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- How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
Published on March 9, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite an article from an academic journal, you need an in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the name(s) of the author(s), the publication date, the article title and journal name, the volume and issue numbers, the page range, and the URL or DOI .
Different citation styles present this information differently. The main citation styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago style .
You can use the interactive example generator to explore the format for APA and MLA journal article citations.
Table of contents
Citing an article in apa style, citing an article in mla style, citing an article in chicago style, frequently asked questions about citations.
In an APA Style journal article reference , the article title is in plain text and sentence case, while the journal name appears in italics, in title case.
The in-text citation lists up to two authors; for three or more, use “ et al. ”
When citing a journal article in print or from a database, don’t include a URL. You can still include the DOI if available.
You can also cite a journal article using our free APA Citation Generator . Search by title or DOI to automatically generate a correct citation.
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation
In an MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article , the article title appears in quotation marks, the name of the journal in italics—both in title case.
List up to two authors in both the in-text citation and the Works Cited entry. For three or more, use “et al.”
A DOI is always included when available; a URL appears if no DOI is available but the article was accessed online . If you accessed the article in print and no DOI is available, you can omit this part.
You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to create your journal article citations.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless MLA citation
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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
- Incorrect usage of “et al.”
- Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
- Missing reference entries
In Chicago notes and bibliography style, you include a bibliography entry for each source, and cite them in the text using footnotes .
A bibliography entry for a journal article lists the title of the article in quotation marks and the journal name in italics—both in title case. List up to 10 authors in full; use “et al.” for 11 or more.
In the footnote, use “et al.” for four or more authors.
A DOI or URL (preferably a DOI) is included for articles consulted online; for articles consulted in print, omit this part.
Chicago also offers an alternative author-date style of citation. Examples of how to cite journal articles in this style can be found here .
The elements included in journal article citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name(s) of the author(s), the title of the article, the year of publication, the name of the journal, the volume and issue numbers, the page range of the article, and, when accessed online, the DOI or URL.
In MLA and Chicago style, you also include the specific month or season of publication alongside the year, when this information is available.
The DOI is usually clearly visible when you open a journal article on an academic database. It is often listed near the publication date, and includes “doi.org” or “DOI:”. If the database has a “cite this article” button, this should also produce a citation with the DOI included.
If you can’t find the DOI, you can search on Crossref using information like the author, the article title, and the journal name.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.
“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .
Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.
Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
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Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Journal Article | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-journal-article/
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MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems
If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:
The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).
Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.
Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .
If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.
Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection
When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in 1921, you might write something like this:
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author :
Citing two books by the same author :
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:
John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays
Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.
Here is an example from O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh.
WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.
ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.
WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com, as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:
In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).
In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.
The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
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How to Cite a Research Paper in APA
Last Updated: October 19, 2022 References
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If you’re citing a research article or paper in APA style, you’ll need to use a specific citation format that varies depending on the source. Assess whether your source is an article or report published in an academic journal or book, or whether it is an unpublished research paper, such as a print-only thesis or dissertation. Either way, your in-text citations will need to include information about the author (if available) and the date when your source was published or written.
Writing an In-Text Citation
- For example, you may write, “Gardener (2008) notes, ‘There are several factors to consider about lobsters’ (p. 199).”
- For example, you may write, “‘There are several factors to consider about lobsters’ (Gardner, 2008, p. 199).” Or, “The paper claims, ‘The fallen angel trope is common in religious and non-religious texts’ (Meek & Hill, 2015, p.13-14).”
- For articles with 3-5 authors, write out the names of all the authors the first time you cite the source. For example: (Hammett, Wooster, Smith, & Charles, 1928). In subsequent citations, write only the first author’s name, followed by et al.: (Hammett et al., 1928).
- If there are 6 or more authors for the paper, include the last name of the first author listed and then write "et al." to indicate that there are more than 5 authors.
- For example, you may write, "'This is a quote' (Minaj et al., 1997, p. 45)."
- For example, you may write, “‘The risk of cervical cancer in women is rising’ (American Cancer Society, 2012, p. 2).”
- For example, you may write, “‘Shakespeare may have been a woman’ (“Radical English Literature,” 2004, p. 45).” Or, “The paper notes, ‘There is a boom in Virgin Mary imagery’ (“Art History in Italy,” 2011, p. 32).”
- For example, you may write, “‘There are several factors to consider about lobsters’ (Gardner, 2008, p. 199).” Or, “The paper claims, ‘The fallen angel trope is common in religious and non-religious texts’ (“Iconography in Italian Frescos,” 2015, p.13-14).”
- For example, you may write, “‘There are several factors to consider about lobsters’ (Gardner, 2008, p. 199).” Or, “The paper claims, ‘The fallen angel trope is common in religious and non-religious texts’ (“Iconography in Italian Frescos,” 2015, p.145-146).”
