events, that those data describe, like this:

This information will later become part of the data dictionary, which outlines the tables and fields within the database. Be sure to break down the information into the smallest useful pieces. For instance, consider separating the street address from the country so that you can later filter individuals by their country of residence. Also, avoid placing the same data point in more than one table, which adds unnecessary complexity.

Once you know what kinds of data the database will include, where that data comes from, and how it will be used, you’re ready to start planning out the actual database.

The next step is to lay out a visual representation of your database. To do that, you need to understand exactly how relational databases are structured.

Within a database, related data are grouped into tables, each of which consists of rows (also called tuples) and columns, like a spreadsheet.

To convert your lists of data into tables, start by creating a table for each type of entity, such as products, sales, customers, and orders. Here’s an example:

Each row of a table is called a record. Records include data about something or someone, such as a particular customer. By contrast, columns (also known as fields or attributes) contain a single type of information that appears in each record, such as the addresses of all the customers listed in the table.

To keep the data consistent from one record to the next, assign the appropriate data type to each column. Common data types include:

Some database management systems also offer the Autonumber data type, which automatically generates a unique number in each row.

For the purposes of creating a visual overview of the database, known as an entity-relationship diagram, you won’t include the actual tables. Instead, each table becomes a box in the diagram. The title of each box should indicate what the data in that table describes, while attributes are listed below, like this:

Finally, you should decide which attribute or attributes will serve as the primary key for each table, if any. A primary key (PK) is a unique identifier for a given entity, meaning that you could pick out an exact customer even if you only knew that value.

Attributes chosen as primary keys should be unique, unchanging, and always present (never NULL or empty). For this reason, order numbers and usernames make good primary keys, while telephone numbers or street addresses do not. You can also use multiple fields in conjunction as the primary key (this is known as a composite key).

When it comes time to create the actual database, you’ll put both the logical data structure and the physical data structure into the data definition language supported by your database management system. At that point, you should also estimate the size of the database to be sure you can get the performance level and storage space it will require.

With your database tables now converted into tables, you’re ready to analyze the relationships between those tables. Cardinality refers to the quantity of elements that interact between two related tables. Identifying the cardinality helps make sure you’ve divided the data into tables most efficiently.

Each entity can potentially have a relationship with every other one, but those relationships are typically one of three types:

One-to-one relationships

When there’s only one instance of Entity A for every instance of Entity B, they are said to have a one-to-one relationship (often written 1:1). You can indicate this kind of relationship in an ER diagram with a line with a dash on each end:

Unless you have a good reason not to, a 1:1 relationship usually indicates that you’d be better off combining the two tables’ data into a single table.

However, you might want to create tables with a 1:1 relationship under a particular set of circumstances. If you have a field with optional data, such as “description,” that is blank for many of the records, you can move all of the descriptions into their own table, eliminating empty space and improving database performance.

To guarantee that the data matches up correctly, you’d then have to include at least one identical column in each table, most likely the primary key.

One-to-many relationships

These relationships occur when a record in one table is associated with multiple entries in another. For example, a single customer might have placed many orders, or a patron may have multiple books checked out from the library at once. One-to-many (1:M) relationships are indicated with what’s called “Crow’s foot notation,” as in this example:

To implement a 1:M relationship as you set up a database, simply add the primary key from the “one” side of the relationship as an attribute in the other table. When a primary key is listed in another table in this manner, it’s called a foreign key. The table on the “1” side of the relationship is a considered a parent table to the child table on the other side.

Many-to-many relationships

When multiple entities from a table can be associated with multiple entities in another table, they are said to have a many-to-many (M:N) relationship. This might happen in the case of students and classes, since a student can take many classes and a class can have many students.

In an ER diagram, these relationships are portrayed with these lines:

Unfortunately, it’s not directly possible to implement this kind of relationship in a database. Instead, you have to break it up into two one-to-many relationships.

To do so, create a new entity between those two tables. If the M:N relationship exists between sales and products, you might call that new entity “sold_products,” since it would show the contents of each sale. Both the sales and products tables would have a 1:M relationship with sold_products. This kind of go-between entity is called a link table, associative entity, or junction table in various models.

Each record in the link table would match together two of the entities in the neighboring tables (it may include supplemental information as well). For instance, a link table between students and classes might look like this:

Mandatory or not?

Another way to analyze relationships is to consider which side of the relationship has to exist for the other to exist. The non-mandatory side can be marked with a circle on the line where a dash would be. For instance, a country has to exist for it to have a representative in the United Nations, but the opposite is not true:

Two entities can be mutually dependent (one could not exist without the other).

Recursive relationships

Sometimes a table points back to itself. For example, a table of employees might have an attribute “manager” that refers to another individual in that same table. This is called a recursive relationship.

Redundant relationships

A redundant relationship is one that is expressed more than once. Typically, you can remove one of the relationships without losing any important information. For instance, if an entity “students” has a direct relationship with another called “teachers” but also has a relationship with teachers indirectly through “classes,” you’d want to remove the relationship between “students” and “teachers.” It’s better to delete that relationship because the only way that students are assigned to teachers is through classes.

Once you have a preliminary design for your database, you can apply normalization rules to make sure the tables are structured correctly. Think of these rules as the industry standards.

That said, not all databases are good candidates for normalization. In general, online transaction processing (OLTP for short) databases, in which users are concerned with creating, reading, updating, and deleting records, should be normalized.

Online analytical processing (OLAP) databases which favor analysis and reporting might fare better with a degree of denormalization, since the emphasis is on speed of calculation. These include decision support applications in which data needs to be analyzed quickly but not changed.

Each form, or level of normalization, includes the rules associated with the lower forms.

First normal form

The first normal form (abbreviated as 1NF) specifies that each cell in the table can have only one value, never a list of values, so a table like this does not comply:

You might be tempted to get around this by splitting that data into additional columns, but that’s also against the rules: a table with groups of repeated or closely related attributes does not meet the first normal form. The table below, for example, fails to comply:

Instead, split the data into multiple tables or records until each cell holds only one value and there are no extra columns. At that point, the data is said to be atomic, or broken down to the smallest useful size. For the table above, you could create an additional table called “Sales details” that would match specific products with sales. “Sales” would then have a 1:M relationship with “Sales details.”

Second normal form

The second normal form (2NF) mandates that each of the attributes should be fully dependent on the entire primary key. That means each attribute should depend directly on the primary key, rather than indirectly through some other attribute.

For instance, an attribute “age” that depends on “birthdate” which in turn depends on “studentID” is said to have a partial functional dependency, and a table containing these attributes would fail to meet the second normal form.

Furthermore, a table with a primary key made up of multiple fields violates the second normal form if one or more of the other fields do not depend on every part of the key.

Thus, a table with these fields wouldn’t meet the second normal form, because the attribute “product name” depends on the product ID but not on the order number:

Order number (primary key)

Product ID (primary key)

 Third normal form

The third normal form (3NF) adds to these rules the requirement that every non-key column be independent of every other column. If changing a value in one non-key column causes another value to change, that table does not meet the third normal form.

This keeps you from storing any derived data in the table, such as the “tax” column below, which directly depends on the total price of the order:

Additional forms of normalization have been proposed, including the Boyce-Codd normal form, the fourth through sixth normal forms, and the domain-key normal form, but the first three are the most common.

While these forms explain the best practices to follow generally, the degree of normalization depends on the context of the database.

Diagramming is quick and easy with Lucidchart. Start a free trial today to start creating and collaborating.

Some users may want to access multiple dimensions of a single type of data, particularly in OLAP databases. For instance, they may want to know the sales by customer, state, and month. In this situation, it’s best to create a central fact table that other customer, state, and month tables can refer to, like this:

You should also configure your database to validate the data according to the appropriate rules. Many database management systems, such as Microsoft Access, enforce some of these rules automatically.

The entity integrity rule says that the primary key can never be NULL. If the key is made up of multiple columns, none of them can be NULL. Otherwise, it could fail to uniquely identify the record.

The referential integrity rule requires each foreign key listed in one table to be matched with one primary key in the table it references. If the primary key changes or is deleted, those changes will need to be implemented wherever that key is referenced throughout the database.

Business logic integrity rules make sure that the data fits within certain logical parameters. For instance, an appointment time would have to fall within normal business hours.

An index is essentially a sorted copy of one or more columns, with the values either in ascending or descending order. Adding an index allows users to find records more quickly. Instead of re-sorting for each query, the system can access records in the order specified by the index.

Although indexes speed up data retrieval, they can slow down inserting, updating, and deleting, since the index has to be rebuilt whenever a record is changed.

A view is simply a saved query on the data. They can usefully join data from multiple tables or else show part of a table.

Once you have the basic layout completed, you can refine the database with extended properties, such as instructional text, input masks, and formatting rules that apply to a particular schema , view, or column. The advantage is that, because these rules are stored in the database itself, the presentation of the data will be consistent across the multiple programs that access the data.

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is another visual way of expressing complex systems created in an object-oriented language. Several of the concepts mentioned in this guide are known in UML under different names. For instance, an entity is known as a class in UML.

UML is not used as frequently today as it once was. Today, it is often used academically and in communications between software designers and their clients.

Many of the design choices you will make depend on which database management system you use. Some of the most common systems include:

Microsoft SQL Server

When given the choice, pick an appropriate database management system based on cost, operating systems, features, and more.

Helpful Resources

When you’re ready to start designing your database, try Lucidchart’s entity-relationship diagram tool. After importing any SQL, simply drag and drop to create tables, then specify relationships with a click. Start your trial today!

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20+ Database Management System Project Ideas

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In this article we have presented the Simple Database Management System Project Ideas that can be included in your Final Year Project or you can do any one of these Management System as your Mini Project or Major Project.

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School Management System Project Database Design

database design for project management system

School Management system Project Database Design in MSSQL. Its Sample Database Design for School Management system.Download School Management system Project Design.This will Help you How to create Database in MSSQL and you can find Free download Project Schema.

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School Management system will help You to manage daily school activities like Student registration , Subject Assign Teachers with Subject , Teachers management , Student Grads, Student Exam , leave management system. we have Design Demo Database For complete School management ERP. You can Download Complete PDF 

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DBMS Mini Projects Topics With Source Code for Students 2022

This DBMS Mini Project Topics List with Source code or DBMS project ideas is a collection of projects in a Database that contains different Database management systems examples as various agencies, industries, and companies.

This DBMS mini project topic is best for those students in the field of computer science or Information Technology, especially those who are tasked to make database projects requirements.

The DBMS mini project  uploaded will give a lot of database project ideas and all the database projects uploaded here are made available for download.

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Video for database management system example.

Watch here below to see the List of Database Management System Examples for your DBMS mini projects using MySQL.

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All SQL database projects with source code are free to download. The simple database project ideas can help to build the latest project topics for computer science .

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Example of database management system project, database design tables.

