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Your saved search, create a file for external citation management software, your rss feed, neuro-linguistic programming for the treatment of adults with post-traumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder, or depression: a review of clinical effectiveness and guidelines [internet].
- PMID: 25473689
- Bookshelf ID: NBK254043
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), and major depression disorder (MDD) are common debilitating disorders with a lifetime prevalence rate of approximately 12%, 2.6%, and 8% of Canadians, respectively. In addition to pharmacologic treatment, different treatment modalities such as psychotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), have been suggested for these disorders.
NLP is a therapeutic technique used to detect and re-program unconscious patterns of thoughts and behavior in order to alter psychological responses. The creators of NLP have claimed that there is a connection between the neurological processes (neuro), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and as such, it can be used in business, education, and medicine for conditions such as phobias, anxiety and depression. NLP is a multi-dimensional process usually comprised of steps such as building rapport between physician and patient, information gathering and desired health outcome definition, and use of techniques and tools such as sets of questions to facilitate a change in thinking and behavior of patients. Therapy sessions can take place weekly with the total number of sessions depending on individual needs.
This Rapid Response report aims to review the clinical evidence of NLP for PTSD, GAD and depression. Evidence-based guidelines on the use of NLP for these disorders will also be examined.
Copyright © 2014 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.
- CONTEXT AND POLICY ISSUES
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- KEY FINDINGS
- SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE
- CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DECISION OR POLICY MAKING
- Appendix 1 Selection of Included Studies
- Appendix 2 Summary of Critical Appraisal of Included Study
- Appendix 3 Main Study Findings and Authors’ Conclusions
- Evidence-based Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy: a meta-analysis. Zaharia C, Reiner M, Schütz P. Zaharia C, et al. Psychiatr Danub. 2015 Dec;27(4):355-63. Psychiatr Danub. 2015. PMID: 26609647
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Adults with PTSD, GAD, or Depression: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]. [No authors listed] [No authors listed] Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2014 Oct 31. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2014 Oct 31. PMID: 25473719 Free Books & Documents. Review.
- Neuro-linguistic programming and application in treatment of phobias. Karunaratne M. Karunaratne M. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010 Nov;16(4):203-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.02.003. Epub 2010 Mar 29. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010. PMID: 20920803 Review.
- Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review [Internet]. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. Stockholm: Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU); 2005 Nov. SBU Yellow Report No. 171/1+2. Stockholm: Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment (SBU); 2005 Nov. SBU Yellow Report No. 171/1+2. PMID: 28876726 Free Books & Documents. Review.
- [Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of the interaction between an individual genetic susceptibility, a traumatogenic event and a social context]. Auxéméry Y. Auxéméry Y. Encephale. 2012 Oct;38(5):373-80. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2011.12.003. Epub 2012 Jan 24. Encephale. 2012. PMID: 23062450 Review. French.
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Neuro Lingustic Programming - A Competitive Support for Slow Learners in the State Education Sector
Posted: 20 Oct 2016
University of Colombo
Date Written: October 19, 2016
Background: This presentation is on an on going pilot study of a research on developing the second language skills of primary school students. The pilot study is scheduled to be completed after 10 more hours of intervention with the target group, after which the longitudinal research will proceed. It is based on the theoretical framework of Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) in Education and its adaptation in teaching struggling slow learners who need a special approach to make them fit into the mainstream 2nd language classroom. Its learning strategies and techniques create a student centred approach by teaching ‘how to learn’ and not ‘what to learn’ (Blackerby 1996). NLP in Education deals with how aspects of emotion, feelings, mood or attitude which conditions behaviour, influences language learning (Arnold and Brown 1999). The main study conducted is on developing the second language skills of students in six selected Primary schools in Negombo. Research problem: A typical primary school class in Sri Lanka consists of an average of 40 students. One of the greatest challenges faced by teachers of young learners is how best to respond to the wide range of ability, maturity, ethnicity, language competence and individual needs existing in any typical class of children. This challenge has even become greater with the inclusion of children with disabilities and other special learning needs in ordinary classrooms. It has been observed that in a typical language class there is at least one child who has difficulty with reading and spelling and in some classes more than one, and about six students who are considered slow learners (Pollock and Waller 1994). Objective: This research is a pilot study conducted with the main objective of identifying and investigating the learning problems of the slow learners, slightly dyslexic students and students with behavioural problems associated with the Attention Deficit Disorder in one of the selected primary schools in the Negombo educational zone. By introducing the NLP Approach in Education, it is expected to improve their English skills by changing their attitudes towards learning. This is considered an urgent need, as these students are the future prospects for the higher education sector in Sri Lanka where English is fast becoming an essential tool for academic success. Research Design: This is a Quasi-experimental research with a Qualitative and Quantitative research design. Material and Methods The sample 24 students for this pilot study was from grade 5 of one primary school in Negombo. Data collecting techniques Qualitative data was obtained through the examination marks to select the students. The sample was separated into experimental and control group through random selection. Out of the identified 24 slow learners (n=24) 50% were the experimental group and 50%, the control group. The researcher so far has had 10 hours of intervention with the experimental group after school. During this time period the control group of 50% was exposed to approximately 40 hours of teaching in school. Quantitative data was also obtained through the attendance of the experimental group. Qualitative data was obtained through unstructured interviews with the three grade 5 teachers of English, researcher’s observation of the attitudes and motivation of the sample experimental group and the oral feedback of the experimental group. Experimental group Comparison of the term test marks of the experimental group before and after intervention showed that out of 12 (n=12) 58% had an average improvement of 09 marks. While 42% had an average 08 mark decrease. Attendance of 75% of the group of the was over 80%, while 17% had an attendance of 60%, and the remaining 09% had an attendance of 50%. Qualitative data obtained through accounts of the students indicated 100% enthusiasm and interest. All three teachers (100%) interviewed reported improved attitudes of students. Researcher observed a change of feeling and mood among students. Control group Quantitative data obtained through comparison of two sets of term test marks where no researcher intervention was done, indicated that out of 12 (n = 12) 58% had an average improvement of 13 marks. 42% had an average decrease of 07 marks. Qualitative data obtained through interviews with the teachers of English was that no significant improvement in attitude was visible in the control group sample. Conclusions: Some quantitative findings are ambiguous, since the increase of marks obtained by the majority of the control group is higher than the experimental group which had the NLP intervention. This finding could be attributed to various external independent variables which should be investigated in the control group and the experimental group. Although the test marks do not show an average improvement, taken individually there is an improvement among the experimental group. Also according to teacher and researcher observations, there is a an improvement in attitudes of the experimental group which is collaborated by the experimental group accounts. An exceptionally high attendance rate by the experimental group highlights their enthusiasm and interest by attending the after school class which is not compulsory for them. As attitude building is the first step towards motivation to learn, it is expected that by the end of the final 10 hour NLP intervention with the experimental group that a improvement in the academic achievements could be observed, by the group learning ‘how to learn’ and not just learning ‘what to learn’. Blackerby (1996) in his book Rediscover the Joy of Learning mentions that ‘ Knowing how to learn is not only necessary for academic success, it is vital for success in our rapidly changing society’. As the researcher is an university academic the possibility of adapting the Neuro Linguistic Approach which is practised in the above research, to enhance the English Language skills in the higher education sector is a positive factor.