- For example, you may write, “‘The effects of food deprivation are long-term’ (Mett, 2005, para. 18).”
Creating a Reference List Citation for a Published Source
- Material on websites is also considered “published,” even if it’s not peer-reviewed or associated with a formal publishing company.
- While academic dissertations or theses that are print-only are considered unpublished, these types of documents are considered published if they’re included in an online database (such as ProQuest) or incorporated into an institutional repository.
- For example, you may write, “Gardner, L. M.” Or, “Meek, P. Q., Kendrick, L. H., & Hill, R. W.”
- If there is no author, you can list the name of the organization that published the research paper. For example, you may write, “American Cancer Society” or “The Reading Room.”
- Formally published documents that don’t list an author or that have a corporate author are typically reports or white papers .
- For example, you may write, “Gardner, L. M. (2008).” Or, “American Cancer Society. (2015).”
- For example, you may write, “Gardner, L. M. (2008). Crustaceans: Research and data.” Or, “American Cancer Society. (2015). Cervical cancer rates in women ages 20-45.”
- For example, for a journal article, you may write, “Gardner, L. M. (2008). Crustaceans: Research and data. Modern Journal of Malacostracan Research, 25, 150-305.”
- For a book chapter, you could write: “Wooster, B. W. (1937). A comparative study of modern Dutch cow creamers. In T. E. Travers (Ed.), A Detailed History of Tea Serviceware (pp. 127-155). London: Wimble Press."
- For example, you may write, “Kotb, M. A., Kamal, A. M., Aldossary, N. M., & Bedewi, M. A. (2019). Effect of vitamin D replacement on depression in multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 29, 111-117. Retrieved from PubMed, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30708308.
- If you’re citing a paper or article that was published online but did not come from an academic journal or database, provide information about the author (if known), the date of publication (if available), and the website where you found the article. For example: “Hill, M. (n.d.). Egypt in the Ptolemaic Period. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ptol/hd_ptol.htm”
Citing Unpublished Sources in Your Reference List
- Print-only dissertations or theses.
- Articles or book chapters that are in press or have been recently prepared or submitted for publication.
- Papers that have been rejected for publication or were never intended for publication (such as student research papers or unpublished conference papers).
- If the paper is currently being prepared for publication, include the author’s name, the year when the current draft was completed, and the title of the article in italics, followed by “Manuscript in preparation.” For example: Wooster, B. W. (1932). What the well-dressed man is wearing. Manuscript in preparation.
- If the paper has been submitted for publication, format the citation the same way as if it were in preparation, but instead follow the title with “Manuscript submitted for publication.” For example: Wooster, B. W. (1932). What the well-dressed man is wearing. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- If the paper has been accepted for publication but is not yet published, replace the date with “in press.” Do not italicize the paper title, but do include the title of the periodical or book in which it will be published and italicize that. For example: Wooster, B. W. (in press). What the well-dressed man is wearing. Milady’s Boudoir.
- If the paper was written for a conference but never published, your citation should look like this: Riker, W. T. (2019, March). Traditional methods for the preparation of spiny lobe-fish. Paper presented at the 325th Annual Intergalactic Culinary Conference, San Francisco, CA.
- For an unpublished paper written by a student for a class, include details about the institution where the paper was written. For example: Crusher, B. H. (2019). A typology of Cardassian skin diseases. Unpublished manuscript, Department of External Medicine, Starfleet Academy, San Francisco, CA.
- For example, you may write, “Pendlebottom, R. H. (2011). Iconography in Italian Frescos (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). New York University, New York, United States.”
- If you want certain information to stand out in the research paper, then you can consider using a block quote. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/apa-referencing/7JournalArticles
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_author_authors.html
- ↑ https://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=714519&p=5093747
- ↑ https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/apaquickguide/intext
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html
- ↑ https://libguides.southernct.edu/c.php?g=7125&p=34582#1951239
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_electronic_sources.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_articles_in_periodicals.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_books.html
- ↑ https://morlingcollege.libguides.com/apareferencing/unpublished-or-informally-published-work
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_apa_faqs.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_other_print_sources.html
About This Article
To cite a research paper in-text in APA, name the author in the text to introduce the quote and put the publication date for the text in parentheses. At the end of your quote, put the page number in parentheses. If you don’t mention the author in your prose, include them in the citation. Start the citation, which should come at the end of the quote, by listing the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number. Make sure to put all of this information in parentheses. If there’s no author, use the name of the organization that published the paper or the first few words from the title. To learn how to cite published and unpublished sources in your reference list, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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How To Cite A Research Paper: Creating Well-Formatted Citations In Your Writing
20 Aug 2021
How to use citations in a paper.