Table4: tblorder

Table 7: tbluser

Table 10: tblpayment

Note : This is just one(1) example of the DBMS mini project using MySQL listed below. You can find and download lots of database design examples uploaded here.

DBMS Mini Project Sample ER Diagram

Entity relationship diagram in dbms mini project examples, dbms mini project topics with source code for students 2022.

Here are the database mini projects topics with source code, sql system database projects with source code, and database management system (dbms) projects for students 2022

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DBMS Mini Project Topics List

Recommended articles, quick answers faq.

Here’s a quick FAQ to highlight some key concepts.

DBMS project ideas or database project ideas is an idea you can get from the design of the database as well as it can help you to make you database design better for your client.

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Hello, i was wondering how can i download files from your site? is it free or do I have to pay? because I have a project and don’t know how to start doing it. Thanks!

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9 Exciting DBMS Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners [2023]

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Software Engineering Manager @ upGrad. Passionate about building large scale web apps with delightful experiences. In pursuit of transforming engineers into leaders.

Do you want to work on database projects but don’t know where to start? Then you’ve come to the right place. In today’s article, we’ll discuss some of the most exciting and engaging database project ideas. Check out our  free courses  to get an edge over the competition.

We have discussed all project ideas in detail so you can understand them better and work on them accordingly. Completing projects is a great way to show your knowledge and strengthen your skills. You can choose a project according to your interests and expertise. Let’s get started. 

Data Base Management Systems are a software to store, run queries or retrieve any data. It is very useful because it facilitates storing the data at a centralised location. Also, it reduces redundancy and data inconsistency. The other uses of the Data Management System are-

Along with its uses, many industries are using DBMS, and it has become the core of their data administration. The industries which use the DBMS are mentioned below-

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DBMS Project Ideas

The following are some easy and exciting database project ideas. Choose one according to your requirements:

database design for project management system

1. E-commerce Platform

You must’ve seen multiple online retail platforms. Some great examples of such platforms are Amazon and Flipkart. In this DBMS project, you’ll have to develop a similar e-commerce platform, where a customer can register and buy a product.

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Your developed platform should have a registration window where the user will provide their name, bank name, and bank account number. This information will enable them to make transactions easily. After they’ve registered, the system should give them unique user IDs and customer IDs. They should have the option to set up their passwords. 

Any e-commerce platform would be incomplete without having any products to sell, wouldn’t it? So it should have product listings as well, classified according to their prices (or some other criterion). The user should have the option to buy one or more products from your platform. And after the user makes a purchase, the system would generate an invoice, which will contain the user’s name. The system can allow ordering from different suppliers according to availability. 

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Using DBMS for an e-commerce platform will give you extensive experience in this technology. It’ll help you understand how online platforms use and interact with databases. Still, this project will undoubtedly take some time and effort. 

This project makes for one of the most relatable database projects , as e-commerce uses databases for tracking the transactions, and products database, the marketing team also uses the DBMS to track the traffic, acquire potential customers and retain the existing customers. The e-commerce industry is running on having a strong database because it is online and data is the new oil. Also, just having data is not enough, having the strong ecosystem of having a string core database is what makes it all efficient.

E-commerce DBMS

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2. Inventory Management

Every organization has an inventory to manage, which takes up a lot of resources. Usually, an organization would assign the duty of inventory management to two or more people who’ll keep an eye on it and ensure that all the supplies are available. If any item is missing, the manager would order the same. This system works effectively if the organization is tiny, but that’s not always the case.

You can solve this problem of businesses and build an inventory management system. The goals of your design would be the following:

As you can see, an inventory management system will allow its client to save a lot of time and resources. They can find the stock levels in their inventory and plan accordingly. It will make the enterprise more efficient and productive. 

This is one of the beginner-level database projects on this list. You can work on it even if you don’t have much experience with developing database solutions. 

This is one of the good database project ideas , as inventory is the core of any business. Especially after the pandemic hit, most businesses have turned online. Not only the recently turned online businesses but the recent and old businesses were well. If an organisation has a solid core management system for inventory tracking, they could not only increase the business but also can understand the leakages.

The following can be the sub-topics-

inventory management

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3. Railway System

The railway network of our country is one of the most complex public establishments. You can design a database solution for this network and make the management of the same more natural. Your system should have the following pieces of information:

The train schedules should have information on the stations from where the train starts and by when it reaches the destination. It should also include information on which stations it passes through during its journey. 

To keep things simple, you can assume that every train completes its journey within a day, and they run daily. However, you’ll also need to store information on the sequence of the stations a train passes through. For example, if a train starts from Delhi and goes to Kolkata through Lucknow, then you’ll need to add the arrival and departure times of the train for all these stations. Keeping the stations in sequence will allow easy management of trains and their data.

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Till here, the project is rather easy. You can make it more challenging by adding the passenger information of every train such as its coaches, seat numbers, types of coaches, passenger names, and so on. This project might take some time to complete, but it’ll help you showcase your knowledge of database management solutions while solving a significant issue of a public authority. 

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India has a very big network of railways, not only that but the metros also have become a very significant part of commutation over the country. Both these types of railways have a wide network and people’s daily commutes depend upon them. Keeping a track of the train’s arrival, departure, first time of arrival at a particular station and last train departure also have a big role to play as people plan their schedules accordingly. Keeping a track of these is really important. Not only that but also keeping the tracks safe from collisions and any haphazard also is important for the smooth operation of the network. This brings another factor which is revenue, the need for revenue generation arises because of the large number of users. Keeping a track of tickets, and distance travelled is necessary in order to track the overall revenue which eventually helps in the country’s GDP. This is why is one of the important topics for the database project topics .

The sub-topics could include the following-

DBMS in railways

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4. college data management.

Colleges have multiple departments where every department offers many courses. These departments have a head (HOD) and various instructors. Even though there are many instructors, one instructor can only work in one department. As you can see the organization structure of a college is quite complicated and requires a lot of effort to manage. 

In this database project, you can build a solution to tackle this problem. It would store all this information about the college and its departments. However, the information we’ve discussed above isn’t sufficient for a college. We need to mention the courses as well.

A course can have only one instructor, but an instructor can have multiple classes. You’d need to add this information to the database system as well. You can make this project more advanced by adding the course enrollment information. 

You can add the enrollment information of the students as to how many students have taken a particular course. 

The system should allow easy access. Your developed DBMS-based solution would allow a college to save a lot of time and resources; moreover, the user could see all the college information from one place and modify it accordingly. 

Along with that, colleges or universities hold a lot of sensitive information about their students’ such as-

These kinds of personal information need to be secured from online theft and unauthorised access. The security of this information is the responsibility of the college and universities. And this is why the university management system is one of the important topics for database projects.

The sub-topics could include-

university database management

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5. library data management.

If you’re an avid reader, then chances are, you must’ve gone to a library. And you may already know how many books a library has to keep track of. Libraries don’t have a lot of staff, but they have to keep a record of all the books they have and the books they have lent. You can simplify the management of a library’s data. 

You should start with students and faculties, i.e., people can get books from the library. Now, there would be a significant difference between the number of books a student can get and the number of books a faculty can get. So, add those limits in your system as well. Then, every book would have a unique ID.

Books with the same title and author would have different IDs according to their copies. You’ll have to add entries for every book. And then, add the details of who issued the book and when with the duration of their ownership. Your DBMS-based solution should also have details on the books that people haven’t returned and the due fines. 

Along with keeping the labeling organised for the books, it is equally necessary to modify the data and keep constant track of the books which keeps getting published and returned. Also keeping the track of the worn-out books, restock, newly added books, etc. Along with that, libraries also maintain the data genrewise. All of these constitute the library database management system that helps the libraries run their operations on autopilot and also helps the librarians.

library database management system

Read:  SQL Project Ideas for Beginners

6. Solution for Saving Student Records

You can build a solution that saves student records for an educational institution. Handling student records is no easy feat. You need to keep their name, subjects, fees, any provision of concession, and their academic progress. A DBMS-based solution will allow the client to save a lot of time and effort.

Your design goal should be to have separate files for each student where the data will store information about the student. You can start by adding the following sections:

It’s one of the easy database project ideas. You can take it a step further, and add the option to include students of different grades or sections. Your designed system should allow the admin to enter the details mentioned above. And the admin should be able to access it easily. 

7. Hospital Data Management

Hospitals have unique data requirements. Not only do they have to maintain the medical records of their patients, but they also have to manage their staff and its multiple departments. You can solve the data-related problems of hospitals by creating a DBMS solution. 

First, you should assign unique IDs to the patients and store the relevant information under the same. You’ll have to add the patient’s name, personal details, contact number, disease name, and the treatment the patient is going through. You’ll also have to mention under which hospital department the patient is (such as cardiac, gastro, etc.).

After that, you should add information about the hospital’s doctors. A doctor can treat multiple patients, and he/she would have a unique ID as well. Doctors would also be classified into different departments. 

Patients would get admitted into rooms, so you’ll need to add that information to your database too. Apart from that, there would be distinct rooms (ICUs and Operation Theaters) in the hospital. Then, you’d have to add the information of ward boys and nurses working in the hospital and assigned to different rooms. 

You can start with a small hospital and expand it as you move on. Make sure that the data is easily understandable and accessible. 

Also, the hospitals have a lot of information with them such as the patient’s history, pharmacy, test results, number of beds, information about the helping staff, etc. All of this data needs to be managed as they are crucial to the hospital’s operations and helps in its smooth functioning. This database management helps in routine or emergency visits as well. 

DBMS in the healthcare industry

8. Blood Donation Management

You can create a database project for a blood donation clinic. You should start by adding donor names and assigning them unique IDs. Add their details and relevant information such as blood type, medical report, and contact number. Similarly, add patient names with unique IDs, details on their medical conditions, and blood types. 

After you’ve created a database of patients and donors, you can work on a database for the blood bank. There, you’ll have to add the name of the blood bank, its staff details, operating hours, and address. 

DBMS is helpful in the blood donation industry by keeping the track of the acceptors and donations. This helps the hospital in keeping a record of the blood donors as well in case of any emergency. And also to help them keep track of the storage.

9. Payroll Management Solution

Managing payroll is one of the most crucial aspects of an organization. So you can create a database solution for this purpose as well. Here, you’ll first have to assign a unique ID to every employee. And then, you’ll need to add the details of the same employee, such as their name, role, department, etc. You’ll have to add information on the unpaid salary of the employee, and the date on which the salary has to be released. Similarly, you’ll have to add the time from which the salary is due. 

After that, the database would need the information on the HRA, DA, medical allowance, and other additions to the basic pay. Similarly, you’ll need to add data on the deductions you need to make (if there are any) such as extra leaves. You can add more difficulty to the project by creating a management solution for a significant organization. In this one, make sure that you add the departmental details of the employee under his/her ID. 

Also read: Web Developing Project Ideas For Beginners

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Learn more about dbms.

We’ve concluded our database project ideas. If you want to learn more about databases and DBMS-based solutions, then we recommend heading to our blog. 