Keywords: Second Language Skills, Primary Schools, Slow Learners, Neuro Linguistic Programming in Education
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Savitri Dias (Contact Author)
University of colombo ( email ).
English Language Teaching Unit 0094 Sri Lanka
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What is NLP and what is it used for?
Neuro-linguistic programming is a way of changing someone’s thoughts and behaviors to help achieve desired outcomes for them. It may reduce anxiety and improve overall wellbeing.
The popularity of neuro-linguistic programming or NLP has become widespread since it started in the 1970s. Its uses include treatment of phobias and anxiety disorders and improvement of workplace performance or personal happiness.
This article will explore the theory behind NLP and what evidence there is supporting its practice.
What is NLP?
NLP uses perceptual, behavioral, and communication techniques to make it easier for people to change their thoughts and actions.
NLP relies on language processing but should not be confused with natural language processing, which shares the same abbreviation.
NLP was developed by Richard Bandler and John Grinder, who believed it was possible to identify the patterns of thoughts and behaviors of successful individuals and to teach them to others.
Despite a lack of empirical evidence to support it, Bandler and Grinder published two books, The Structure of Magic I and II , and NLP took off. Its popularity was partly due to its versatility in addressing the many diverse issues that people face.
How does it work?
The varying interpretations of NLP make it hard to define. It is founded on the idea that people operate by internal “maps” of the world that they learn through sensory experiences.
NLP tries to detect and modify unconscious biases or limitations of an individual’s map of the world.
NLP is not hypnotherapy. Instead, it operates through the conscious use of language to bring about changes in someone’s thoughts and behavior.
For example, a central feature of NLP is the idea that a person is biased towards one sensory system, known as the preferred representational system or PRS.
Therapists can detect this preference through language. Phrases such as “I see your point” may signal a visual PRS. Or “I hear your point” may signal an auditory PRS.
An NLP practitioner will identify a person’s PRS and base their therapeutic framework around it. The framework could involve rapport-building, information-gathering, and goal-setting with them.
NLP is a broad field of practice. As such, NLP practitioners use many different techniques that include the following:
- Anchoring : Turning sensory experiences into triggers for certain emotional states.
- Rapport : The practitioner tunes into the person by matching their physical behaviors to improve communication and response through empathy.
- Swish pattern : Changing patterns of behavior or thought to come to a desired instead of an undesired outcome.
- Visual/kinesthetic dissociation (VKD) : Trying to remove negative thoughts and feelings associated with a past event.
NLP is used as a method of personal development through promoting skills, such as self-reflection, confidence, and communication.
Practitioners have applied NLP commercially to achieve work-orientated goals, such as improved productivity or job progression.
More widely, it has been applied as a therapy for psychological disorders, including phobias, depression , generalized anxiety disorders or GAD, and post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD.
Does NLP work?
Determining the effectiveness of NLP is challenging for several reasons.
NLP has not been subject to the same standard of scientific rigor as more established therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT.
The lack of formal regulation and NLP’s commercial value mean that claims of its effectiveness can be anecdotal or supplied by an NLP provider. NLP providers will have a financial interest in the success of NLP, so their evidence is difficult to use.
Furthermore, scientific research on NLP has produced mixed results.
Some studies have found benefits associated with NLP. For example, a study published in the journal Counselling and Psychotherapy Research found psychotherapy patients had improved psychological symptoms and life quality after having NLP compared to a control group.
However, a review published in The British Journal of General Practice of 10 available studies on NLP was less favorable.
It concluded there was little evidence for the effectiveness of NLP in treating health-related conditions, including anxiety disorders, weight management, and substance misuse. This was due to the limited amount and quality of the research studies that were available, rather than evidence that showed NLP did not work.
In 2014, a report by the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technology in Health found no clinical evidence for the effectiveness of NLP in the treatment of PTSD, GAD, or depression.
However, a further research review published in 2015 did find NLP therapy to have a positive impact on individuals with social or psychological problems, although the authors said more investigation was needed.
The theoretical basis for NLP has also attracted criticism for lacking evidence-based support.
A paper published in 2009 concluded that after three decades, the theories behind NLP were still not credible, and evidence for its effectiveness was only anecdotal.
A 2010 review paper sought to assess the research findings relating to the theories behind NLP. Of the 33 included studies, only 18 percent were found to support NLP’s underlying theories.
So, despite more than 4 decades of its existence, neither the effectiveness of NLP or the validity of the theories have been clearly demonstrated by solid research.
Also, it is worth noting, that research has mainly been conducted in therapeutic settings, with few studies into the effectiveness of NLP in commercial environments.
Studying how well NLP works has several practical issues as well, adding to the lack of clarity surrounding the subject. For example, it is difficult to directly compare studies given the range of different methods, techniques, and outcomes.
