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- 1. SMT.CHANDIBAI HIMATMAL MANSUKHANI COLLEGE ULHASNAGAR- 421003 PROJECT REPORT ON STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Disaster Management & CASE STUDY SUBMITTED BY AKASH RANA (ROLL NO: 46) M.COM (SEM.II):. SUBMITED TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI 2015-16 PROJECT GUIDE Prof. kishore karia 1 | P a g e
- 2. Department ofCommerce C e rtifica te This is to certify that, Mr. AKASH RANA of M.Com.-I, Sem.-I (Roll NO-46) has successfully completed the project titled “Disaster management & case study.” under my guidance for the Academic Year 2015-16. The information submitted is true and original as per my knowledge. Prof. kishore karia (Project Guide) Prof. Gopi Shamnani (Coordinator, M. Com Course) Dr. Manju Lalwani pathak ( I/C Principal) 2 | P a g e
- 3. External Examiner ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT I acknowledge the valuable assistance provided by SMT.CHANDIBAI HIMATMAL MANSUKHANI COLLEGE, for two years of degree course in M.Com. I specially thank the principal Dr. Manju Lalwani pathak for Allowing us to use the facilities such as library, computer laboratory, internet etc. I sincerely thank the M.Com co-ordinator Prof. Gopi Shamnani for Guiding us in the right direction go prepare the project. I thank my guide Prof. kishore karia who has given his/her valuable time, knowledge and guidance to complete the project successfully in time. My family and peers were great source of inspiration throughout my project theirsupport is deeply acknowledged. Signature 3 | P a g e
- 4. DECLARATI ON I, AKASH RANA OF SMT.CHANDIBAI HIMATMAL MANSUKHANI COLLEGE OF M.Com SEMESTER I, hereby declare that I have completed the project on ‘Disaster management & case study’ in the academicyear 2015-16. The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge. (AKASH .P. RANA) M.Com part-1, ROLL NO:46 SEMESTER II 4 | P a g e
- 5. INDEX Sr.No Topic Name PAGE NO. 1. Introduction 7-8 2. TYPES OF DISASTER 9 3. Disaster management 10 4. Emergency planning ideas 11 5. Implementing ideas 12 6. Phases and personal activities 13-23 7. Response 24-25 8. Recovery 26 9 Indian Armed Force & Jammu & Kashmir Floods, 2014 27-28 10. Disaster Management inIndia 29 11. Command and control 30 12 Rescue Mission 31-33 13 Relief assistance 34-36 14 National disaster response force (NDFR) 37-38 15 CASE STUDY UTTARAKHAND DISASTER 39-49 16 Conclusion 50-51 17 Bibliography 52 5 | P a g e
- 6. 6 | P a g e
- 7. Introduction A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability willnever become disasters, as isthe case in uninhabited regions. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized countries Classifications Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, and for more than forty years disaster research The studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate disaster management measures. Hazards are routinely divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in coastal flooding. Natural Hazard A Natural Hazard is a natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. 7 | P a g e
- 8. Various phenomena like earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, tsunamis, and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. However, the rapid growth of the world's population and its increased concentration often in hazardous environments has escalated both the frequency and severity of disasters. With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with deforestation, unplanned growth proliferation, non-engineered constructions which make the disaster- prone areas more vulnerable, tardy communication, poor or no budgetary allocation for disaster prevention, developing countries suffer more or less chronically by natural disasters. Asia tops the list of casualties caused by natural hazards. Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made disasters: they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property. This example is the September 11 attacks in 2001 at the World Trade Center in NewYork. Human-Instigated Disasters Main article: Man-made disasters Human-Instigated disasters are the consequence of technological hazards. Examples include stampedes, fires, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation. War and deliberate attacks may also be put in this category. As with natural hazards, man-made hazards are events that have not happened, for instance terrorism. Man-made disasters are examples of specific cases where man-made hazards have become reality in an event. 8 | P a g e
- 9. Types of Disasters which disturbs Disasters are simply defined as any over helmingecological disruption environmental and economical positions. Disasters are mainly divided as two types: Natural Disasters and Artificial Disasters. Artificial Disasters are also called as Man Made Disasters. Natural Disasters: Disasters that are caused by Natural causes are called as Natural Disasters. Earthquakes, Landslides, Floods, River erosion, Cyclones, Tsunami, Forest Fires etc… Artificial Disasters: These are the disasters that are occurred due to man made changes over the surface of the Earth. Nuclear Disasters, Chemical Disasters, Mine Disasters, Biological Disasters. These are an example of man-made disasters 9 | P a g e