We hope you will have an excellent learning opportunity in executing these projects. If you are interested to learn more about DBMS, Full-stack management and need mentorship from industry experts, check out upGrad & IIIT Banglore’s Executive PG Program Full-Stack Software Development .

Is there a similarity between DBMS and SQL?

Database Management System (DBMS) software applications essentially structure and organize data files to provide easy access and standard data assortment. It essentially categorizes the data system so that the user can derive the required information from heaps of data. While Structured Query Language (SQL) isn’t a database management tool, it’s a programming tool that helps access the database. It is linked to the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), wherein specific user queries are processed to retrieve desired data from the system.

How should a database be designed?

Database Management Systems (DBMS) have made data storage and retrieval much more accessible. Any DBMS needs to have an excellent design for the data to be stored systematically. The DBMS must be designed so that users can access and navigate through the system quickly. A good design ensures uniformity in the data structure to create a reliable DBMS. It should strategize data to avoid duplication of results and increased storage usage. Data design focuses on creating a simple design structure to prevent complexity in locating data and reduce DBMS maintenance.

Is DBMS better than a file system?

A file system is essentially categorized as a Database Management System (DBMS) owing to its purpose. However, compared to DBMS, a file system stores data comparatively primordially. Files are taken and stored categorically; however, like DBMS, their relevancy or connection is not mapped out. Hence, retrieval of files gives a limited search result without deep profiling of the particular file. The file system doesn’t manage repeated data files and update data files from different users either. This creates redundancy in the data system and increases storage usage. The file system categorizes data but doesn’t store it in desirable categories.

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Online Programming Lessons, Tutorials and Capstone Project guide

40 List of DBMS Project Topics and Ideas

Introduction

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A Capstone project is the last project of an IT degree program. It is made up of one or more research projects in which students create prototypes, services, and/or products. The projects are organized around an issue that needs to be handled in real-world scenarios. When IT departments want to test new ideas or concepts that will be adopted into their daily operations, they implement these capstone projects within their services.

In this article, our team has compiled a list of Database Management System Project Topics and Ideas. The capstone projects listed below will assist future researchers in deciding which capstone project idea to pursue. Future researchers may find the information in this page useful in coming up with unique capstone project ideas.

  “Telemedicine Online Platform” is designed to allow doctors to deliver clinical support to patients remotely. Doctors can communicate with their patients in real-time for consultations, diagnoses, monitoring, and medical supply prescriptions. The project will be developed using the SDLC method by the researchers. The researchers will also compile a sample of hospital doctors and patients who will act as study participants. A panel of IT specialists will review, test, and assess the project.

Counseling is a vital component of a person’s life since it aids in the improvement of interpersonal relationships. Humans must cease ignoring this issue because it is essential for the development of mental wellness. The capstone project “Virtual and Remote Guidance Counselling System,” which covers the gap in giving counseling in stressful situations, was built for this reason. It answers to the requirement to fill in the gaps in the traditional technique and make it more effective and immersive in this way.

COVID – 19 has put people in fear due to its capability of transmission when exposed to the virus. The health sectors and the government provide isolation facilities for COVID-19 patients to mitigate the spread and transmission of the virus. However, proper communication for the availability of the facilities is inefficient resulting to surge of patients in just one facility and some are transferred multiple times due to unavailability. The COVID-19 respondents must have an advance tools to manage the COVID-19 facilities where respondents can easily look for available facilities to cater more patients.

The capstone project, “Document Tracking System” is purposely designed for companies and organizations that allow them to electronically store and track documents. The system will track the in/out of the documents across different departments. The typical way of tracking documents is done using the manual approach. The staff will call or personally ask for updates about the documents which are time-consuming and inefficient.

Technology has grown so fast; it changes the way we do our daily tasks. Technology has made our daily lives easier. The capstone project, entitled “Face Recognition Attendance System” is designed to automate checking and recording of students’ attendance during school events using face recognition technology. The system will work by storing the student’s information along with their photographs in a server and the system will detect the faces of the students during school events and match it and verify to record the presence or absence of the student.

The capstone project, named “Digital Wallet Solution,” is intended to allow people to store money online and make payments online. The digital wallet transactions accept a variety of currencies and provide a variety of payment gateways via which the user can pay for products and services. The system allows users to conduct secure and convenient online financial transactions. It will speed up payment and other financial processes, reducing the amount of time and effort required to complete them.

The usage of technology is an advantage in the business industry, especially during this challenging pandemic. It allows businesses to continue to operate beyond physicality. The capstone project entitled “Virtual Online Tour Application” is designed as a platform to streamline virtual tours for clients. Any business industry can use the system to accommodate and provide their clients with a virtual experience of their business. For example, the tourist industry and real estate agencies can use the system to provide a virtual tour to their clients about the tourist locations and designs of properties, respectively.

The researchers will create a system that will make it easier for companies to manage and keep track of their invoice information. The company’s sales records, payables, and total invoice records will all be electronically managed using this project. Technology is highly used for business operations and transactions automation. The capstone project, entitled “Invoice Management System” is designed to automate the management of the company’s invoice records. The said project will help companies to have an organized, accurate, and reliable record that will help them track their sales and finances.

Information Technology has become an integral part of any kind of business in terms of automating business operations and transactions. The capstone project, entitled “Vehicle Repair and Maintenance Management System” is designed for vehicle repair and maintenance management automation. The said project will automate the vehicle garage’s operations and daily transactions. The system will automate operations such as managing vehicle repair and maintenance records, invoice records, customer records, transaction records, billing and payment records, and transaction records.

The capstone project, entitled “Multi-Branch Travel Agency and Booking System,” is designed as a centralized platform wherein multiple travel agency branches are registered to ease and simplify inquiries and booking of travels and tour packages by clients. The said project will allow travel agencies to operate a business in an easy, fast manner considering the convenience and safety of their clients. The system will enable travel agencies and their clients to have a seamless online transaction.

The capstone project “Pharmacy Stocks Management System” allows pharmacies to manage and monitor their stocks of drugs electronically. The Pharmacy Stocks Management System will automate inventory to help ensure that the pharmacy has enough stock of medications and supplies to serve the needs of the patients.

The capstone project entitled “ Loan Management System with SMS ” is an online platform that allows members to apply and request loan. In addition, they can also monitor their balance in their respective dashboard. Management of cooperative will review first the application for approval or disapproval of the request. Notification will be send through the SMS or short messaging service feature of the system.

The capstone project, entitled ” Service Call Management System,” is designed to transform service calls to a centralized platform. The said project would allow clients to log in and lodge calls to the tech support if they encountered issues and difficulties with their purchased products. The tech support team will diagnose the issue and provide them with the necessary actions to perform via a call to solve the problem and achieve satisfaction.

The File Management System provides a platform for submitting, approving, storing, and retrieving files. Specifically, the capstone project is for the file management of various business organizations. This is quite beneficial in the management and organization of the files of every department. Installation of the system on an intranet is possible, as is uploading the system to a live server, from which the platform can be viewed online and through the use of a browser.

The capstone project entitled “Beauty Parlour Management System” is an example of transactional processing system that focuses on the records and process of a beauty parlour. This online application will help the management to keep and manage their transactions in an organize, fast and efficient manner.

Information technology plays a significant role in the teaching and learning process of teachers and students, respectively. IT offers a more efficient and convenient way for teachers and students to learn and assess learnings. The capstone project, “Exam Management System,” is designed to allow electronic management of all the information about the exam questions, courses and subjects, and teachers and students. The said project is an all-in-one platform for student exam management.

The capstone project, entitled “Student and Faculty Clearance System,” is designed to automate students and faculty clearance processes. The approach is intended to make the clearance procedure easier while also guaranteeing that approvals are accurate and complete. The project works by giving every Department involved access to the application. The proposed scheme can eliminate the specified challenges, streamline the process, and verify the integrity and correctness of the data.

The capstone project entitled “ Vehicle Parking Management System ” is an online platform that allows vehicle owners to request or reserve a slot for parking space. Management can accept and decline the request of reservation. In addition, payment option is also part of the system feature but is limited to on-site payment.

The capstone project, “Hospital Resources and Room Utilization Management System” is a system designed to streamline the process of managing hospital resources and room utilization. The said project is critical especially now that we are facing a pandemic, there is a need for efficient management of hospital resources and room management. The management efficiency will prevent a shortage in supplies and overcrowding of patients in the hospitals.

The capstone project entitled “Church Event Management System” is designed to be used by church organizations in creating and managing different church events. The conventional method of managing church events is done manually where members of organizations will face difficulties due to physical barriers and time constraints.

The proposed software will be used to electronically process and manage vehicle and franchising and driver’s offenses. The proposed software will eliminate the manual method which involves a lot of paper works and consumes valuable amount of time. The proposed project will serve as a centralized platform was recording and paying for the offenses committed by the drivers will be processed. The system will quicken the process of completing transaction between the enforcers and the drivers. Vehicle franchising and managing driver offenses will be easy, fast and convenient using the system.

The capstone project entitled “Student Academic Performance Tracking and Monitoring System” allows academic institutions to monitor and gather data about the academic performance of students where decisions are derived to further improve the students learning outcomes. Tracking and monitoring student’s performance serves a vital role in providing information that is used to assist students, teachers, administrators, and policymakers in making decisions that will further improve the academic performance of students.

The capstone project, entitled “Webinar Course Management System,” is designed to automate managing webinar courses. The project aims to eliminate the current method, which is inefficient and inconvenient for parties involved in the webinar. A software development life cycle (SDLC) technique will be used by the researchers in order to build this project. They will gather a sample size of participating webinar members and facilitators to serve as respondents of the study.

The capstone project, “Online Birth Certificate Processing System with SMS Notification “ is an IT-based solution that aims to automate the process of requesting, verifying, and approving inquiries for original birth records. The system will eliminate the traditional method and transition the birth certificate processing into an easy, convenient, and efficient manner. The researchers will develop the project following the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) technique.

Information technology plays a significant role in automating the operations of many companies to boost efficiency. One of these is the automation of food donation and distribution management. “Food Donation Services,” the capstone project, is intended to serve as a platform for facilitating transactions between food groups, donors, and recipients. Food banks will be able to respond to various food donations and food assistance requests in a timely and effective manner as a result of the project.

The capstone project “City COVID-19 Profiling System with Decision Support” is designed to automate the process of profiling COVID-19 patients. The project will empower local health officers in electronically recording and managing COVID-19 patient information such as symptoms, travel history, and other critical details needed to identify patients. Manual profiling is prone to human mistakes, necessitates a lot of paperwork, and needs too much time and effort from the employees.

Calamities can have a significant impact on society. It may result in an enormous number of people being evacuated. The local government unit assigned evacuation centers to provide temporary shelter for people during disasters. Evacuation centers are provided to give temporary shelter for the people during and after a calamity. Evacuation centers can be churches, sports stadium community centers, and much more that are capable to provide emergency shelter.