NLP has become very popular over the years. This popularity may have been driven by the fact that practitioners can use it in many different fields and contexts.
However, the broad ideas that NLP is built upon, and the lack of a formal body to monitor its use, mean that the methods and quality of practice can vary considerably. In any case, clear and impartial evidence to support its effectiveness has yet to emerge.
For these reasons, it is possible that good marketing has also contributed to the widespread popularity of NLP, particularly in the commercial sector.
Last medically reviewed on December 20, 2017
- Neurology / Neuroscience
- Psychology / Psychiatry
- Complementary Medicine / Alternative Medicine
How we reviewed this article:
- Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1975). The Structure of Magic: A Book About Language and Therapy, Volume 1 . Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
- Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1975). The Structure of Magic II: A Book About Communication and Change . Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
- Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. (2014, November 3). Neuro-linguistic programming for the treatment of adults with post-traumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder, or depression: A review of clinical effectiveness and guidelines http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25473689
- Roderique-Davies, G. (2009, July). Neuro-linguistic programming: Cargo cult psychology? Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education , 1 (2), 57–63 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242770183_Neuro-linguistic_programming_cargo_cult_psychology
- Stipancic, M., Renner, W., Schütz, P., & Dond, R. (2010, March). Effects of neuro‐linguistic psychotherapy on psychological difficulties and perceived quality of life [Abstract]. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research , 10 (1), 39–49 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1080/14733140903225240/full
- Sturt, J., Ali, S., Robertson, W., Metcalfe, D., Grove, A., Bourne, C., … Bridle, C. (2012, November). Neurolinguistic programming: A systematic review of the effects on health outcomes. The British Journal of General Practice , 62 (604), e757–e764 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3481516/
- Witkowski, T. (2010). Thirty-five years of research on Neuro-linguistic programming. NLP research data base. State of the art or pseudoscientific decoration? Polish Psychological Bulletin , 41 (2), 58–66 https://journals.pan.pl/dlibra/publication/114591/edition/99644/content
- Zaharia, C., Reiner, M., & Schütz, P. (2015, October 5). Evidence-based neuro linguistic psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Psychiatria Danubina , 27 (4), 355–363 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26609647/
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Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Its Techniques Research Paper
The use of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has been discussed by scholars who represent different fields of study such as psychology, counseling, or education. Moreover, there have been many debates about the efficiency of this model. This paper aims to examine and evaluate some of the main techniques included in NLP. Moreover, it is important to compare these methods with the practices involved in hypnotherapy because they involve the use of similar strategies such as establishing rapport with a person. This framework has been applied to different areas such as therapy, leadership, or personal development.
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However, one should keep in mind that the therapeutic benefits of NLP have not been convincingly demonstrated; so, certified counselors do not use this approach. This is the main limitation that should not be overlooked.
To some degree, NLP relies on behaviorism and classical conditioning. For example, such a method as anchoring is aimed at establishing a link between a certain stimulus and a response. In this case, stimuli can be images, sounds, or scents. In contrast, other methods such as the Swish Technique are more related to hypnosis and cognitive psychology, especially the study of memory. One should mention that the Swish Technique is supposed to eliminate certain undesirable behavior that can be caused by some childhood experiences, especially traumas. Moreover, one can mention such a method as eye movement that is premised on the assumption that specific movements of an eye can reflect the mental state of an individual (Wiseman et al., 2012).
For instance, these movements can be explained by the attempts to conceal the truth. It seems that this multidisciplinary nature of NLP can be one of its primary strengths. Different theories can better explain the behavior of a person, his/her motives, and worldviews.
So, one should rely on various subfields of psychology in order to help a patient. Moreover, this approach is worth attention because it shows how one can combine various disciplines to develop more effective counseling interventions. These are some of the positive aspects that should be taken into account. However, it is also important to show how various responses and behaviors of a person can be interconnected. For instance, one should explain how cognition determines a person’s responses to various stimuli. Yet, the proponents of NLP do not have this theoretical framework. This is one of the drawbacks identified by the critics of NLP.
There are several NLP methods that are similar to hypnotherapy. For instance, the advocates of NLP argue that it is important to establish rapport with a person (Bartkowiak, 2012, p. 2). In this case, a counselor should be able to display empathy for the needs or concerns of an individual. If this component is absent, this person may disregard the suggestions of a counselor. Moreover, he/she may even decide to end this cooperation.
There are other similarities between NLP and hypnotherapy. In particular, in both cases, a counselor should pay close attention to the body language of the patient because non-verbal signs can indicate at some feelings or emotions that can guide the behavior of a person. For instance, one can speak about anxiety or willingness to conceal something. The knowledge of this issue can be critical for a practitioner because he/she should remove some of the obstacles that can impair counseling. One of such obstacles is distrust that can diminish the efficiency of therapy.
Nevertheless, there are significant differences that should be considered. In particular, hypnotherapy involves the state of trance in which a person becomes very responsive to suggestions. In contrast, NLP does not necessarily include this element.
Moreover, NLP is supposed to make sure that a person adopts certain successful patterns of behavior (Roebuck, 2010, p. 271). For instance, one can speak about such aspects as leadership, interpersonal relations, conflict resolution, and so forth. So, these techniques are supposed to facilitate communication. In turn, hypnosis can be applied to achieve various purposes; for example, it can help a person overcome various phobias such as the fear of spiders or even birds. Still, one should bear in mind that there are many schools of hypnosis and NLP; therefore, it may be difficult to identify criteria for comparison. This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished.
While discussing NLP, one should also consider the criticisms of this approach. In particular, researchers argue that at present, the effectiveness of this method has not been demonstrated in an empirical way (Roebuck, 2010, p. 271). This argument is particularly relevant if one speaks about the therapeutic effects of this method. Moreover, even the proponents of NLP accept that in many cases, it is hard to study its therapeutic effects in an experimental way.