- 10. Disaster Management Disaster management is the process of addressing an event that has the potential to seriously disrupt the social fabric of the community. Disaster management is similar to disaster mitigation, however it implies a whole-of-government approach to using community resources to fight the effects of an event and assumes the community willbe self-sufficient for periods of timeuntil the situation can be stabilized. Through disaster management, we cannot completely counteract the damage but it is possible to minimize the risks through early warning, provide developmental plans for recuperation from the disaster, generate communication and medical resources, and aid in rehabilitation and post- disaster reconstruction. The exchange of correct information following the event is important, in order to ensure the resources necessary to support response and recovery activities. The 72 hours following a major event isthe most difficult timebecause of a lack of coordination among relief organizations. Problems that interrupt rather than coordinate the rescue efforts of all groups involved often occur because of hasty decision-making under complicated circumstances and the large number of organizations, which are unsure of their roles duringoperations. The process of Disaster Management involves the followingphases: Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery. Disaster management (or emergency management) is the creation of plans through which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters.Disaster management does not avert or eliminate the threats, instead it focuses on creating plans to decrease the impact of disasters. Failure to create a plan could lead to damage to assets, human mortality, and lost revenue. Currently in the United States 60% businesses do not have emergency management plans. Events covered by disaster management include acts of terrorism, industrial sabotage, fire, natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.), public disorder, industrial accidents, and communication failures 10 | P a g e
- 11. Emergency planning ideas If possible, emergency planning should aim to prevent emergencies from occurring, and failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies. As time goes on, and more data becomes available, usually through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as Business Continuity and Security Risk Management, as set out below: Recognition or identification of risks Ranking or evaluation of risks o Responding to significant risks o Tolerate o Treat o Transfer o Terminate Resourcing controls Reaction Planning Reporting & monitoring risk performance Reviewing the RiskManagement framework There are a number of guidelines and publications regarding Emergency Planning, published by various professional organizations such as ASIS, FEMA and the Emergency Planning College. There are very few Emergency Management specific standards, and emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards. In order to avoid, or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks, hopefully to reduce their probability of occurring. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure Business Continuity of critical operations post-incident. It is essential for an organization to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated 11 | P a g e
- 12. Implementations ideas An emergency plan must be regularly maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, ensure it is up- to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers generally follow a common process to anticipate, assess, prevent, prepare, respond and recover from an incident. Pre-incident training andtesting Emergency management plans and procedures should include the identification of appropriately trained staff members responsible for decision-making when an emergency occurs. Training plans should include internal people, contractors and civil protection partners, and should state the nature and frequency of training and testing. Testing of a plan's effectiveness should be carried out regularly. In instances where several business or organizations occupy the same space, joint emergency plans, formally agreed to by all parties, should be put into place. Communicating and assessing incidents. Communication is one of the key issues during any emergency, pre-planning of communications is critical. Miscommunication can easily result in events escalating unnecessarily. Once an emergency has been identified a comprehensive assessment evaluating the level of impact and its financial implications should be undertaken. Following assessment, the appropriate plan or response to be activated will depend on a specific pre-set criteria within the emergency plan. The steps necessary shouldbe prioritized to ensure critical functions are operational as soon as possible. 12 | P a g e
- 13. Phases and personal activities Emergency management consists of fivephases: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Prevention Prevention was recently added to the phases of emergency management. It focuses on preventing the human hazard, primarily from potential natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Preventive measures are taken on both the domestic and international levels, designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. Not all disasters, particularly natural disasters, can be prevented, but the risk of loss of lifeand injury can be mitigated with good evacuation plans, environmental planning and design standards. In January 2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year global plan for natural disaster risk reduction called the Hyogo Framework. 13 | P a g e