How To Cite A Research Paper In Various Formats Properly?
To write a good research paper, you need to incorporate sources. This means that you have to be familiar with how to format the sources in your academic paper. A citation is the use of someone else’s thought with reference to the author. Knowing how to cite a research paper prevents you from stealing others’ works and plagiarizing. As there are different formats of academic papers, as well as various types of sources, you need to know how to cite them correctly. Keep reading to learn more about how to create citations in your research paper.
What are the most popular types of sources in a research paper? Although you can buy college research paper , you still need to know how to cite a research work properly. Each of the sources you use has particular features that affect how you quote a research paper. Here are some of the most frequently used types of sources:
- Research papers
- Scientific journals and articles
- Web references
- Books and their chapters
When you think of how to cite a scholarly article or cite a scientific paper, keep in mind that research papers and scientific journal articles can be very helpful and informative. However, remember that only a peer-reviewed academic article should be included in a paper. Using books shouldn’t be challenging if you learn how to cite literature well.
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Web sources, in turn, require you to be careful because information must be credible. Therefore, stay away from blogs and independent encyclopedias, such as Wikipedia. The same with magazines and documents: ensure that the information is valid when you’re going to quote a paper. For all sources, you use and cite in your research paper, check whether they were published within 5 recent years.
How To Cite A Research Paper In Various Formats Properly?
When you start to make a bibliography, you need to know how to make citations. A number of formats have been developed for you and for your colleagues around the world for convenience, accuracy, and to standardize the publication process by reputable European and American institutions.
APA stands for American Psychological Association, and the formatting style was first introduced in 1929 by a number of psychologists, businessmen, and anthropologists so there would be some rules for scientific writing that would help others read and understand text better. When you need to cite a paper in APA style, start with the last name of the author and the first letter of their first name. Then, include the year of publication and the name of the work. After that, add other information depending on the type of reference.
It consists of conventions, which ensure readers understand presented material, and it makes documentation in different fields easier. This editorial style includes:
- selection of headings, tone, and length;
- punctuation and abbreviations;
- presentation of numbers and statistics;
- construction of tables and figures;
- citation and references, etc.
As a result, many universities require students to use this style of formatting, and undergraduates start wondering about how to cite an APA style paper.
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Short quotations in APA research papers
Apart from writing a title page in APA format , you should also know how to use short quotations and how to cite text in paper APA style. This helps prove your point or include some additional information. Short quotations are usually no longer than 40 words. The best way to include them in your text is to use introductory words and phrases that provide some context and are surrounded by a paragraph. A quotation should be inserted between quotation marks. The author’s details about a quotation should be placed before it in a signal phrase:
However, Jones (1950) points out, “knowledge is a value” (p. 236).
You can also place all the details afterward:
However, it was pointed out, “knowledge is a value” (Jones, 1950, p.236).
Long quotations in APA style
Long quotations are more than 40 words and are also called block quotations. Their usage has a set of unique rules:
- long quotations are not surrounded by quotation marks;
- they start from their own line;
- the long quotation is indented 0.5 inches and has double spacing as a new paragraph;
- the ending citation is included after the last line of long quotation, and the punctuation goes before the citation.
Look at the example of a long quotation below. She explained by saying that
Macs are often the best option for users who wish to work with video or picture manipulation. Macs are also very user-friendly, which may benefit consumers who are new to computers. PCs, however, run Microsoft Office Suite the best. (Oyler, 2010, p. 48)
How to Cite Authors in APA paper?
You may be wondering how to cite in APA style paper. Most of the time, citing authors in your essay is an easy task if you already know how to create a research paper outline APA . Overall, the information includes the author’s surname, year of publication, and a page number if it’s a direct citation. You need to use an in-text citation meaning it usually appears before the period and has other rules. If the name of the author is not included in the sentence, state their name after it. Work that includes two writers needs an in-text citation with both their names, separated by an ampersand. In case there are three or more authors, include all of them in the beginning citation, separated by commas and the final two by an ampersand. For all later in-text citations use only the first author, followed by “et al.” and the year of publication.
Main Tips How Cite different sources in APA paper?
Main points to include while citing sources in a paper are the writer's name and initials, the title of the work, and year published. You can find more detailed structures below. It may be challenging to cope with the challenge of how to cite text in a paper APA style. If you need help with citation or title page, you can visit online citation generators or buy an apa research paper .
- Scientific Journals and Articles
Sample, J. (2017). Title of the Article. Title of Journal , 5 (6), 5-12. doi: 10.1111/bc.111111
(5 – journal volume, 6 – journal issue, 5-12 – journal pages)
Sample, J. (2018). Custom Essay Writing Service Online of High Quality. Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/
Sample, J. (2016). Title of the Book (3rd ed.). London: Publisher.