This issue can be a critical flaw of NLP because every scientific model should be testable or falsifiable. It should be mentioned that the efficiency of hypnotherapy has been tested in various empirical studies, and it is viewed as one of the valid approaches to therapy. So, certified counselors often apply it. In contrast, NLP is not regarded as a valid technique by therapists (Roebuck, 2010, p. 271). This is one of the details that should be taken into consideration.
Nevertheless, it is important to mention that this method has been applied in certain areas. For instance, this technique has been used in such areas as personnel section in various organizations (Gheorghe, 2013). Moreover, NLP is widely applied to such areas as the development of leadership skills, sales, team-building, negotiations and other fields requiring well-developed communicative or interpersonal skills.
So, NLP attracts the attention of many people who act as business administrators. Overall, many individuals want to get a better idea about NLP because they want to become more efficient interlocutors. However, in this case, one cannot empirically demonstrate that these interventions do help people develop the skills related to communication and persuasion. This is one of the points that can be made.
On the whole, this discussion indicates that NLP involves the use of various psychological fields such as behaviorism and the study of cognitive processes. To a great extent, this model bears some resemblance to hypnotherapy since, in both cases, practitioners focus on building rapport and understanding body language. However, the alleged benefits of NLP should be viewed critically because there is no substantial evidence that can illustrate the efficiency of this method. However, this limitation does not mean that this approach should be rejected because later research may indicate that this method can substantially help patients requiring therapy. The critical task is to design studies showing that this intervention is effective. These are the main aspects that can be distinguished.
Bartkowiak, J. (2012). NLP in qualitative research. International Journal Of Market Research , 54 (4), 451-453. Web.
Gheorghe, I. (2013). Application of NLP Principles and Methods in the Personnel Recruitment and Selection Process. Economic Insights – Trends & Challenges , 65 (1), 159-166. Web.
Roebuck, K. (2010). Emotional Intelligence: High-impact Strategies – What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity, Vendors . New York, NY: Emereo Publishing. Web.
Wiseman, R., Watt, C., Brinke, L., Porter, S., Couper, S., & Rankin, C. (2012). The eyes don’t have it: lie detection and Neuro-Linguistic Programming . Plos One , 7 (7), 1-5. Web.
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Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming.
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In this paper, we aim to highlight the characteristics of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and suggest possible directions for future research and study. The majority of NLP studies argue for more rigorous empirical support and standardised regulatory governance, in order to overcome academic biases and general misunderstandings. However, its popular practice for just under half a century and its global usage, suggest there is grounding for NLP to be accepted into the “mainstream” of psychology. We compare NLP with more “accepted” approaches (cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness, and coaching), and explore its practice regulations. While its efficiency (thorough analysis and applicability) was identified as its strength, more rigorous research and universal regulations of practice are needed for NLP to move onto the next level of acceptance.
- Neuro-linguistic programming
- rigorous research
- universal regulations
- future direction
- comparative evaluation
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Yasuhiro Kotera http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0251-0085
Michael Sweet http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4983-8333
Notes on contributors
Yasuhiro Kotera , Academic Lead for Counselling, Psychotherapy and Psychology, and Chair of Research Ethics Committee at the University of Derby, Online Learning, UK, is a certified Neuro-Linguistic Programming Trainer with the Society of NLP, and an accredited psychotherapist with the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, working with people from diverse backgrounds. His research areas include neuro-linguistic programming, career guidance, mental health, motivation and cross-cultural psychology.
Dr Michael Sweet , Associate Professor in Aquatic Biology at the College of Life and Natural Sciences in the University of Derby, UK, is passionate about the importance of public engagement in science, and has published over 50 research articles in peer-reviewed journals in the past six years.
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Journal of Neurolinguistics
About the journal.
An International Journal of experimental, clinical and theoretical research on language and the brain.
Aims & Scope
The Journal of Neurolinguistics is an international forum for the integration of the neurosciences and language sciences . JNL provides for rapid publication of novel, peer-reviewed research into the interaction between language , communication and brain processes . The focus is on rigorous studies …
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- DOI: 10.53841/bpsicpr.2019.14.1.57
- Corpus ID: 198181149
Neuro-linguistic programming: A review of NLP research and the application of NLP in coaching
J. Passmore , Tatiana S. Rowson
- Published 2019
- International Coaching Psychology Review
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Definition of NLP
NLP comprises models, techniques and strategies to help us understand how the language we use influences the way we think and the results we get!
NLP stands for ‘Neuro Linguistic Programming’ and has been around since 1970’s when its co-founders, Richard Bandler and John Grinder first modelled the therapists Milton Erickson, Gregory Bateson, Fritz Perls and Virginia Satir.
ANLP defines NLP as follows:
“NLP combines theories, models and techniques from a range of scientific and esoteric fields, to create accessible, understandable ‘tools’ which can be used by individuals, teams and organisations and applied in a variety of contexts to improve outcomes, support wellbeing and create change”
These models, techniques and strategies have evolved from modelling excellence, in order to help us better understand how our thought processes and behaviour, including how the language we use, influences the way we think and the results we get. Modelling excellence in any field enables us to bring about a positive change in ourselves and others.
A literal translation of the phrase 'Neuro Linguistic Programming' is that NLP empowers, enables and teaches us to better understand the way our brain (neuro) processes the words we use (linguistic) and how that can impact on our past, present and future (programming). It gives us strategies for observing human behaviour and learning from the best (and worst) of that!
Simply put, change is possible - all you need is a desire to change and a willingness to learn new ways of being…with yourself, your thoughts and with others.
NLP has been defined as the “users manual for your mind” because studying NLP gives us insights into how our thinking patterns can affect every aspect of our lives.
In the 1970’s, the co-creators of NLP originally defined NLP as follows:
“NLP is an attitude which is an insatiable curiosity about human beings with a methodology that leaves behind it a trail of techniques.“ Richard Bandler (co-creator of NLP)
“The strategies, tools and techniques of NLP represent an opportunity unlike any other for the exploration of human functioning, or more precisely, that rare and valuable subset of human functioning known as genius.“ John Grinder (co-creator of NLP)
History Of Neuro Linguistic Programming
The folllowing sample essay on History Of Neuro Linguistic Programming discusses it in detail, offering basic facts and pros and cons associated with it. To read the essay’s introduction, body and conclusion, scroll down.