The capstone project, “QR Code Fare Payment System” is designed to automate the procedure of paying for a fare when riding a vehicle. Passengers will register in the system to receive their own QR code, which they will use to pay for their fares by scanning in the system’s QR code scanning page. The project will enable cashless fare payment.

The capstone project entitled “Web-Based Psychopathology Diagnosis System” is designed for patients and medical staff in the field of psychopathology. The system will be a centralized platform to be used by patients and psychopathologists for consultations. The said project will also keep all the records electronically. Mental health is important. Each individual must give importance to their mental health by paying attention to it and seek medical advice if symptoms of mental disorders and unusual behavior occur.

The capstone project, “Services Marketplace System” is designed to serve as a centralized platform for marketing and inquiring about different services. The system will serve as a platform where different service providers and customers will have an automated transaction. Technology made it easier for people to accomplish daily tasks and activities. In the conventional method, customers avail themselves of services by visiting the shop that offers their desired services personally.

The capstone project, entitled “Fish Catch Monitoring System” will automate the process of recording and monitoring fish catches. The said project is intended to be used by fisherman and fish markets to accurately record fish catches and will also keep the records electronically safe and secure.

The capstone project, “Complaint Handling Management System” is a system designed to help educational institutions to handle and manage complaints electronically. The system will improve the response time of the school’s management in addressing the complaints of the students, parents, staff, and other stakeholders.

The system will replace the manual method of managing information and records of the senior citizen to an electronic one. The system will serve as a repository of the record of the senior citizen within the scope of a specific local government unit. By using the system, paper works will be lessened and human errors in file handling will be avoided. The system is efficient enough to aid in managing and keeping the records of the senior citizens in the different barangay.

The “Online and SMS Based Salary Notification” is a capstone project intended to be used by companies and employees to automate the process of notifying salary details. The application will work by allowing the designated company encoder to encode details of salary and the employees to log in to his/her account in the application and have access to the details of his/her salary. One of the beauties of being employed is being paid. Employers manage the employee’s salary and are responsible to discuss with the employees the system of the salary and deductions.

The capstone project, “Maternal Records Management System” is a system that automates the process of recording and keeping maternal records. The said project will allow maternity clinics to track and monitor their patients’ records from pregnancy to their baby’s immunization records.

Online Complaint Management System is a capstone project that is design to serve as a platform to address complaints and resolve disputes. The system provides an online way of resolving problems faced by the public or people within the organization. The system will make complaints easier to coordinate, monitor, track and resolve.

The capstone project ,  “Online Donation Platform for DSWD” is an online platform for giving and asking donations in the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). The system will be managed by the staffs of the DSWD to verify donors and legible beneficiaries electronically. The system will have an SMS feature to notify the donors and beneficiaries about the status of their request.

The capstone project, “OJT Timesheet Monitoring System using QR Code” allows employer to automate timesheet of each trainee for easy monitoring. The system will be used by the on-the-job trainees to serve as their daily time in and out using the QR code generated by the system. The entire system will be managed by the administrator.

Technology is attributed with driving change in a wide range of enterprises and institutions. Because of information technology, the world has altered dramatically. It is difficult to imagine an industry or organization that has not benefited from technology advances. In these businesses, the most common role of IT has been to automate numerous procedures and transactions in order to increase efficiency and improve people’s overall experience and satisfaction. The aforementioned capstone project ideas will be useful in a range of sectors. It will aid in enhancing operational efficiency as well as the services provided to the project’s users.

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How to build a Project Management Application in PHP & MySQL from scratch

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Trying to find a project management application is a daunting task: you want a system with powerful features and you must get a buy-in from your colleagues. Most of the time, you wind up with a bloated system filled with features you’ll never use.

The good news is that it turns out it is not that difficult to build one from scratch yourself. After reading this tutorial, you should have a clean, well-designed project management application up and running in less than an hour.

What IS a Project Management Application?

A project management application is a software system used for project planning, resource allocation, tracking of project components, and change management.

In this tutorial, we are going to build a simple project management system in PHP which employees and managers can use for collaboration and communication between project stakeholders.

What is IN a Project Management Application?

We will be creating a simple and easily customizable PM system to tracks projects, including milestones, tasks, hours, costs, and more. Since every project is unique, this tutorial merely means to build an application foundation; you should be able to easily extend it based on your requirements.

In our project management application, employees will be able to:

Managers will be able to:

The Building Blocks of a Project Management System

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Here are the primary functions of a project management system:

System Requirements

Creating a Project Management Database

We will start by creating our project management database. The main tables we will use are:

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Other tables ( lookup tables):

Complete Database Schema Diagram

A database schema is the structure that represents the logical view of the entire database: tables, views, and primary and foreign keys. A database schema includes all entities and the relationships between them.

Below is the database diagram of our simple project management application. The key symbol in each table represents the table’s primary key while the magnifying glass indicates a foreign key linking it to another table (lookup table) in the database.

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simple_pm_install.sql

Once you have an understanding of the database’s table structure, obtain the simple_pm_install.sql sql script from this tutorial’s GitHub repo, and then execute the sql script using a MySQL tool such as MySQL Workbench or Sequel Pro. This will create a new database named simple_pm and tables we need in this tutorial.

Setup phpGrid

Our simple project management contains many DataGrids. The DataGrid is a spreadsheet-like data table which displays rows and columns representing records and fields from the database table. The DataGrid provides the end-user with the ability to read and write to the database tables on a web page.

To create the DataGrid, we use a dataGrid tool from phpGrid . The reason why we use a tool instead of building our grids from scratch is that developing a DataGrid in php is usually extremely tedious and prone to errors. The phpGrid DataGrid library will handle all internal database CRUD (Create, Remove, Update, and Delete) operations for us offering faster and better results with minimal coding.

To install phpGrid, follow these steps:

Before we begin coding, we must include the following information in `conf.php` the phpGrid configuration file. Here is an example of the database connection settings:

Page Template

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Our page will be comprised of a header , menu , body , and footer . Instead of creating the same page elements repeatedly, we will start by creating a reusable page template.

This is a basic HTML5 template header; it includes a link to a custom stylesheet that will be created in a later step.

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Notice the usage of $_GET['currentPage'] . Each page will set a value that will highlight the name of the current page on the top menu bar.

Include the following code in style.css for menu styling; it will transform the above unordered list into a menu.

Simply includes the closing tags for the elements we opened in the header:

Our Complete Reusable Page Template

The main content will go after the section title.

Project Management Main Pages

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Our project management application for managers has four pages:

Client Details

Project details.

The Clients page displays a list of clients with links to individual client details ( Client Details page).

The Projects page displays a list of projects being managed with links to project details ( Project Details page).

Design Mockup

Here is our project management application design mockup for project managers who manage one or more projects and assign tasks to employees.

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When a manager logs in to the project management system, the first page he sees is the Clients page which contains a complete list of companies.

The following code will give us a list of clients.

You can find out more demos below using those functions:

Display Dynamic URL | phpGrid From example above, we learn that phpGrid can display simple, static URL using set_col_link() method. However, it is… phpgrid.com CRUD PHP Datagrid (Editable Datagrid) * | phpGrid The PHP datagrid is not editable by default. You can enable edit by simply calling enable_edit(). Whala! phpgrid.com

From the Clients page, the client name has a hyperlink that redirects to the Client Details page for that client when clicked.

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From the Client Details page, we need to obtain the Client ID that is passed as the URL parameter.

In our application, the Client ID should always be an integer. Thus, we use the PHP intval() function to ensure the Client ID is returned as an integer.

The following code displays projects associated with the current $clientId using the filter function set_query_filter() . In addition, we make the DataGrid editable with the enable_edit() function; phpGrid will take care of any CRUD operations for us.

Client Details > Proje cts

As you may notice, we again use the same function, set_col_dynalink() , to create hyperlinks to the Project Details table using the Project ID. We will get into the project-details.php page next.

Client Details > Conta cts

Under the Projects DataGrid, a list of contacts associated with the $clientid is displayed using the same functions set_query_filter() and enable_edit() .

Now, let’s build the Projects page.

The Projects page displays a list of managed projects. It is very similar to the Clients page except that the database table is “Projects,” and the hyperlinks have the URL project-details.php instead of client-details.php .

From the Projects page, each project name has a hyperlink which redirects to each individual Project Details page when clicked.

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And from the Project Details page, we retrieve the Project ID for the URL parameter.

Look familiar? Because it is! It should because both Projects and Project Details pretty much follow the same coding pattern used in the Clients and Client Details pages; there are not really that many surprises.

The Project Details page is made of the following grids, all filtered by the $projectId obtained from the URL parameter.

A milestone marks a major event in a project timeline. Here, we can easily display all the milestones of a project by filtering the value $projectId . Project managers have the necessary access rights to modify the milestones.

Likewise, we can easily filter and display a list of tasks for the current project.

I think you are probably getting the hang of it now. Here’s the code for the two remaining datagrids.

Employees Page

We can now move on to the final part of the tutorial, the Employees page. Employees can login to view active project tasks assigned to them, track task hours, and costs. Their responsibility is simple: to monitor the tasks and log hours worked on any specific project task.

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The Employees page has only one menu item: Tasks .

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My Active Tasks

The first part of the page shows a list of active tasks assigned to the current employee. Each task will have the hours reported by the current employee; this is a perfect situation in which to use a phpGrid subgrid .

We also need to use set_query_filter() to display only active tasks that have Status value "2", and only for the current employee.

For demo purposes, we hard-coded the Employee ID to 2. In a real-world application, the Employee ID value should be stored and retrieved using PHP SESSION .

We then create the active Tasks DataGrid for the current employee. Notice the filter function.

Once we’ve defined the grid for the active tasks, we create a DataGrid to log the hours reported by the current employee.

Lastly, set_subgrid() causes the Hours DataGrid to become a subgrid of the Tasks DataGrid. The linking field in the Hours subgrid is ‘TaskID’, which is the second parameter, and in the main grid Tasks , it is “id,” the third parameter.

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My Hours History

Lastly, we would like to display a read-only DataGrid using data from the Hours table for the current employee for reviewing purposes.

Notice we used a function called set_jq_gridName() . You can find more documentation here . This function sets a unique object name for the DataGrid. By default, phpGrid uses the database table name as its internal object name. Since we already created a DataGrid from the Hours table in the last part, we must set a unique name for our second Hours DataGrid.

Application Screenshots

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Login as manager | Login as employee

Download Source Code

phpcontrols/phpgrid-project-management phpgrid-project-management — phpGrid Complete Project Management Demo Application github.com

Thanks for reading. If you enjoyed this article, please hit that clap button ? to help others find it and f ollow me on Twitter.

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If this article was helpful, tweet it .

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Top 18 database projects ideas for students.