Sample, J. (2017). Title of the Article. Title of Magazine , (5).
(5 – magazine issue)
Sample, J. (2017). Title of the Document [PDF]. New York: Publisher. Retrieved from http://link.com
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Writing citations in MLA is quite simple since you include a full name of the author and then the title of the work.
Sample, James. "Name of the Article". Name of Journal , vol 5, no. 6, 2017, pp. 5-12., doi:10.1111/bc.111111. Accessed 20 Apr 2019.
Sample, James. "Custom Essay Writing Service Online of High Quality". Papersowl.Com , 2018, https://papersowl.com/. Accessed 20 Apr 2019.
Sample, James. Name of the Book . 3rd ed., Publisher, 2016.
Sample, James. "Name of the Article". Name o f Magazine , 2017, Accessed 20 Apr 2019.
Sample, James. Name of the Document . Publisher, 2017, http://link.com. Accessed 20 Apr 2019.
To learn how to cite a paper in Chicago, look at it as a combination of MLA and APA styles: write the author’s name as in MLA style and add the publication date similarly to APA referencing.
Sample, James. 2017. "Name of the Article". Name of Journal 5 (6): 5-12. doi:10.1111/bc.111111.
Sample, James. 2018. "Custom Essay Writing Service Online of High Quality". Papersowl.Com . https://papersowl.com/.
Sample, James. 2016. Name of the Book . 3rd ed. London: Publisher.
Sample, James. 2017. "Name of the Article". Name of Magazine , 2017.
Sample, James. 2017. Name of the Document . PDF. New York: Publisher. http://link.com.
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Citing sources in a paper according to the Turabian formatting is similar to the MLA style references. You include the author’s full name and the name of the work in brackets.
Sample, James. "Title of the Article". Title of Journal 5, no. 6 (2017): 5-12. doi:10.1111/bc.111111.
Sample, James. "Custom Essay Writing Service Online of High Quality". Papersowl.Com, Last modified 2018. https://papersowl.com/.
Sample, James. Title of the Book . 3rd ed. London: Publisher, 2016.
Sample, James. "Title of the Article". Title of Magazine , 2017.
Sample, James. Title of the Document . Ebook. New York: Publisher, 2017. http://link.com.
Citing research papers in ASA style is similar to Chicago style referencing.
Sample, James. 2017. "Name of the Article." Name of Journal 5(6):5-12.
Sample, James. 2018. "Custom Essay Writing Service Online of High Quality." Papersowl.com . Retrieved April 20, 2019 (https://papersowl.com/).
Sample, James. 2016. Name of the Book . 3rd ed. London: Publisher.
Sample, James. 2017. "Name of the Article." Name of Magazine .
Sample, James. 2017. Nam e of the Document . New York: Publisher. Retrieved April 20, 2019 (http://link.com).
Citing a referencing paper may be a long process since you have to format different types of sources according to a particular referencing style. To make things easier and cite sources properly, use online citation generators . As a result, you’ll receive a full bibliography in the style you need.
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The free Scribbr Citation Generator is the quickest way to cite sources in these styles. Simply enter the URL, DOI, or title, and we’ll generate an accurate, correctly formatted citation. Generate accurate citations with Scribbr Webpage Book Video Journal article Online news article APA Cite
A citation or reference includes all the information needed for someone to identify and find the resource. Elements will change depending on the resource (a blog, article, legal materials, etc.). Depending on the citation style, a citation may include any of the following: title, author, date, page numbers, publisher, place of publication, link ...
Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.
To cite an article from an academic journal, you need an in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the name (s) of the author (s), the publication date, the article title and journal name, the volume and issue numbers, the page range, and the URL or DOI. Different citation styles present this information differently.
For the reference lists located at the end of the research paper, you need to cite four major elements: Author: includes the individual author names format and group author names format Date: includes the date format and how to include retrieval dates Title: includes the title format and how to include bracketed descriptions
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
Include a full citation for the online article in the bibliography or Works Cited at the end of your paper. ... When conducting research for a paper or other project ...
If you accessed a research paper online, note this in the citation by including “Retrieved from.” Write the organization or publication’s name, followed by the URL for the paper. For example, you may write, “Kotb, M. A., Kamal, A. M., Aldossary, N. M., & Bedewi, M. A. (2019).
When you need to cite a paper in APA style, start with the last name of the author and the first letter of their first name. Then, include the year of publication and the name of the work. After that, add other information depending on the type of reference.
Here are the general rules to follow when citing a research paper in an APA style format: Book: Last Name, First Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of the work. Publisher. Example: Thompson, S. (1982). The Year of the Wolf. Preston and Buchanan. Magazine: Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month of Publication). Article title.