History of Neuro Linguistic Programming Abstract This paper covers the history and development of Neuro Linguistic Programming in the field of psychology covering its techniques and its growth from behavioral modeling and the influences of Gestalt psychologists Fritz Perls; Virginia Satir, and Milton Erikson.
Richard Bandler and John Grinder are considered the fathers of Neuro Linguistic Programming and this paper covers the skills they developed and their discovery of the ways to identify the representational systems someone uses even when that person is not talking, by recognizing eye movements that reveal that the person is making pictures, hearing sounds, or sensing feelings.
NLP can be used in psychotherapy but also in many other fields such as management, sales, marketing, public relations, education, therapy, the military and police, sport, and personal development.
History of Neuro Linguistic Programming Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) was first developed in the U. S. in the early 1970’s from studying the thinking and behavioral skills used by particularly effective and successful people. It is the way of organizing and understanding the structure of subjective experience (Bandler ; Grinder 1975). Developed by a mathematician; Richard Bandler and a linguist John Grinder, NLP has been clinically demonstrated as a useful technology for generating change.
Research Papers In Neuro Linguistic Programming
Together they studied the three most successful therapists at the time to uncover the structure behind their work.
Proficient in: Human Nature
“ Ok, let me say I’m extremely satisfy with the result while it was a last minute thing. I really enjoy the effort put in. ”
The three where the founder of Gestalt therapy, Fritz Perls; Virginia Satir, Mother of Family therapy and Milton Erikson, the pre-eminent hypnotherapist of the modern era (Tan REV) NLP grew out of the ‘behavioural modelling’ activity of Grinder and Bandler in studying Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls, and Milton H Erickson. Richard Bandler (1949- ) enrolled as a psychology student in the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1970. John Grinder, (1940- ) was an associate rofessor of linguistics. Bandler joined the group of Grinder-followers and they became friends. Soon they were using Grinder’s linguistics to pursue Bandler’s interest in the work and the success-rate of Virginia Satir (mother of Family Therapy) and Fritz Perls (founder of Gestalt Therapy). They analysed writings and tape-recordings to discover what accounted for the successful results achieved by Satir and Perls. Later, through a friend of Bandler’s, they got to know and became admirers of Gregory Bateson who, in turn, introduced them to the work of Milton Erickson.
Using their studies Bandler and Grinder where able to develop skills to of modeling that allowed them to identify the structural elements of another individual’s behavior and teach that behavior to a third person (Dilts, Grinder, Bandler, Cameron Bandler & Delozier 1980). Bandler and Grinder noticed that the words people use to express themselves are a literal description of their mental experiences and at the basic level of understanding, people input, process internally, and output information using one or more of the five sensory channels; visual, auditory, kinesthetic, smell and taste.
The first three are the most important in day to day information processing (Andreas & Andreas 1982). As they began to come up with ideas, insights, and techniques they tried them out on friends (including Robert Dilts, Judith DeLozier, Leslie Cameron Bandler, and David Gordon) who soon joined them in developing and extending the work. The enthusiastic and highly creative group grew and this was how Neuro Linguistic Programming was developed. NLP has acquired a reputation for enabling people to become mind readers; this is partly because of the work of Grinder and Bandler.
They discovered that there are ways to identify the representational systems someone uses even when that person is not talking, by recognizing eye movements that reveal that the person is making pictures, hearing sounds, or sensing feelings. And out of this search came many of the methods that are still part of good Practitioner and Master Practitioner Trainings such as anchoring, sensory acuity and calibration, reframing, representational systems, and the two Language Models – as well as many of the personal change techniques such as the New Behavioural Generator and Change Personal
History. Using eye movements as a method of determining the preferred representational system Falzett (1981) found that a male and female interviewer where rated as more trustworthy by subjects when predicated systems where matched by the interviewer than when the interviewer used mismatching predicates in responding to a subjects verbalizations. The NLP model states that because of a specific neural wiring, humans move their eyes in predictable patterns when they are accessing representational strategies.
Breathing rate can also be used, high in the chest with short choppy breaths is a visual access, low in the stomach with deep breaths in kinesthetic access and even breathing in the middle of the chest indicates auditory access. Other behavioral aspects are the positioning of the shoulders, posture shifts, skin color changes, heart rate and also body temperature changes. (Schaefer, Beausay & Pursley 1983). NLP states that these accessing cues are the process where an individual modulates their neurology to access various representational that are necessary when trying to make sense out of their environment.
During therapy, NLP is process orientated; it is directed at the production of therapeutic change by affecting formal strategies that a person constantly employs. Expanding and challenging theses strategies is performed with the use of anchors. An anchor is a specific word which represents behaviors classically conditioned to evoke a specific response. This response can be cognitive or behavioral. An anchor does not need to be to be reinforced with its response and it does not need to be conditioned over a period of time. Language is a common anchoring system.
For example, the word dog will be an auditory anchor to an image of four legged animal that barks, an effective anchor with little cognitive effort. The smell of a hospital or a family member screaming in anger is examples of anchors that have been unintentionally installed and they operate out of an individual’s awareness and direct control. Neuro Linguistic Programming operates to install new anchors which work just as well as these unintentional anchors and work toward evoking a response that increases the behavioral flexibility of a person and it is through these anchors that changes can be made in the strategies of thought.
Using NLP a therapist can establish a map of one’s cognitive representation of the world and place anchors that be established in a clients strategies that provoke responses that differ from those expected using their original strategy. It is now used internationally used by millions of people throughout the world in such diverse fields as management, sales, marketing, public relations, education, therapy, the military and police, sport, and personal development. (Schaefer, Beausay & Pursley 1983). Grinder and Bandler proposed certain assumptions in their model of communications, NLP.
