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Attention deficits and dual task demands after mild traumatic brain injury


Attention deficits are a prominent aspect of cognitive dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Patients frequently complain of distractibility and difficulty attending to more than one thing at a time, and several neuropsychological studies have found evidence for a specific attention deficit without general neuropsychological impairment. The present study examined the nature of attentional disturbance after MTBI using an extended version of the 2 and 7 Test, which introduced two conditions reflecting patients' subjective complaints: the ability to perform with background 'noise', and while simultaneously attending to a secondary task. The dual task demands produced a significant slowing in processing speed for both the MTBI patients and control subjects. However, the relative decline in processing speed appeared much greater for the patients with MTBI, and they differed from control subjects only in this condition. The results are consistent with findings that patients with MTBI exhibit relatively subtle cognitive deficits which are apparent primarily under conditions which require effortful or controlled cognitive processing and exceed their available cognitive resources. Thus, the attentional deficits apparent during dual task demands may represent decreased cognitive, and perhaps neural, efficiency which reflects MTBI patients' subjective complaints and functional impairments.

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Health screenings for women age 65 and older

You should visit your health care provider from time to time, even if you are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to:


Even if you feel fine, you should still see your provider for regular checkups. These visits can help you avoid problems in the future. For example, the only way to find out if you have high blood pressure is to have it checked regularly. High blood sugar and high cholesterol levels also may not have any symptoms in the early stages. A simple blood test can check for these conditions.

There are specific times when you should see your provider or receive specific health screenings. The US Preventive Services Task Force publishes a list of recommended screenings. Below are screening guidelines for women age 65 and older.


Have your blood pressure checked at least once every year. Watch for blood pressure screenings in your area. Ask your provider if you can stop in to have your blood pressure checked. You can also check your blood pressure using the automated machines at local grocery stores and pharmacies.

Ask your doctor if you need your blood pressure checked more often if:



After age 65, most women who have not been diagnosed with cervical cancer or precancer can stop having screening tests, as long as:


If your cholesterol level is normal, have it rechecked at least every 5 years.

You should have repeat testing sooner if:


Until age 75, you should have screening for colorectal cancer on a regular basis. If you are age 76 or older, you should ask your doctor if you should receive screening. Several tests are available for colorectal cancer screening:

You may need a colonoscopy more often if you have risk factors for colon cancer, including:



You should be screened for diabetes every 3 years.

You may be tested more often If you have other risk factors for diabetes, such as:



Commonly needed vaccines include:


Screening for hepatitis C:

Screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV):

Depending on your lifestyle and medical history, you may need to be screened for infections such as syphilis, chlamydia, and other infections.


You should have an annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) if:



All adults should visit their provider from time to time, even if they are healthy. The purpose of these visits is to:

During the exam, your provider will ask questions about:

Alternative Names

Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over age 65


Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, United States, 2022. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/adult.html . Updated February 17, 2022. Accessed August 9, 2022.

American Academy of Ophthalmology website. Policy statement: Frequency of ocular examinations - 2015. www.aao.org/clinical-statement/frequency-of-ocular-examinations . Updated March 2015. Accessed August 9, 2022.

American Cancer Society website. Breast cancer early detection and diagnosis: American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of breast cancer. www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/screening-tests-and-early-detection/american-cancer-society-recommendations-for-the-early-detection-of-breast-cancer.html . Updated January 14, 2022. Accessed August 9, 2022.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) website. FAQ178: Mammography and other screening tests for breast problems. www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/gynecologic-problems/mammography-and-other-screening-tests-for-breast-problems . Updated November 2020. Accessed August 9, 2022.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. FAQ163: Cervical cancer. www.acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/gynecologic-problems/cervical-cancer . Updated April 2021. Accessed August 9, 2022.

American Dental Association website. Your top 9 questions about going to the dentist -- answered. www.mouthhealthy.org/en/dental-care-concerns/questions-about-going-to-the-dentist . Accessed August 9, 2022.

American Diabetes Association Professional Practice Committee. 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2022. Diabetes Care . 2022 Jan 1;45(Suppl 1):S17-S38. PMID: 34964875 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34964875/ .

Atkins D, Barton M. The periodic health examination. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 12.

Brown HL, Warner JJ, Gianos E, et al; American Heart Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Promoting risk identification and reduction of cardiovascular disease in women through collaboration with obstetricians and gynecologists: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Circulation. 2018;137(24):e843-e852. PMID: 29748185 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29748185/ .

Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol . 2019 Jun 25;73(24):3237-3241]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73(24):e285-e350. PMID: 30423393 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30423393/ .

Meschia JF, Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B; American Heart Association Stroke Council; et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(12):3754-3832. PMID: 25355838 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25355838/ .

Mora S, Libby P, Ridker PM. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Bhatt DL, Solomon SD, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:chap 25.

National Cancer Institute website. Breast cancer screening (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-screening-pdq . Updated February 10, 2022. August 9, 2022.