- 14. Mitigation Personal mitigation is a key to national preparedness. Individuals and families train to avoid unnecessary risks. This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property, and steps taken to minimize the effects of a disaster, or take procure insurance to protect them against effects of adisaster. Preventive or mitigation measures take different forms for different types of disasters. In earthquake prone areas, these preventive measures might include structural changes such as the installation of an Earthquake Valve to instantly shut off the natural gas supply, seismic retrofits of property, and the securing of items inside a building. The latter may include the mounting of furniture, refrigerators, water heaters and breakables to the walls, and the addition of cabinet latches. In flood prone areas, houses can be built on poles/stilts. In areas prone to prolonged electricity black-outs installation of a generator. The construction of storm cellars and fallout shelters are further examples of personal mitigate actions. On a national level, governments might implement large scale mitigation measures. After the monsoon floods of 2010, the Punjab government subsequently constructed 22 'disaster-resilient' model villages, comprising 1885 single-stores homes, together with schools and health centers. Preparedness Airport emergency preparedness exercise. 14 | P a g e
- 15. Preparedness focuses on preparing equipment and procedures for use when a disaster occurs. This equipment and these procedures can be used to reduce vulnerability to disaster, to mitigate the impacts of a disaster or to respond more efficiently in an emergency. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has set out a basic four-stage vision of preparedness flowing from mitigation to preparedness to response to recovery and back to mitigation in a circular planning process. This circular, overlapping model has been modified by other agencies, taught in emergency class and discussed in academic papers FEMA also operates a Building Science Branch that develops and produces multi- hazard mitigation guidance that focuses on creating disaster-resilient communities to reduce loss of life and property. Emergency Preparedness can be difficult to measure. CDC focuses on evaluating the effectiveness of its public health efforts through a variety of measurement and assessment programs. Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) are required by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act to develop an emergency response plan, review the plan at least annually, and provide information about chemicals in the community to local citizens. This emergency preparedness effort focuses on hazards presented by use and storage of extremely hazardous, hazardous and toxic chemicals.Particular requirements of LEPCs include Identification of facilities and transportation routes of extremely hazardous substances Description of emergency response procedures, on and off site Designation of a community coordinator and facility emergency coordinator(s) to implement the plan Outline of emergency notification procedures Description of how to determine the probable affected area and population byreleases Description of local emergency equipment and facilitiesand the persons responsible for them Outline of evacuation plans A training program for emergency responders (including schedules) Methods and schedules for exercising emergency response plans 15 | P a g e
- 16. According to the EPA, "Many LEPCs have expanded their activities beyond the requirements of EPCRA, encouraging accident prevention and risk reduction, and addressing homeland security in their communities" and theAgency offers advice on how to evaluate the effectiveness of these committees. Preparedness measures can take many forms ranging from focusing on individual people, locations or incidents to broader, government-based "all hazard" planning. There are a number of preparedness stages between "all hazard' and individual planning, generally involving some combination of both mitigation and response planning. Business continuity planning encourages businesses to have a Disaster Recovery Plan. Community- and faith-based organizations mitigation efforts promote field response teams and inter-agency planning. Classroom Response Kit School-based response teams cover everything from live shooters to gas leaks and nearby bank robberies. Educational institutions plan for cyber-attacks and windstorms. Industry specific guidance exists for horse farms, boat owners and more. Family preparedness for disaster is fairly unusual. A 2013 survey found that only 19% of American families felt that they were "very prepared" for a disaster. Still, there are many resources available for family disaster planning. The Department of Homeland Security's Ready.gov page includes a Family Emergency Plan Checklist, has a whole webpage devoted to readiness for kids, complete with cartoon- style superheroes, and ran a Thunderclap Campaign in 2014 The Center for Disease Control has a ZombieApocalypse website 16 | P a g e