They assumed that people, (a) organize experiences into representational systems reflecting one or more sensory modes, (visual, auditory and kinesthetic); (b) vary in tendencies to encode experiences primarily in one sensory mode or another; (c) express such individual differences through choice of verbal predicates and through eyes movements; (d) communicate best with others who use the same representational or predicate systems. (Fromme & Daniell 1984) The sensory mode utilized and the sequences of modality utilizations are critical to the performance of any given task.
A person who is skilled at a certain task will have a radically different processing sequence from someone who performs poorly at the same task. The systems are sensory specific, grounded in a definable sensory system that provides the material for the experience. A person who uses a visual preferred representational system (PRS) will primarily attend to images, facial expressions and colors. Similarly, an auditory PRS may focus on sounds, tones, and volume. The kinesthetic PRS will focus on bodily sensations such as proprioceptive information, tactile experience, and the experience of affect. Hossack,MClinPSychol&Standidge1993) References Andreas, C, & Andreas, S. (1982). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: A new technology for training. Performance & Instruction, 21(5), 37-39. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1002/pfi. 4170210519 Bandler, R & Grinder, J (1975) Patterns of the Hypnotic techniques of Milton H Erickson MD, Vol 1 Cupertino, CA Meta Publications Dilts, R, Grinder, J, Bandler, R, Cameron-Bandler, L & DeLozier, J (1980) Neuro Linguistic Programming, Vol 1 Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications Einspruch, E. , & Forman, B. (1988).
Neuro-linguistic programming in the treatment of phobias. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6(1), 91-100. http://search. ebscohost. com Fromme, D. , & Daniell, J. (1984). Neuro-linguistic programming examined: Imagery, sensory mode, and communication. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(3), 387-390. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1037/0022-0167. 31. 3. 387 Gumm, W. , Walker, M. , & Day, H. (1982). Neuro-linguistics programming: Method or myth? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(3), 327-330. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1037/0022-0167. 29. . 327 Hossack, Alex, MClinPsychol, & Standidge, Karen. (1993). Using an imaginary scrapbook for neuro-linguistic programming in the aftermath of a clinical depression: A case history. The Gerontologist, 33(2), 265. Retrieved October 7, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 1649306). Helm, D (2003). Neuro Linguistic Programming: Deciphering the truth in the criminal mind. Education, 124(2), 257-260. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from Research Library. (Document ID: 532771451). Krugman, M. , Kirsch, I. , Wickless, C. , Milling, L. , Golicz, H. & Toth, A. (1985). Neuro-linguistic programming treatment for anxiety: Magic or myth? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(4), 526-530. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1037/0022-006X. 53. 4. 526 Schaefer, D. , Beausay, W. , & Pursley, C. (1983). Neuro-linguistic programming: Introduction, assessment, and critique. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 2(3), 2-13. Walter, J & Bayat, A. (2003). Neuro-linguistic programming: The keys to success. Student MJ, 11, 252. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from Research Library. (Document ID: 373186041).
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Neurolinguistic programming: a systematic review of the effects on health outcomes
Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) in health care has captured the interest of doctors, healthcare professionals, and managers.
To evaluate the effects of NLP on health-related outcomes.
Design and setting
Systematic review of experimental studies.
The following data sources were searched: MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, ASSIA, AMED, CINAHL®, Web of Knowledge, CENTRAL, NLP specialist databases, reference lists, review articles, and NLP professional associations, training providers, and research groups.
Searches revealed 1459 titles from which 10 experimental studies were included. Five studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and five were pre-post studies. Targeted health conditions were anxiety disorders, weight maintenance, morning sickness, substance misuse, and claustrophobia during MRI scanning. NLP interventions were mainly delivered across 4–20 sessions although three were single session. Eighteen outcomes were reported and the RCT sample sizes ranged from 22 to 106. Four RCTs reported no significant between group differences with the fifth finding in favour of the NLP arm ( F = 8.114, P <0.001). Three RCTs and five pre-post studies reported within group improvements. Risk of bias across all studies was high or uncertain.
There is little evidence that NLP interventions improve health-related outcomes. This conclusion reflects the limited quantity and quality of NLP research, rather than robust evidence of no effect. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the allocation of NHS resources to NLP activities outside of research purposes.
Neurolingistic programming (NLP) is an emerging technology within health care attracting interest and investment, particularly within primary care. NLP is a communication framework using techniques to understand and facilitate change in thinking and behaviour. Early study of NLP was of a scholarly nature and promoted NLP as a psychotherapeutic technique, although publication of commercial works 1 , 2 in the 1980s signalled a move between the academic and commercial worlds. While there is no agreed definition of NLP, different formulations share (or practitioners accept) a set of core propositions. In particular, NLP proposes that our internal representations of the world show a bias for a particular sensory modality (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, olfactory or gustatory), and that a person’s dominant modality, or preferred representational system (PRS), is signalled through various behavioural indices, particularly verbal expression and eye movement. A visual person, for example, may say ‘I see what you mean’ whereas an auditory thinker may say ‘I hear what you say’. The central tenet, or hypothesis of NLP is that communication will be more effective, or persuasive, if it is tailored to match the PRS of the target person. NLP practitioners use the individual’s PRS as a foundation to the development of rapport, to facilitate modelling, elicit well formed outcomes and use anchoring (or conditioning) techniques. NLP training is informally regulated in the UK, through the Association of NLP (ANLP) 3 and internationally through the International NLP Trainer’s Association (INLPTA) 4 at three levels of diploma, practitioner, and master practitioner, based on the number of hours of study and practice. 3 , 4 While NLP training organisations and practitioner registers are internationally widespread with NLP training opportunities for business use, personal development, and health visible in many European countries, US, Canada, and Australia, 3 – 6 the targeting of medical and healthcare practitioners for such training by NLP organisations in the form of seminars, workshops, and literature appears to be presently focused on the UK. 7 – 10
This targeted interest by the NLP community in medical and healthcare professionals led the authors to make a UK Freedom of Information (FOI) request to NHS organisations to identify spending on NLP training or services over a 3-year period. Information was requested on the purpose of any training (for example, personal development, management training, clinical service provision), which staff were trained and whether any associated evaluations or audits had been undertaken. This request was sent in June 2009 to all 143 primary care trusts, 73 mental health trusts, 166 hospital trusts, 12 ambulance trusts, 10 care trusts, and 10 strategic health authorities. A total of 326 (79%) NHS organisations responded to the request and the unpublished data revealed an NHS monetary spend of £802 468 on NLP-related activity. Over 700 NHS staff undertook NLP training during the time period with the majority (75%) being in administrative/managerial roles. Clinical staff included counsellors and clinical psychologists. A conservative estimate of 1-day training per person was determined at a modest daily salary rate of £150 per person indicates an estimated training cost of £105 000. For five trusts reporting that they had developed NLP-based services, the majority was spent on weight-loss counselling (£200 000) and this was a research study. Other spend areas included counselling skills (£190), substance misuse counselling (£90) and smoking cessation services (£450). While this spend was found to be modest, the FOI request established that it was widespread.