Top 18 Database Projects Ideas for Students

1. Inventory control management Database Project

Design goals: maintain a proper variety of required items, increase inventory turnover, reduce and maintain optimize inventory and safety stock levels, obtain low raw material prices, reduce storage cost, reduce insurance cost, reduce taxes.

Looking for Database Homework Help ?

2. Student Record Keeping System Database Project

Design goals: a student file that contains the information about the student, a stream file, a marks file, a fee file, concession/scholarship, etc.

3. Online Retail Application Database Project

A customer can register to purchase an item. The customer will provide the bank account number and bank name (can have multiple account numbers). After registration, each customer will have a unique customer, user id, and password. A customer can purchase one or more items in different quantities. The items can of different classes based on their prices.

Based on the quantity, the price of the item, and discount (if any) on the purchased items, the bill will be generated. A bank account is required to settle the bill. The items can be ordered from one or more suppliers.

4. College Database Project

A college contains many departments. Each department can offer any number of courses. Many instructors can work in a department, but an instructor can work only in one department. For each department, there is an ahead, and an instructor can be the head of only one department. Each instructor can take any number of courses, and a course can be taken by only one instructor.

A student can enroll in any number of courses and each course can have any number of students.

5. Railway System Database Project

A railway system, which needs to model the following:

You can assume for simplicity that each train reaches its destination on the same day and that every train runs every day. Also, for simplicity, assume that for each train, for each station on its route, you store.

6. Hospital Management System Database Project

A patient will have a unique Patient ID. Full description about the patient about personal detail and phone number, and then Disease and what treatment is going on. The doctor will handle patients, one doctor can Treat more than 1 patient. Also, each doctor will have a unique ID. Doctor and Patients will be related. Patients can be admitted to the hospital.

So different room numbers will be there, also rooms for Operation Theaters and ICU.  There are some nurses, and ward boys for the maintenance of the hospital and for patient take care.  Based upon the number of days and treatment bill will be generated.

Check Hospital Management System Project

7. Library Management System Database Project

A student and faculty can issue books. Different limits for the number of books a student and teacher can issue. Also, the number of days will be distinct in the case of students and teachers for issue any book.  Each book will have a different ID. Also, each book of the same name and same author (but the number of copies) will have a different ID.

Entry of all the book will be done, who issue that book and when and also duration. Detail of Fine (when the book is not returned at a time) is also stored.

You can also check these posts:

8. Payroll Management System Database Project

There will entry (Unique ID) of all the employees of any organization. According to the date of joining and the date up to which salary is created, the number of days will be entered.  Basic pay will be defined according to the post of employee and department. Then component like DA, HRA, medical allowance, Arrears will be added, and Charges of Hostel/Bus, Security, welfare fund and other will be deducted. The number of leaves taken by the employee.

9. Healthcare organization Database Project

This organization provides the following functionalities:

Any new Patient is first registered in their database before meeting the doctor. The Doctor can update the data related to the patient upon diagnosis (Including the disease diagnosed and prescription). This organization also provides rooms facility for admitting the patient who is critical. Apart from doctors, this organization has nurses and ward boys.

Each nurse and ward boy is assigned to a doctor. Also, they can be assigned to patients (to take care of them). The bill is paid by the patient with cash and E-banking. The record of each payment made is also maintained by the organization. The record of each call received to provide help and support to its existing person is also maintained.

Check Clinic Management System Project

10. Restaurant Management Database Project

11. Design a Scenario and An Er Diagram for An It Training Group Database Project

It will meet the information needs of its training program. Clearly indicate the entities, relationships, and key constraints.

The description of the environment is as follows:

12. Blood Donation System Database Project

A system in which data of patient, data of donor, data of blood bank would be saved and will be interrelation with each other.

Data of Patient – Patient Name, Patient Id, Patient Blood Group, Patent Disease. Data of Donar – Donar Name, Donar Id, Donar Bood Group, Donar Medical report, Donar Address, Donar Contact number. Data of Blood Bank – Blood Bank Name, Blood Bank Address, Blood bank Donor’s name, Blood Bank Contact Number, Blood Bank Address.

Try to implement such scenario in a database, create a schema for it, an ER diagram for it and try to normalize it.

13. Art Gallery Management Database Project

Design an E-R Diagram for an Art Gallery. Gallery keeps the information about “Artist” their Name, Birthplace, Age & Style of Art about “Art Work,” Artist, the year it was made, Unique title, Type of art & Prices must be stored. The piece of artwork is classified into various kinds like Poetess, Work of the 19th century still life, etc.

Gallery keeps the information about Customers as their Unique name, Address, Total amount of Dollars, they spent on Gallery, and liking of Customers.

14. Hotel Management System Database Project

A hotel is a hive of numerous operations such as front office, booking, and reservation, banquet, finance, HR, inventory, material management, quality management, security, energy management, housekeeping, CRM, and more.  The hotel has some rooms, and these rooms are of different categories. By room category, each room has a different price.

A hotel has some employees to manage the services provided to customers. The customer can book the room either online or by cash payment at the hotel. The customer record is stored in the hotel database which contains customer identity, his address, check-in time, check-out time, etc. hotel provides food and beverages to their customers and generates the bill for this at the time of their check out.

15. School Management System Database Project

Design a database to maintain information about school staff ( staff management system in Ms access ) and students satisfying the following properties:

16. Wholesale Management System Database Project

17. Salary Management System Database Project

18. Atm Management System Database Project

Think about yourself and write in the comment. I will pick the best one from the comments and publish it here.

Do you need my expertise?

Are you worried about your Database Project? Don’t worry, I can help you out.I am specialized in multiple rational database management systems (Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, MS Access). I have done 4567+ database projects till 30 November 2022. 99% of Students, who used my help got A+ Grade. I also have great experience in other programming stuffs (Java, PHP, Android, Python, Swift, Objective-C, Machine Learning, Linux, WordPress Website Development, Operating System and Many More), I am still learning something new. You can also contact for Professional Software Development and Android App Development. I can also implement your Database Project with Desktop and Web Interface . Just contact me now , I am eagerly waiting to see your reply.

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Database Design in DBMS Tutorial: Learn Data Modeling

What is database design.

Database Design is a collection of processes that facilitate the designing, development, implementation and maintenance of enterprise data management systems. Properly designed database are easy to maintain, improves data consistency and are cost effective in terms of disk storage space. The database designer decides how the data elements correlate and what data must be stored.

The main objectives of database design in DBMS are to produce logical and physical designs models of the proposed database system.

The logical model concentrates on the data requirements and the data to be stored independent of physical considerations. It does not concern itself with how the data will be stored or where it will be stored physically.

The physical data design model involves translating the logical DB design of the database onto physical media using hardware resources and software systems such as database management systems (DBMS).

In this Database design tutorial, you will learn-

Why Database Design is Important ?

Database development life cycle, requirements analysis, database designing, implementation.

It helps produce database systems

Database design process in DBMS is crucial for high performance database system.

Note, the genius of a database is in its design. Data operations using SQL is relatively simple

Database Design Tutorial: Learn Data Modeling

The database development life cycle has a number of stages that are followed when developing database systems.

The steps in the development life cycle do not necessarily have to be followed religiously in a sequential manner.

On small database systems, the process of database design is usually very simple and does not involve a lot of steps.

In order to fully appreciate the above diagram, let’s look at the individual components listed in each step for overview of design process in DBMS.

Two Types of Database Techniques

Let’s study them one by one

You Might Like:

database design for project management system

The Best Project Management Software for 2023

We tested more than 25 project management apps to find the best ones to help teams of all sizes keep projects on track and deliver results.

Jill Duffy

I've been contributing to PCMag since 2011, at times as an analyst and currently as deputy managing editor for the software team. My column, Get Organized , has been running on PCMag since 2012. It gives advice on how to manage all the devices, apps, digital photos, email, and other technology that can make you feel like you're going to have a panic attack.

Zoho Projects

Liquidplanner.

Let's say you're building a house. It's a complex process and some tasks must be done in a particular order. You can't install windows if you haven't put up the walls yet. You probably have dozens of people working on the house, and you have to know which days they are available to pour the foundation, lay the tile, and so forth. Then you have to schedule them based not only on their availability but also on each task happening in the right order. The way to manage a complex project like this one—including all the jobs that need to be done by whom and when—is to use project management software.

We're here to tell you about the best project management apps we've tested and what makes each one unique. Below our recommendations, you'll find more information on what project management software is and advice on how to shop for the right app for your team.

The Best Project Management Software Deals This Week*

*Deals are selected by our commerce team

Best for Beginners

Who it's for.

GanttPro is one of the best project management apps for beginners. That also means it's a great pick for teams, especially small teams, that don't have an expert in project management on hand to run their projects for them. It does not have customizable reports and dashboards that larger teams may need, however.

Why We Picked It

With reasonable pricing, an interface that anyone can learn to use, and a good balance of features, GanttPro is one of the best project management apps. We also appreciate that it includes custom fields for tasks, a kanban board view, and a critical path feature, as well as a save history that allows you to do multiple undos.

Best for Client Work

If your business takes on projects for clients, then Teamwork is one of the best project management apps you'll find. It comes with billing and invoicing included, so it's easy to track hours worked on a project and know what to bill.

Before Teamwork became focused on organizations that take on client work, it was already a superbly designed project management platform. If you are new to project management, you could spend a bit of time using Teamwork and watching some of its excellent video tutorials to learn enough to use it in practice.

Best for Small and Growing Teams

Zoho Projects is a low-cost project management app with an array of helpful features, which makes it an attractive option for small and growing businesses. Its tiered pricing, with attractively low rates, is also targeted at organizations that are on a budget and those that expect to grow quickly.

We picked Zoho Projects as one of the best project management apps because it offers excellent value. It's easy to set up and navigate, offers deep configuration options, and includes the option to track time worked. You can make your own project templates in Zoho Projects, but the app does not come with its own set of templates.

Celoxis is one of the best project management apps for medium and large organizations. This app provides ample reports and other tools that give decision-makers and business owners value. For example, you can use Celoxis to not only work most efficiently by adjusting project schedules, but also to forecast revenue.

Celoxis is reasonably easy to use, with a short setup time. Medium to large businesses will like that it includes time tracking, budgeting, and resource management tools.

Best for Automated Scheduling

While LiquidPlanner can be a great project management app for teams of any size, we think it's especially well suited to larger teams working on complex projects. One reason is because LiquidPlanner's area of specialization is automated scheduling. If a pain point for your organization is scheduling people to take on certain tasks at specific times, then LiquidPlanner can help. This app comes with ample tools for automatically fixing project schedules when tasks slip or when workers are suddenly unavailable.

LiquidPlanner is impressive at managing projects, tasks, workloads, and more. It can automatically and dynamically schedule work for your whole team, even as factors change—which may not be everyone's cup of tea. If you're open to what LiquidPlanner offers, this app can project best- and worst-case scenarios for projects and tasks, dish up rich management and insight tools, and give you the tools you need for time-tracking—as long as you opt for a Professional or Ultimate plan.