- 17. Kitchen Fire Extinguisher Disasters take a variety of forms to include earthquakes, tsunamis or regular structure fires. That a disaster or emergency is not large scale in terms of population or acreage impacted or duration does not make it any less of a disaster for the people or area impacted and much can be learned about preparedness from so-called small disasters. The Red Cross states that it responds to nearly 70,000 disasters a year, the most common of which is a singlefamily fire. Items on Shelves in Basement Preparedness starts with an individual's everyday life and involves items and training that would be useful in an emergency. What is useful in an emergency is often also useful in everyday life as well. From personal preparedness, preparedness continues on a continuum through family 17 | P a g e
- 18. preparedness, community preparedness and then business, mom-profit and governmental preparedness. Some organizations blend these various levels. For example, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement has a webpage on disaster training as well as offering training on basic preparedness such as Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and First Aid. Other non- profits such as Team Rubicon bring specific groups of people into disaster preparedness and response operations. FEMA breaks down preparedness into a pyramid, with citizens on the foundational bottom, on top of which rests local government, state government and federal government in that order. Non Perishable Food in cabinet The basic theme behind preparedness is to be ready for an emergency and there are a number of different variations of being ready based on an assessment of what sort of threats exist. Nonetheless, there is basic guidance for preparedness that is common despite an area's specific dangers. FEMA recommends that everyone have a three day survival kit for their household.Because individual household sizes and specific needs might vary, FEMA's recommendations are not item specific, but the list includes: Three-day supply of non-perishable food. Three-day supply of water – one gallon of water per person, per day. 18 | P a g e
- 19. Portable, battery-powered radio or television and extra batteries. Flashlight and extra batteries. First aid kit and manual. Sanitation and hygiene items (moist towelettes and toilet paper). Matches and waterproof container. Whistle. Extra clothing. Kitchen accessories and cooking utensils, including a can opener. Photocopies of credit and identification cards. Cash and coins. Special needs items, such as prescription medications, eyeglasses, contact lens Solutions, and hearing aid batteries. Items for infants, such as formula, diapers, bottles, and pacifiers. Other items to meet unique family needs. Along similarlines, but not exactly the same, CDC has its own list for a proper disaster supply kit. Water—one gallon per person, per day Food—nonperishable, easy-to-prepare items Flashlight Battery powered or hand crank radio (NOAAWeather Radio, ifpossible) Extra batteries First aid kit Medications (7-day supply), other medical supplies, and medical paperwork (e.g., medication list and pertinent medical information) Multipurpose tool (e.g., Swiss armyknife) Sanitation and personal hygiene items Copies of personal documents (e.g., proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth certificates, and insurance policies) Cell phone withchargers Family and emergency contactinformation 19 | P a g e
- 20. Extra cash Emergency blanket Map(s) of the area Extra set of car keys and housekeys Manual can opener Children are a special population when considering Emergency Preparedness and many resources are directly focused on supporting them. SAMHSA has list of tips for talking to children during infectious disease outbreaks, to include being a good listener, encouraging children to ask questions and modeling self-care by setting routines, eating healthy meals, getting enough sleep and taking deep breaths to handle stress. FEMA has similar advice, noting that "Disasters can leave children feeling frightened, confused, and insecure" whether a child has experienced it first hand, had it happen to a friend or simply saw it on television. In the same publication, FEMA further notes, "Preparing for disaster helps everyone in the family accept the fact that disasters do happen, and provides an opportunity to identify and collect the resources needed to meet basic needs after disaster. Preparation helps; when people feel prepared, they cope better and so do children." To help people assess what threats might be in order to augment their emergency supplies or improve their disaster response skills, FEMA has published a booklet called the "Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide." (THIRA) This guide, which outlines the THIRA process, emphasizes "whole community involvement," not just governmental agencies, in preparedness efforts. In this guide, FEMA breaks down hazards into three categories: Natural, technological and human caused and notes that each hazard should be assessed for both its likelihood and its significance. According to FEMA, "Communities should consider only those threats and hazards that could plausibly occur" and "Communities should consider only those threats and hazards that would have a significant effect on them." To develop threat and hazard context descriptions, communities should take into account the time, place, and conditions in which threats or hazards might occur. Not all preparedness efforts and discussions involve the government or established NGOs like the Red Cross. Emergency preparation discussions are active on the internet, with many blogs 20 | P a g e