How this fits in
Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) is a collection of communication and behaviour change techniques used within the NHS for both clinical and managerial purposes and has a reputation in the business and entertainment industry as a method for influencing people. NLP is promoted to health professionals as a therapeutic and managerial intervention. Limited experimental research has been undertaken into the use of NLP to influence health outcomes and there is little evidence that NLP interventions improve health outcomes based on poor quality studies across heterogeneous conditions and populations. The allocation of NHS resources to support NLP activities should be confined to research investigations.
NLP’s position outside mainstream academia has meant that while the evidence base for psychological intervention in both physical and mental health has strengthened, 11 – 14 parallel evidence in relation to NLP has been less evident and has attracted academic criticism. 15 , 16 No systematic review of the NLP literature has been undertaken applying Cochrane methods. 17 The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review and appraise the available evidence for effectiveness of NLP on health-related outcomes.
Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported primary research on the effects of NLP on any health-related outcomes in all clinical populations. Studies without a quantitative evaluation of the effect of NLP, single case ( n = 1) studies, and those in which a single NLP technique was evaluated were excluded. Language eligibility was restricted to English.
MEDLINE® Ovid version (1950 to 20/02/12), PsycINFO (Earliest to 20/02/12), Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) (Earliest to 20/02/12), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1985 to 20/02/12), CINAHL® (1981 to 20/02/12), Web of Knowledge (Earliest to 20/02/12) and CENTRAL (Earliest to 20/02/12) were searched. The following keywords ‘neurolinguistic/neuro-linguistic and neuro linguistic programming’ were combined using the ‘OR’ Boolean operator together with the MeSH heading ‘neurolinguistic programming’ (available for MEDLINE only). The specialist NLP databases at the Universities of Bielefeld and Surrey (to 20/02/12), and the European Association for Neuro-linguistic Psychotherapy (to 20/02/12) were also searched in their entirety, and NLP associations, research groups, and social network forums, were contacted for additional research. Reference lists were screened for additional citations. A single reviewer initially screened all search results by title and those deemed potentially relevant were assessed against the eligibility criteria by two reviewers independently, with discrepancies resolved through discussion. Full-text papers of included studies were assessed against the eligibility criteria by two reviewers independently and discrepancies were resolved through discussion or referral to a third reviewer.
A data extraction template was developed, pilot-tested on two papers by three reviewers, and modified as necessary. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each study, including: publication details (authors, year, and country), participant characteristics, intervention details, outcome measures, risk of bias, and study findings. Risk of bias assessment for the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken with reference to the Cochrane Handbook. 17 The RCTs were assessed against the four risk domains of sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, and incomplete outcome data. The risk of bias was assessed based on the reported study methods according to the following criteria; low risk of bias = all domains adequately met, high risk of bias = at least one domain not met and uncertain risk of bias = inadequate reporting of methods. 17 Risk of bias for the pre-post studies was assessed using the Downs & Black quality index score. This is a validated checklist for assessing the quality of randomised and non-randomised studies in five subscales: reporting, external validity, internal validity (bias and confounding), and power. 18
A total of 1459 citations were retrieved using the search strategy. Of these, 93 titles were potentially relevant ( Figure 1 ). Abstracts were obtained and screened and 41 full text papers reviewed. Of the initial 93 citations, the majority were excluded as they were descriptive in nature, were not NLP interventions or they involved only healthy populations. In total, 10 studies were identified meeting the inclusion criteria ( Table 1 ). Due to the small number of studies identified and heterogeneity (in research design, populations, NLP interventions, and assessed outcomes), statistical analysis was not appropriate and a narrative synthesis of the evidence was undertaken. Nine studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and one was identified online.
Flowchart of identified studies.
Details of included studies
NLP = neurolinguistic programming. OR = odds ratio. RCT = randomised controlled trial. REBT = rational emotive behaviour therapy. VKD = visual kinaesthetic dissociation.
Characteristics of included studies
Five studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) 19 – 23 and five were observational/ pre-post test studies. 24 – 28 These were conducted in the US, 3 Denmark, 2 UK, 2 Croatia, Brazil, and New Zealand. Targeted health conditions include various anxiety disorders, 6 weight maintenance, morning sickness, substance misuse, and claustrophobia during MRI. The five RCTs targeted anxiety disorders, 3 maternal anxiety/child development and weight maintenance. Two used NLP interventions versus a no-intervention control arm and three compared NLP to an active intervention. Within the five RCTs, follow-up occurred immediately following a single session treatment, at 1 month, 5 months, 9 months and 3 years.
Within the 10 included studies participants were recruited broadly from childcare, criminal justice, and public and private healthcare facilities, higher education and the press. Demographic data about participants was poorly reported with eight studies reporting some data on sex. Two of these studies specifically recruited women only and the six remaining reported data indicating that overall 64% of study participants were female. Six studies reported participant age, albeit inexactly, with a range from 17–75 years and a mid-range estimate of approximately 40 years. One of the RCTs 21 presented broader socioeconomic data and found participants to be college educated or higher (100%), married (24%), and employed (56%).