Best for Proofing

ProofHub is a project management app for team that including proofing stages as part of their workflow. In other words, if your team evaluates or critiques visual materials—whether ad campaigns or mobile app designs—ProofHub has tools that other project management apps lack to help you through those processes. More specifically, it has markup tools you can use to draw on PDFs and image files while you give feedback or otherwise collaborate on them with your team.

ProofHub aims for simplicity without skimping on core features. It's also competitively priced for small teams. This app is also surprisingly easy to use, making it great for teams that don't have a dedicated project manager.

Best for Open-Source Project Management

Redmine is the go-to project management app for anyone who wants a free and open-source option—but you also need to have people on hand that know how to install and maintain it. Redmine is not an off-the-shelf project management app. It's focused on projects that include issue- and bug-tracking.

While Redmine isn't for everyone, we chose it as one of the best project management apps because it's free and open source, which is a rarity in the project management world.

Best for Automations

Smartsheet is the project management app for people who like to increase productivity through automations. That means you're willing to put in the time to set up "if this, then that" type commands that Smartsheet carries out for you automatically. For example, you might have an automation that says, "When someone marks a task as blocked, and the task status is 'in progress' or 'for review,' then alert the person assigned as the manager for that task." Most other project management apps don't have automation options built into them, though sometimes you can create them using third-party tools, such as Zapier . One note about Smartsheet: to get time-tracking, budgeting, and resource management, you need companion software that come with added fees.

If you're willing to put in the time to learn what Smartsheet can do and customize it to your needs, it's very powerful. It might become your go-to tool not only for project management but also for other collaborative business.

Best for Easy Entry Into Gantt Charts

TeamGantt is for beginners because it's so easy and intuitive to use. If you don't know anything about Gantt charts, you will quickly and painlessly learn while using TeamGantt. We like this app best for small teams who may not have a dedicated project manager on hand. TeamGantt doesn't have budgeting or invoicing tools, which is another reason it's better suited to small teams rather than large ones.

TeamGantt has lovely interactive Gantt charts that are incredibly easy to learn to use. The app has exceptional tutorial content to help you learn anything you don't know. We also love a feature that automatically corrects any errors created among dependencies.

Best for Managing Projects and Ongoing Work

Wrike has a few plan types that are targeted at very specific types of teams, namely marketing and creative industries, and professional service teams. Wrike is very good at what it does, so long as you put in some time to pick the right plan and learn its features—expect to work with Wrike's customer support on this process, rather than merely paying for an account and setting up the app on your own. In that sense, Wrike is for larger teams that have the time and resources to dedicate at least one person to work with Wrike during setup.

Wrike is a powerful tool in both the categories of project management and collaboration software . Now owned by Citrix, Wrike supports team collaboration, work management, and project management, and it continues to grow by adding new work intelligence features that can, for example, predict when a project is at risk of falling behind and call attention to possible causes.

What Is Project Management Software?

Project management software is a type of online collaborative app. All the people who are working on a project login and see what they're supposed to do and when. These workers also record their progress on those tasks and add relevant details, such as notes about any changes. With the appropriate permission level, people can also see what everyone else is doing, what requirements must be met for them to get it done, and when.

For the person or people managing the project, the project management app provides a clear overview of the project and its health. Are all the tasks on track to be completed on time? If one task is late, how does it affect the projected deadlines of other tasks? Is someone available to pick up an urgent task if the person assigned to do it is ill? Plus, if the project management app supports tracking finances, the app will also tell the people in charge whether the project is running on budget.

How We Choose the Best Project Management Software

For this roundup of the best project management apps, we evaluated and tested more than 25 project management platforms and have included here the products with the highest scores. Inclusion is based on PCMag's independent testing and evaluation . In determining scores, we consider the needs of a variety of business types, including small businesses on a budget and large organizations that need to manage many projects, people, and budgets simultaneously.

For this category, we stick to traditional project management apps only. These apps are specifically created to manage projects, rather than ongoing work. A project is a set of work with a start date, an end date, and a deliverable.

To be included in this roundup, the app must offer Gantt charts , which is a type of timeline view that's commonly used in project management. All the apps included here also have other standard tools in addition to Gantt charts for tracking, organizing, and scheduling project-based work.

There are many other excellent collaboration apps that sometimes get called "project management apps," such as Trello , Basecamp , and Airtable . While some collaboration or work-management apps are very capable at managing certain kinds of work, they aren't necessarily designed for juggling the complexities of dozens or hundreds of projects and their schedules simultaneously. Therefore, we don't include them here.

What Can You Do With Project Management Software?

Project management apps let you track and manage nearly any kind of project, such as the creation of a new product, building a house or website, or launching a marketing campaign. Teams that use project management apps typically track more than one project at a time. The software helps them figure out when to schedule work based on when things need to get done and the human resources available to do them.

The very best project management apps detect problems before they happen. By tracking the progress of work and individual tasks (for example, having completed six hours of a task that's estimated to take a total of eight hours), project management apps can sound an alarm when a deadline is in danger of slipping, but before it actually happens. The most powerful project management apps also offer to automatically reflow the project schedule when tasks do fall off course. They generate reports that give managers insight into which team members have too much or too little work assigned to them. Some let you track project budgets, too, and log billable hours so that you can send invoices to clients for time worked.

What Is the Best Free Project Management Software?

A few of the best project management software systems have free versions. Usually, these free versions are severely limited in some way. For example, you might be allowed to manage only one or two projects at a time or invite only a handful of people to work alongside you. Plus, you usually don't get all the best features of the app in the free version. Still, if you have a small team and need to only manage one or two projects, it might work.

You can get a free account from Zoho Projects, Teamwork, Wrike, TeamGantt, ProofHub, plus a few others that did not make this list, such as AceProject . 

Redmine, which did make this list, is a 100-percent free project management app, but you have to install and maintain it yourself. It's not an off-the-shelf product, but rather an open-source alternative. If you're looking for something simple you can start using right away, Redmine isn't it. For simplicity, you're better off with Zoho Projects, TeamGantt, or AceProject.

What's the Easiest Project Management App to Use?

If you're new to project management and especially if your organization doesn't have a dedicated project manager, you need a project management app that's easy to use. TeamGantt and GanttPro are the easiest project management apps to learn and use. They are both designed for beginners and other people who are inexperienced at project management.

Many of the project management apps we've reviewed are easy to use, provide good video tutorials, and work well for beginners, but after testing dozens of them, we believe GanttPro and TeamGantt are best.

What's the Best Project Management App for Small Business?

If your team needs to manage and track a couple of projects, but you're less concerned with employee scheduling, collecting time sheets to bill clients, and comparing the progress of dozens of projects in development, a low-cost tool such as Zoho Projects (starting at $5 per person per month for Premium) is the best bet. What we especially like about Zoho Projects is that it scales easily if your team ends up growing and needs more features. Zoho, the company, offers a wide range of other business apps that can connect to Zoho Projects to expand what you can do with it.

We also like GanttPRO as a low-cost option. It's one of the easiest tools to use and is great for people who have limited or no prior experience with project management.

There's no need to spend more than about $15 per person per month if you aren't going to use the tools that are unique to more expensive software, so stick with something low-cost.

What's the Best Project Management App for Large Organizations?

Large organizations have starkly different needs than small businesses. Organizations with hundreds or thousands of employees and hundreds of projects use project management apps for scheduling, insights into their resources, budget-tracking, revenue projection, and time-tracking for billing purposes, among other reasons.

For a large company, it's important to be able to manage not just individuals, but also teams. If you have 15 hours of work for a junior designer, and it doesn't matter which junior designer does it, you want to be able to see how much work each junior designer has assigned to them and whether you can free up one of them for the task.

Recommended by Our Editors

For the same reason, all the managers and team leads in your company should be able to see what tasks are high priority and which projects are in danger of slipping so that they can triage accordingly.

If your organization handles complex projects and has many team members collaborating on projects, we recommend Celoxis or LiquidPlanner .

What Project Management Software Has the Best Special Features?

Teams that aren't quite small businesses, but also aren't enormous organizations may have special needs that they want their project management software to address.

Our top pick in this category is Teamwork , which is specialized to handle client work. If your team primarily completes projects as billable work for clients, then Teamwork is the app we recommend using for managing your projects. It includes billing and invoicing, as well as the ability to create intake forms for new projects. Another app called Paymo , which didn't quite score highly enough for this roundup, also has built-in billing and invoicing tools.

There are other areas of specialization for project management software, of course. If you're looking for a tool that can manage both project and non-project work, we recommend Wrike or Celoxis . (LiquidPlanner is a good pick too, but it's best for large groups.) If your team spends a lot of time discussing and iterating visual assets, ProofHub is a great choice. Smartsheet is good for building automations into your project management. 

The Right Project Management Software for Your Team

Choosing the right project management software can take time, but it's worth it to get it right before rolling it out to an entire team. Project management apps typically have a significant setup cost. Even when they are simple to learn to use and let you import data, it still takes time to fine-tune the app to do what you need it to do and then get everyone on board using it.

When deciding which app to use, it's important to consider what kind of work your team does, how many people are in the organization, and how you want to run your business. There are a lot of excellent options to fit every budget.

With a reliable project management app in place, people can collaborate with greater ease on project work. Plus, business owners and team managers can get useful insights into how their teams work, whether projects are on track, and how to guide them back to a successful place when they slip.

Compare Specs The Best Project Management Software for 2023

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Pcmag stories you’ll like, about jill duffy, columnist and deputy managing editor, software.

Jill Duffy

My latest book is The Everything Guide to Remote Work , which goes into great detail about a subject that I've been covering as a writer and participating in personally since well before the COVID-19 pandemic.

I specialize in apps for productivity and collaboration, including project management software. I also test and analyze online learning services, particularly for learning languages.

Prior to working for PCMag, I was the managing editor of Game Developer magazine. I've also worked at the Association for Computing Machinery, The Examiner newspaper in San Francisco, and several other publications.

Follow me on Mastodon . I'm currently on hiatus from Twitter @jilleduffy, but maybe I'll be back. Who knows?

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Top 11 Database Projects To Work On In 2023

Over the last few years, an upsurge has been seen in data-driven decision-making in the modern business world. With the revolutionary development in software technology, with the help of programming languages like SQL (Structured Query Language), extracting and filtering valuable information from the data silos has become easy. Then based on this vital, compelling, and valuable information, many important business decisions are taken. One of the various reasons to learn SQL is that nowadays, almost every website or webpage uses SQL databases.

Every computer science student or aspiring developer always looks for handy, easy-to-implement SQL project ideas. Keeping this in mind, we came forward with some interesting database projects for you to understand databases better. You can also further your Database knowledge with this free DBMS course .

Building and designing a database with real-life applicability is always a good practice, and it helps refine conceptual understanding and enhance problem-solving skills. Let’s look at the following database project ideas, which will help hone skills and upstart a career.