Studenski S, Van Swearingen J. Falls. In: Fillit HM, Rockwood K, Young J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. A and B recommendations. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation-topics/uspstf-a-and-b-recommendations . Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement. Breast cancer: Medication use to reduce risk. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/breast-cancer-medications-for-risk-reduction . Updated September 3, 2019. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement. Breast cancer: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/breast-cancer-screening . Updated January 11, 2016. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement. Cervical cancer: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/cervical-cancer-screening . Published August 21, 2018. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement. Colorectal cancer: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/colorectal-cancer-screening . Published May 18, 2021. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement. Hepatitis C virus infection in adolescents and adults: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/hepatitis-c-screening . Published March 2, 2020. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-screening . Published June 11, 2019. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Hypertension in adults: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/hypertension-in-adults-screening . Published April 27, 2021. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement: Lung cancer: Screening. Updated March 9, 2021. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/lung-cancer-screening . Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Final recommendation statement: Osteoporosis to prevent fracture: Screening. Updated June 26, 2018. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/osteoporosis-screening . Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/screening-for-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes . Published August 24, 2021. Accessed August 9, 2022.

US Preventive Services Task Force website. Skin cancer: Screening. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/draft-update-summary/skin-cancer-screening-1 . Updated March 19, 2021. Accessed August 9, 2022.

Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines [published correction appears in J Am Coll Cardiol . 2018 May 15;71(19):2275-2279]. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(19):e127-e248. PMID: 29146535 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29146535/ .

Review Date 4/30/2022

Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Healthy Aging


Table Of Contents

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Did you find this page useful? Do you have a suggestion to improve the documentation? Give us feedback . If you would like to suggest an improvement or fix for the AWS CLI, check out our contributing guide on GitHub.

First time using the AWS CLI? See the User Guide for help getting started.

Note: You are viewing the documentation for an older major version of the AWS CLI (version 1).

AWS CLI version 2, the latest major version of AWS CLI, is now stable and recommended for general use. To view this page for the AWS CLI version 2, click here . For more information see the AWS CLI version 2 installation instructions and migration guide .

[ aws . iotwireless ]

create-wireless-gateway-task ¶

Description ¶.

Creates a task for a wireless gateway.

See also: AWS API Documentation

--id (string)

The ID of the resource to update.

--wireless-gateway-task-definition-id (string)

The ID of the WirelessGatewayTaskDefinition.

--cli-input-json (string) Performs service operation based on the JSON string provided. The JSON string follows the format provided by --generate-cli-skeleton . If other arguments are provided on the command line, the CLI values will override the JSON-provided values. It is not possible to pass arbitrary binary values using a JSON-provided value as the string will be taken literally.

--generate-cli-skeleton (string) Prints a JSON skeleton to standard output without sending an API request. If provided with no value or the value input , prints a sample input JSON that can be used as an argument for --cli-input-json . If provided with the value output , it validates the command inputs and returns a sample output JSON for that command.

Global Options ¶

--debug (boolean)

Turn on debug logging.

--endpoint-url (string)

Override command's default URL with the given URL.

--no-verify-ssl (boolean)

By default, the AWS CLI uses SSL when communicating with AWS services. For each SSL connection, the AWS CLI will verify SSL certificates. This option overrides the default behavior of verifying SSL certificates.

--no-paginate (boolean)

Disable automatic pagination.

--output (string)

The formatting style for command output.

--query (string)

A JMESPath query to use in filtering the response data.

--profile (string)

Use a specific profile from your credential file.

--region (string)

The region to use. Overrides config/env settings.

--version (string)

Display the version of this tool.

--color (string)

Turn on/off color output.

--no-sign-request (boolean)

Do not sign requests. Credentials will not be loaded if this argument is provided.

--ca-bundle (string)

The CA certificate bundle to use when verifying SSL certificates. Overrides config/env settings.

--cli-read-timeout (int)

The maximum socket read time in seconds. If the value is set to 0, the socket read will be blocking and not timeout. The default value is 60 seconds.

--cli-connect-timeout (int)

The maximum socket connect time in seconds. If the value is set to 0, the socket connect will be blocking and not timeout. The default value is 60 seconds.

To use the following examples, you must have the AWS CLI installed and configured. See the Getting started guide in the AWS CLI User Guide for more information.

Unless otherwise stated, all examples have unix-like quotation rules. These examples will need to be adapted to your terminal's quoting rules. See Using quotation marks with strings in the AWS CLI User Guide .

To create the task for a wireless gateway

The following create-wireless-gateway-task example creates a task for a wireless gateway.

For more information, see Connecting devices and gateways to AWS IoT Core for LoRaWAN in the AWS IoT Developers Guide .

WirelessGatewayTaskDefinitionId -> (string)

Status -> (string)

The status of the request.