Delivery of NLP interventions ranged from three studies using a single 1–2 hour session 19 , 25 , 28 to the remainder offering 4–20 1–2 hour sessions. Duration of intervention was reported by six studies ranging from 4 weeks, 23 21 days residential, 26 4–5 months 22 , 27 and 12 months. 20 One study offered group NLP. 24
Six studies described the qualifications and training of the interventionists and these included three clinical psychologists, 19 eight psychotherapists, 21 , 23 a certified NLP practitioner 22 , 25 and an NLP practitioner level radiographer. 28 These NLP interventionists were all certified to a minimum of NLP practitioner level with two stated as being master practitioner certified. 21 , 25 The interventionist training level was better described in the RCTs. Intervention techniques reported were mixed with six studies 19 , 23 , 25 – 28 employing a well-established NLP intervention described in the NLP literature. 29 , 30 Four studies referred generally to ‘NLP techniques’ or ‘NLP behaviour modification’. The observational studies provided greater detail about the interventions employed.
Across the 10 studies, 23 measures were used, and 18 outcomes reported. Outcomes were largely aligned to the targeted condition and the most common outcome assessed was anxiety 19 , 23 – 26 , 28 with three also measuring quality of life 23 and depression. 23 , 24 Validated measures were referenced by seven studies with a further two reporting the outcome was assessed but not how. All psychological outcome measures were different across these eight studies. Only three studies measured objective outcomes, weight, 22 successful completion of MRI scan, 28 and urinalysis for illegal substances. 27 Of the 18 outcomes reported, 11 were self-reported, three were objective measures, two were observed, and two not reported. The two observed measures were from RCTs 19 , 20 and one had a blinded outcome assessor 19 and the other was unclear. 20 In general the RCTs performed no better than the pre-post studies in terms of reporting of outcomes and the process of their measurement.
Risk of bias
In three of the RCTs, the risk of bias was high with alternate group allocation, 21 , 23 and incomplete outcome data reporting 20 ( Table 2 ). In two RCTs the risk of bias was uncertain. 19 , 21 None reported results by intention to treat (ITT) analysis and, although one 22 reported undertaking ITT analysis, only the completer analysis was presented. Three RCTs fared better in reporting withdrawals and participants lost to follow-up. In the pre-post study designs, the quality index scores 18 ranged from 6–13 (maximum rating is 23 for non RCTs) where low ratings represent poor quality. Only one paper 28 scored above the scale mid-point for quality.
Assessment of risk of bias
RCT = randomised controlled trial.
Across the five RCTs, NLP was evaluated with undergraduate students, mother and child pairs, weight challenged adults, and emotionally-distressed adults for which the main outcomes were assessed ranging from immediately post-treatment to 3-year follow-up. Main outcomes reported were anxiety (self-report), child development (observed), weight (objective), and quality of life (self-report). Four RCTs reported no significant between group differences in the assessed outcomes with the fifth 21 reporting less psychological distress and increased perceived quality of life in the NLP group compared to the waiting list control arm. Three RCTs and five pre-post studies reported within group improvements. Of the three studies measuring objective outcomes, one reported a post-treatment increase in completed MRI scans 28 and the other two reported no post-treatment improvement in urinalysis for illegal substances 27 or weight maintenance. 22
This systematic review demonstrates that there is little evidence that NLP interventions improve health-related outcomes. The study conclusion reflects the limited quantity and quality of NLP research, rather than robust evidence of no effect.
Strengths and limitations
This represents the first well-conducted review investigating the effectiveness of NLP on health-related outcomes. The study has not attempted to define NLP and its many components and techniques and this complicates the interpretation of the evidence. This study took the authors’ word that they were delivering NLP if they said they were and the evidence of levels of training of the interventionist supported this assumption. Some academic investigation into NLP was found in unpublished German language dissertations that the library advised would not be possible to obtain and this represents a possible gap in the evidence. The decision was taken to exclude studies using single NLP techniques. NLP has a lack of consensus surrounding a definition of techniques and mechanism of effect and on an individual technique basis there is overlap with more established and evidence-based psychological techniques. Arguably these could include developing rapport = person-centred counselling; modelling = vicarious learning; eliciting well formed outcomes = goal setting; reframing = cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques; and anchoring = classical conditioning. Inclusion of studies labelled by their authors as NLP and focusing on one of these single NLP techniques would have lead to a misleading observation of the evidence. Publication bias assessment was not formally calculated because only 10 studies were included. 18 The scoping reviews around the practice of NLP in physical and mental health conditions suggested it remains a controversial intervention. As only one of the five RCTs showing a positive effect in favour of NLP was found, the authors are less concerned about publication bias. However, it is possible that the controversy surrounding NLP may lead to a publication bias against studies that find a positive effect in favour of NLP.
Risk of bias in the five RCTs was high, or uncertain due to inadequate reporting of methods. It was not possible to determine the risk of bias associated with selective outcome reporting due to the absence of published study protocols. Assessment of the pre-post studies found four scoring lower than the scale midpoint score indicating a high risk of bias.
Implications for research and practice
There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend use of NLP for any individual health outcome. Neither this review, nor the FOI NHS trust data, point strongly to appropriate populations for further research. Use of NLP in specific settings may be vindicated in future, and preliminary data from its use in MRI/claustrophobia may justify a sufficiently powered RCT to clarify its role for these patients. Discussions with NLP key informants identified populations, for example allergy sufferers, who they felt were a strong target population for further NLP-based research. A formal stakeholder consultation with a range of NLP master practitioners would be an important next step for identifying such target populations for research. The strength of evidence for CBT would suggest it as a possible comparison group. The risk of bias assessments point to the need to develop a fully-specified and replicable intervention protocol for evaluation in a sufficiently powered RCT.
We are grateful to the many NLP practitioners who, in person and online, helped us develop an understanding of NLP and directed us to possible sources of evidence.
NHS Coventry commissioned the research and had representation on the steering group. The researchers had independence from the funders in the design and execution of the study. The study was sponsored by University of Warwick who had a research governance role in relation to the study.
Freely submitted; externally peer reviewed.
The authors have declared no competing interests.
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