Database Project Ideas

Prerequisite.

a) Hardware Requirements:

b) Software Requirements:

Explanation About The Database Project:

The main aim of developing the Electricity Bill Management System is to keep records of the customers’ bills. The admin can manage all the customers’ accounts, and the registered users like employees and customers can only manage their accounts. This system helps to maintain the bills and the payments.

In this project, different modules such as Login, User, Admin, Queries, Department, and Meters are designed considering the basic needs encountered at the time of generation, distribution, payment, payment, and payment of electricity bills.

Use Case 1: Generation of electricity bill for a customer.

Primary Actor: Admin

Precondition:  

Main Success Scenario:

Prerequisites:

a) Hardware Requirements:  

b) Software Requirements:  

Many people take shopping as a recreational activity. Online shopping is buzzing, where people get many choices on a single platform compared to traditional shopping. Because of this reason, the preference for online shopping is large scale. 

The main aim of this project is to develop an easy-to-use, web-based interface for online customers that can provide them with a pleasant online shopping experience. Various modules such as Shop Products Module, Product Description Module, and Shopping Cart Module are designed for different functions.

Use Case 1: Customer view a list of products. 

Primary Actor: Customer 

Precondition: Customer surfing Online Retail Application Database

Exception Scenario: In case the typed in the search box is not available in the stock list, then the system will show a message “Item not found”

Prerequisites

b) Software Requirements:   

Explanation About The Database Project

Inventory control is a necessary process that helps businesses maintain an adequate stock of materials and products so customers’ demands can be met without delay.

Overstocking and understocking both these situations are harmful to business. So, it is always best to keep inventory at the optimum level is always best to earn profitability at a reasonable scale.

The aim of designing an inventory control management database is to enable the businesses to keep the focus on the following:

Use Case 1: View the current status of an item. 

Primary Actor: Admin 

Precondition: Admin logged in to the system

Exception Scenario: In case an item does not exist in the list, then the system will show a message “Item not found”

Nowadays, the concept of an online library management system is gaining popularity. It provides a user-friendly way of issuing books, and it is also possible to view different books and titles available under a category. 

For example, in the college library, teachers and students can be issued books. However, the number of days for returning books is different for both. Each book and even their copies of the same authors are assigned a unique ID that helps maintain various records such as to whom the book is issued, date of issue, duration, returning date, charges, the amount of fine, etc.

Use Case 1: View the availability of a book.

Primary Actor: User

Precondition: The user logged in to the system

Exception Scenario: If that book does not exist in the list, the system will show a message “Not found.”

a) Hardware requirements:

With the help of a database, a student record-keeping management system can be created. The database contains students’ general information such as name, contact information, address, admission year, courses, attendance file, fee file, scholarship file, etc. This automated system is beneficial and will streamline the university administration process to a considerable degree.

Use Case 1: Student Registration 

Exception Scenario: If data in any field doesn’t match the requisite criteria, then the system will show an error. 

This SQL database is in high demand because it is used extensively in industries. This is used to manage the salary system of an organization. It performs many activities such as calculation of the monthly pay, taxes, and social security of the employees. It uses employee data like name, designation, pay scale, benefits, etc., for the computation of salaries and keeping the employees’ leave and attendance records.

Its software uses specific formulas to generate output from bank files and salary slips.  

It also creates a tax file for the tax office, and this file is stored in the database.

Use Case 1: Saving a new employee’s records 

Exception Scenario: In case data in any field doesn’t match the requisite criteria, then the system will show an error. 

This innovative tool provides a great help in saving time while traveling. Everyone knows that long queues in front of the transport controller’s office at public transport terminals are a regular thing because this is the only place commuters can get information about the different types of transport facilities available. In this case, the use of technology-enabled transport inquiry systems can help in saving time and effort.

With the help of a database, an automated system for bus stands, railway stations, and airports can be developed that will take voice commands as input and answer in a voice-based format as output.

Use Case 1: Enquiry about a bus 

a) Hardware requirement:

b) Software requirement:

This system is very beneficial, particularly in large corporate organizations with massive data centers and multiple servers. As a large number of applications are hosted on these servers, it, therefore, becomes challenging to manage their functionalities. When a server is down or crashes, the organization gets the information from the clients. Keeping this in mind, using a web-based solution to monitor these servers’ failures can help provide prompt corrective actions. 

The function of this application is to ping the servers periodically based on predetermined rules and then send an SMS to a predetermined list of specialists when a server is found non-operational. This message contains specific details about the server, the time of failure, etc.

Use Case 1: Checking the working status of a server 

a) Software requirements:

b) Hardware Requirements:

This kind of web-based system or software application is designed to manage the functioning of a hospital or any other medical setup effectively and smoothly. A systematic and standardized record of patients, doctors, and rooms is created with the help of this application in such a way that an administrator can have control over it. A unique ID is provided to all patients and doctors related to the database based on the ongoing treatments. All details like hospital admission, patients’ discharge summary, duties of nurses and ward boys, medical stores, etc., will be maintained by separate modules.

Use Case 1:   View appointment history 

There are many academic departments in a college, such as the Department of English, Department of Mathematics, Department of History, and many more. And a variety of courses are offered by each department. And possibly an instructor can teach more than one course. For example, a physics professor can teach maths also.

As a maths student, a student can enroll in both courses. Therefore, there can be any number of students in a course in a college, but the important thing is that there can be only one instructor for both these courses to avoid overlapping.

Use Case 1:   New admission 

Primary Actor: Admin  

Server site:

Client Site:

Server Site:

Client site:

The main aim of developing the Online Blood Donation Management System is to establish a link between the blood donors and the organization and generate e-information.

With the help of this application, anyone or any organization who wants to donate blood for a good cause can register themselves. And also, anyone who requires blood can register through this site.

Admin authority is authorized to add, delete, and modify if required. The intention of creating the Online Blood Donation Management System project is to develop an online Blood Donation Information. The entire project has been developed keeping the distributed client-server computing technology in mind.

Use Case 1: New registration 

In the final note of this article, we can conclude that a project plays a vital role in building a concrete foundation. It provides a vibrant learning atmosphere where the mind functions critically for thinking and employing the best methods and solutions for completing a task. 

An essential piece of advice is to choose such SQL projects where you can apply database normalization techniques comfortably. These design approaches reduce the dependency and redundancy of data, and the SQL project ideas mentioned in the article are the good ones you can start with.

We provide database-based training and courses; you can check out our website “grearlearning.com” for that. In these courses, we provide projects, practical training, case studies, and mentorship with industry experts so that we can groom you at par with the industry standards. We also provide guidance and assistance to secure a job in top companies. 

You are always welcome any queries. Keep learning and keep upskilling at Great Learning Academy .

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Table of contents

database design for project management system

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phpGrid – PHP Datagrid

Build a Project Management Application From Scratch

pm employee screenshot 1

What is a Project Management Application?

A project management application is a software system used for project planning, resource allocation, tracking of project components, and change management.

What is in a Project Management Application?

We will be creating a simple and easily customizable PM system to tracks projects, including milestones, tasks, hours, costs, and more. Since every project is unique, this tutorial merely means to build an application foundation; you should be able to easily extend it based on your requirements.

In our project management application, employees will be able to:

View their tasks

Log in hours worked

Managers will be able to:

Manage projects

Manage milestones

Manage tasks

Manage costs and hours

Manage employee resources

The Building Blocks of a Project Management System

Here are the primary functions of a project management system:

Project planning : To define a project schedule, a project manager may use the software to map project tasks and visually describe task interactions.

Task management : Allows the project manager to create and assign tasks, establish deadlines, and produce status reports.

Resource management : Defines responsibilities – who is supposed to do what.

Budgeting and cost tracking : A good project management application facilitates budget reporting as well as viewing, notifying, and updating costs for stakeholders.

Time tracking : The software must have the ability to track time spent on all tasks and maintain records for third-party consultants.

enter image description here

System Requirements

MySQL or MariaDB

Creating a Project Management Database

We will start by creating our project management database. The main tables we will use are:

Clients – customer company data

Contacts – client contact data. A client can have one or more contacts.

Projects – project information

Milestones – project milestone

Tasks – project tasks

Hours – time spent on each task

Costs – cost of a task

Users – user data; one can be either an employee or a manager

db table list

Other tables ( lookup tables ):

ms_status –

proj_status –

task_status –

Complete Database Schema Diagram

A database schema is the structure that represents the logical view of the entire database: tables, views, and primary and foreign keys. A database schema includes all entities and the relationships between them.

Below is the database diagram of our simple project management application. The key symbol in each table represents the table’s primary key while the magnifying glass indicates a foreign key linking it to another table (lookup table) in the database.

The diagram is made with DBSchema .

schema diagram

Setup phpGrid

Our simple project management contains many DataGrids. The DataGrid is a spreadsheet-like data table which displays rows and columns representing records and fields from the database table. The DataGrid provides the end-user with the ability to read and write to the database tables on a web page.

To create the DataGrid, we use a dataGrid tool from phpGrid . The reason why we use a tool instead of building our grids from scratch is that developing a DataGrid in php is usually extremely tedious and prone to errors. The phpGrid DataGrid library will handle all internal database CRUD (Create, Remove, Update, and Delete) operations for us offering faster and better results with minimal coding.

To install phpGrid, follow these steps:

Before we begin coding, we must include the following information in “conf.php,” the phpGrid configuration file. Here is an example of the database connection settings:

PHPGRID_DB_HOSTNAME – web server IP or host name

PHPGRID_DB_USERNAME – database user name

PHPGRID_DB_PASSWORD – database password

PHPGRID_DB_NAME – database name

PHPGRID_DB_TYPE – type of database

PHPGRID_DB_CHARSET – always ‘utf8’ in MySQL

Page Template

database design for project management system

Our page will be comprised of a header, menu, body, and footer. Instead of creating the same page elements repeatedly, we will start by creating a reusable page template.

This is a basic HTML5 template header; it includes a link to a custom stylesheet that will be created in a later step.

menu bar

Notice the usage of $_GET[‘currentPage’] . Each page will set a value that will highlight the name of the current page on the top menu bar.

Include the following code in style.css for menu styling; it will transform the above unordered list into a menu.

Simply includes the closing tags for the elements we opened in the header:

Our Complete Reusable Page Template

The main content will go after the section title.

Project Management Main Pages

Our project management application for managers has four pages:

Client Details

Project details.

The Clients page displays a list of clients with links to individual client details ( Client Details page).

The Projects page displays a list of projects being managed with links to project details ( Project Details page).

Design Mockup

Here is our project management application design mockup for project managers who manage one or more projects and assign tasks to employees.

design mockup

When a manager logs in to the project management system, the first page he sees is the Clients page which contains a complete list of companies.

The following code will give us a list of clients.

The first line creates a phpGrid object by passing the SELECT SQL statement with its primary key id followed by the name of the database table – clients .