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Two-pore domain potassium channels (K 2P ): Introduction

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do 79 task 2

Figure 1. Classification of function of two-pore domain channels. A. A phylogenetic tree calculated to show the relatedness of the 15 K 2P subunits found in humans based on ClustalW alignments of the IUPHAR accession numbers for each clone, (see http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/IonChannelListForward?class=VGIC ). To date, functional expression has not been observed for K 2P 7, K 2P 12 and K 2P 15 (grey text). B. K 2P subunits are integral membrane proteins with internal amino (N) and carboxy (C) termini, four transmembrane domains (M1-M4) and two pore forming (P)-loops. C. Two K 2P subunits create a single, central K + selective conduction pore. One subunit is shown in green and a second in blue. Under physiological conditions, K + flow (red arrow) down a concentration gradient from the intra- to the extracellular milieu. D. Example whole-cell current from K 2P 1 channels heterologously expressed in CHO-K1 cells and studied with a deSUMOylating enzyme in the recording pipette. In both case, the inside of the cell contains 140 mM KCl. Left, The external solution contains 4 mM KCl. Right, The same cell recorded with 140 mM KCl on both sides of the membrane. E. Mean current-voltage relationships for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells expressing SENP1 activated K 2P 1 channels (adapted from [ 101 ]). Active K 2P 1 channels show openly rectifying (GHK) behavior. Under quasi-physiologic conditions (Δ, 4 mM external KCl) the channels pass more outward current but show a linear current-voltage relationship with symmetrical 140 mM KCl (▲). Click image for full size.


do 79 task 2

Figure 2. The primary structures of the subunits of the voltage-gated sodium channels. A. Ribbon representations of the x-ray structure of human K 2P 4 resolved at 2.75 Å [ 18 ]. Left, The channel is viewed from the membrane plane with one subunit in red and the other in blue, K + ions are green, and the boundary of the membrane is in grey. Right, A view of the channel rotated by ~45° to show architecture wherein the outer pore helix interacts with the inner helix from the other subunit rather than its own. Dashed lines suggest loop regions that were not resolved. The ~35 Å cap domain above the outer mouth of the pore that bifurcates the entrance to the K + conduction pathway and the c-helix are indicated with arrows. B. A cross section of a surface view of human K 2P 10 colored by hydrophobicity where green is the most hydrophobic and blue is the least hydrophobic, [ 39 ]. The structure was solved to 3.9 Å in complex with norfluoxetine bound within both bilateral intramembrane side portals. Norfluoxetine is shown in light blue, dark blue, red, and orange for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine atoms, respectively. Click image for full size.


Highlights of k 2p channel by subtype, k 2p 1 channels, k 2p 2, k 2p 4 and k 2p 10 channels, k 2p 3 and k 2p 9 channels, k 2p 5, k 2p 16 and k 2p 17 channels, k 2p 18 channels, k 2p 6, k 2p 7, and k 2p 15: subunits that, thus far, remain quiet, k 2p 12 and k 2p 13 channels, the pharmacology of k 2p channels.

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13. Bichet D, Blin S, Feliciangeli S, Chatelain FC, Bobak N, Lesage F. (2015) Silent but not dumb: how cellular trafficking and pore gating modulate expression of TWIK1 and THIK2. Pflugers Arch , 467 (5): 1121-31. [PMID: 25339226 ]

14. Blin S, Ben Soussia I, Kim EJ, Brau F, Kang D, Lesage F, Bichet D. (2016) Mixing and matching TREK/TRAAK subunits generate heterodimeric K2P channels with unique properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , 113 (15): 4200-5. [PMID: 27035965 ]

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18. Brohawn SG, Campbell EB, MacKinnon R. (2013) Domain-swapped chain connectivity and gated membrane access in a Fab-mediated crystal of the human TRAAK K+ channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 110 (6): 2129-34. [PMID: 23341632 ]

19. Brohawn SG, Campbell EB, MacKinnon R. (2014) Physical mechanism for gating and mechanosensitivity of the human TRAAK K+ channel. Nature , 516 (7529): 126-30. [PMID: 25471887 ]

20. Brohawn SG, del Mármol J, MacKinnon R. (2012) Crystal structure of the human K2P TRAAK, a lipid- and mechano-sensitive K+ ion channel. Science , 335 (6067): 436-41. [PMID: 22282805 ]

21. Brohawn SG, Su Z, MacKinnon R. (2014) Mechanosensitivity is mediated directly by the lipid membrane in TRAAK and TREK1 K+ channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 (9): 3614-9. [PMID: 24550493 ]

22. Cazals Y, Bévengut M, Zanella S, Brocard F, Barhanin J, Gestreau C. (2015) KCNK5 channels mostly expressed in cochlear outer sulcus cells are indispensable for hearing. Nat Commun , 6 : 8780. [PMID: 26549439 ]

23. Chatelain FC, Bichet D, Douguet D, Feliciangeli S, Bendahhou S, Reichold M, Warth R, Barhanin J, Lesage F. (2012) TWIK1, a unique background channel with variable ion selectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 109 (14): 5499-504. [PMID: 22431633 ]

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