The second line creates a dynamic URL from the primary key “id”; it uses a function called set_col_dynalink() . This function sets a specific column-to-display HTML hyperlink URL based on dynamic values. If the primary key “id” has the value 100, it will display a URL like this client-details.php?id=100 which drills down the client detail page.

The third line, enable_edit() , makes the DataGrid editable and all CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations are now accessible.

The last line calls the display() function to render the DataGrid on the screen.

You can check out more demos below:

Display a Dynamic URL: https://phpgrid.com/example/display-dynamic-url/

CRUD PHP Datagrid (Editable Datagrid): https://phpgrid.com/example/edit-datagrid/

From the Clients page, the client name has a hyperlink that redirects to the Client Details page for that client when clicked.

client details

From the Client Details page, we need to obtain the Client ID that is passed as the URL parameter.

In our application, the Client ID should always be an integer. Thus, we use the PHP intval() function to ensure the Client ID is returned as an integer.

The following code displays projects associated with the current $clientId using the filter function set_query_filter() . In addition, we make the DataGrid editable with the enable_edit() function; phpGrid will take care of any CRUD operations for us.

Client Details > Projects

As you may notice, we again use the same function, set_col_dynalink() , to create hyperlinks to the Project Details table using the Project ID. We will get into the project-details.php page next.

Client Details > Contacts

Under the Projects DataGrid, a list of contacts associated with the $clientid is displayed using the same functions set_query_filter() and enable_edit() .

Now, let’s build the Projects page.

The Projects page displays a list of managed projects. It is very similar to the Clients page except that the database table is “Projects,” and the hyperlinks have the URL project-details.php instead of client-details.php .

From the Projects page, each project name has a hyperlink which redirects to each individual Project Details page when clicked.

database design for project management system

And from the Project Details page, we retrieve the Project ID for the URL parameter.

Look familiar? It should because both Projects and Project Details pretty much follow the same coding pattern used in the Clients and Client Details pages; there are not really that many surprises.

The Project Details page is made of the following grids, all filtered by the $projectId obtained from the URL parameter.

A milestone marks a major event in a project timeline. Here, we can easily display all the milestones of a project by filtering the value $projectId. Project managers have the necessary access rights to modify the milestones.

Likewise, we can easily filter and display a list of tasks for the current project.

I think you are probably getting the hang of it now. Here’s the code for the two remaining DataGrids.

Employees Page

We can now move on to the final part of the tutorial, the Employees page. Employees can login to view active project tasks assigned to them, track task hours, and costs. Their responsibility is simple: to monitor the tasks and log hours worked on any specific project task.

employees screen

The Employees page has only one menu item: Tasks .

employees menu

My Active Tasks

The first part of the page shows a list of active tasks assigned to the current employee. Each task will have the hours reported by the current employee; this is a perfect situation in which to use a phpGrid subgrid .

We also need to use set_query_filter() to display only active tasks that have Status value “2”, and only for the current employee.

For demo purposes, we hard-coded the Employee ID to 2. In a real-world application, the Employee ID value should be stored and retrieved using PHP SESSION .

We then create the active Tasks DataGrid for the current employee. Notice the filter function.

Once we’ve defined the grid for the active tasks, we create a DataGrid to log the hours reported by the current employee.

Lastly, set_subgrid() causes the Hours DataGrid to become a subgrid of the Tasks DataGrid. The linking field in the Hours subgrid is ‘TaskID’, which is the second parameter, and in the main grid Tasks , it is “id,” the third parameter.

active tasks

My Hours History

Lastly, we would like to display a read-only DataGrid using data from the Hours table for the current employee for reviewing purposes.

Notice we used a function called set_jq_gridName() . You can find more documentation here . This function sets a unique object name for the DataGrid. By default, phpGrid uses the database table name as its internal object name. Since we already created a DataGrid from the Hours table in the last part, we must set a unique name for our second Hours DataGrid.

Screenshots

managers screenshot 1

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Complete Online Tourism Management System using PHP/MySQL

tourism management system in php

Table of Contents

Project: Complete Online Tourism Management System using PHP/MySQL with Source Code

About the project.

This online tourism management system was programmed using php and mysql as the database. This project is very helpful when you are having a business of ticketing system via online with the place, destination, stay, and all packages. The project is really responsive and that makes this more downloadable to the web.

Features of the Project

Screenshot of the Home Page

tourism management system in php

How To Run??

To run this project you must have installed a virtual server i.e  XAMPP  on your PC. Student Result Management System in PHP with source code is free to download, Use for educational purposes only!

After Starting Apache and MySQL in XAMPP, follow the following steps

1st Step :  Extract file 2nd Step:  Copy the main project folder 3rd Step:  Paste in xampp/htdocs/

Now Connecting Database

4th Step:  Open a browser and go to URL “http://localhost/phpmyadmin/” 5th Step:  Then, click on the databases tab 6th Step: Create a database naming “tms” and then click on the import tab 7th Step: Click on browse file and select “tns. sql ” file which is inside the “db” folder 8th Step:  Click on go.

After Creating Database ,

9th Step: Open a browser and go to URL “http://localhost/onlinetourism”

or the project demo, have a look at the video below .

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Please explain project for interview purpose.

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can you provide project report?

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user and password for config

' src=

where is the admin details please?

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thank you this is amezing website !! i am very happy!! again thank you!

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how to change the background image

guys what you have done is very use full and appriatiate think things

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im also admin login problem plz help

' src=

This project is very useful for education purpose. My heart full thanks to the demo video really amazing….But now the video is not visible…

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i cant login to adminlogin the user and the password not correct need your help

' src=

Please check your admin localhost url.

' src=

how do i check?

same problem for me

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

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database design for project management system

Hospital Management System is a small project which is build as a dynamic web app using Java Servlet, JSP and mysql as a database

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Hospital Management System is a small project which is build as a dynamic web app using Java Servlet, JSP and mysql as a database The UI of the web page is built using Bootstrap5

HomePage

There basically 4 modules in this project:

admin dashboard

All the modules are secured and all the data stored are safe.

IMAGES

  1. Er Diagram Of University Database Management System

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  2. Database Design Project for Inventory Management System

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  3. Database Design for Customer Management System

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  4. A Project Management Data Model

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  5. School Management System Project Database Design

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  6. Database Design Project for Bakery Management System

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  1. Know what is Database Management System

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COMMENTS

  1. Database design basics

    The design process consists of the following steps: Determine the purpose of your database This helps prepare you for the remaining steps. Find and organize the information required Gather all of the types of information you might want to record in the database, such as product name and order number. Divide the information into tables

  2. A Project Management Data Model

    Project management software should be as simple as possible. It would be best to have the entire Gantt chart on one screen. We can expect that we'll still need to scroll to see various parts, but we'll have everything clearly visible on a single screen. The Data Model The data model consists of three main subject areas: Users and roles Projects

  3. Use the Projects Access database template

    Use the Access Project management database to manage projects and their associated tasks and employees. You can also search and filter project details, enter common tasks, and send or receive data via e-mail messages. Note: The Project management database template has been updated over the last few years.

  4. Project Management System Database Design

    Project Management System Database Design This article will provide you with the list of tables and entities for every table in the development of project management system. This is the first phase of the project, next is to prepare the screen design and layout of the system and it will be converted into html file using the Bootstrap Framework.

  5. Database Structure and Design Tutorial

    The database design process A well-structured database: Saves disk space by eliminating redundant data. Maintains data accuracy and integrity. Provides access to the data in useful ways. Designing an efficient, useful database is a matter of following the proper process, including these phases:

  6. 20+ Database Management System Project Ideas

    20+ Database Management System Project Ideas In this article we have presented the Simple Database Management System Project Ideas that can be included in your Final Year Project or you can do any one of these Management System as your Mini Project or Major Project.

  7. School Management System Project Database Design

    School Management system Project Database Design in MSSQL. Its Sample Database Design for School Management system.Download School Management system Project Design.This will Help you How to create Database in MSSQL and you can find Free download Project Schema. Description

  8. BEST Database Design Projects With FREE Example

    Database Design Projects Database Design Projects - Download now our best Database Design Projects using MySQL for student final year projects. DBMS Mini Projects Topics With Source Code for Students 2022 August 26, 2022 by itsourcecode

  9. DBMS Mini Projects Topics With Source Code for Students 2022

    Example of Database Management System Project Database design tables This section will show you some examples of the database design tables. Table4: tblorder Table 5: tblproduct Table 6: tblsupplier Table 7: tbluser Table 8: tblitem Table 9: tblcustomer Table 10: tblpayment Table 11: tblshipment Table 12: tblinventory

  10. 9 Exciting DBMS Project Ideas & Topics For Beginners [2023]

    Data Base Management Systems are a software to store, run queries or retrieve any data. It is very useful because it facilitates storing the data at a centralised location. Also, it reduces redundancy and data inconsistency. The other uses of the Data Management System are- Security Data Indexing Backup Query Processing Data Independence

  11. Best Database Design Courses & Certifications [2023]

    In summary, here are 10 of our most popular database design courses. Introduction to Relational Databases (RDBMS) IBM Skills Network. Database Design with SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) Coursera Project Network. The Nature of Data and Relational Database Design: University of California, Irvine. Database Design and Diagramming in Dia ...

  12. 40 List of DBMS Project Topics and Ideas

    Invoice Management System Database Design The researchers will create a system that will make it easier for companies to manage and keep track of their invoice information. The company's sales records, payables, and total invoice records will all be electronically managed using this project.

  13. How to build a Project Management Application in PHP & MySQL from scratch

    Here are the primary functions of a project management system: Project planning: To define a project schedule, a project manager may use the software to map project tasks and visually describe task interactions. Task management: Allows the project manager to create and assign tasks, establish deadlines, and produce status reports.

  14. Top 18 Database Projects Ideas for Students

    Top 18 Database Projects Ideas for Students 1. Inventory control management Database Project Design goals: maintain a proper variety of required items, increase inventory turnover, reduce and maintain optimize inventory and safety stock levels, obtain low raw material prices, reduce storage cost, reduce insurance cost, reduce taxes.

  15. Database Design in DBMS Tutorial: Learn Data Modeling

    Database Design is a collection of processes that facilitate the designing, development, implementation and maintenance of enterprise data management systems. Properly designed database are easy to maintain, improves data consistency and are cost effective in terms of disk storage space.

  16. PDF Database Design for the Web Based University Project Management

    Database Design for the Web Based University Project Management Information System . Irena Valova. 1 1. Department of Computer Systems, University of Ruse, Ruse, Bulgaria . Abstract - Web applications and particularly Web based Information Systems are very popular due to several reasons. The main reason is the ability to

  17. (PDF) College Database Management System

    Abstract. College Data Management System gives a straightforward interface to support of understudy data, staff information,attendance,fee record. It very well may be utilized by instructive ...

  18. The Best Project Management Software for 2023

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  19. Top 11 Database Projects To Work On In 2023

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