- 21. and websites dedicated to discussing various aspects of preparedness. On-line sales of items such as survival food, medical supplies and heirloom seeds allow people to stock basements with cases of food and drinks with 25 year shelf lives, sophisticated medical kits and seeds that are guaranteed to sprout even after years ofstorage. One group of people who put a lot of effort in disaster preparations is called Doomsday Peppers. This subset of preparedness-minded people often share a belief that the FEMA or Red Cross emergency preparation suggestions and training are not extensive enough. Sometimes called survivalists, Doomsday Peppers are often preparing for The End of the World as We Know It, abbreviated as TEOTWAWKI. With a motto some have that "The Future Belongs to those who Prepare," this Preparedness subset has its own set of Murphy's Rules, including "Rule Number 1: Food, you still don't have enough" and "Rule Number 26: People who thought the Government would save them, found out that it didn't." Not all emergency preparation efforts revolve around food, guns and shelters, though these items help address the needs in the bottom two sections of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The American Peppers Network has an extensive list of items that might be useful in less apparent ways than a first aid kid or help add 'fun' to challenging times.These items include: Books and magazines Arts and crafts Children's entertainment Crayons and coloring books Notebooks and writing supplies Nuts, bolts, screws, nails, etc. Religious material Sporting equipment, card games and board games Emergency Preparedness goes beyond immediate family members. For many people, pets are an integral part of their families and emergency preparation advice includes them as well. It is not unknown for pet owners to die while trying to rescue their pets from a fire or from drowning.CDC's Disaster Supply Checklist for Pets includes: 21 | P a g e
- 22. Food and water for at least 3 days for each pet; bowls, and a manual can opener. Depending on the pet you may need a litter box, paper towels, plastic trash bags, grooming items, and/or household bleach. Medications and medical records stored in a waterproof container. First aid kit with a pet first aidbook. Sturdy leash, harness, and carrier to transport pet safely. A carrier should be large enough for the animal to stand comfortably, turn around, and lie down. Your pet may have to stay in the carrier for several hours. Pet toys and the pet's bed, if you can easily take it, to reduce stress. Current photos and descriptions of your pets to help others identify them in case you and your pets become separated, and to prove that they are yours. Information on feeding schedules, medical conditions, behavior problems, and the name and telephone number of your veterinarian in case you have to board your pets or place them in foster care. FEMA cautions that emergencies happen while people are travelling as well and provides guidance around emergency preparedness for a range travelers to include commuters Commuter Emergency Plan and holiday travelers. In particular, Ready.gov has a number of emergency preparations specifically designed for people with cars. These preparations include having a full gas tank, maintaining adequate windshield wiper fluidand other basic car maintenance tips. Items specific to an emergency include: Jumper cables: mightwant to include flares or reflective triangle Flashlights, to include extra batteries (batteries have less power in colder weather) FirstAid Kit, to include any necessary medications, baby formulaand diapers if caring for small children Non-perishable food such as canned food (be alert to liquids freezing in colder weather), and protein rich foods like nuts and energy bars Manual can opener At least 1 gallon of water per person a day for at least 3 days (be alert to hazards of frozen water and resultant container rupture) 22 | P a g e
- 23. Basic toolkit: pliers, wrench, screwdriver Pet supplies: food and water Radio: battery or hand cranked For snowy areas: cat litter or sand for better tire traction; shovel; ice scraper; warm clothes, gloves, hat, sturdy boots, jacket and an extra change of clothes Blankets or sleeping bags Charged Cell Phone: and car charger In addition to emergency supplies and training for various situations, FEMA offers advice on how to mitigate disasters. The Agency gives instructions on how to retrofit a home to minimize hazards from a Flood, to include installing a Backflow prevention device, anchoring fuel tanks and relocating electrical panels. Marked gas shutoff Given the explosive danger posed by natural gas leaks, Ready.gov states unequivocally that "It is vital that all household members know how to shut off natural gas" and that property owners must ensure they have any special tools needed for their particular gas hookups. Ready.gov also notes that "It is wise to teach all responsible household members where and how to shut off the electricity," cautioning that individual circuits should be shut off before the main circuit. Ready.gov further states that "It is vital that all household members learn how to shut off the water at the main house valve" and cautions that the possibilitythat rusty valves mightrequire replacement. 23 | P a g e
- 24. Response The response phase of an emergency may commence with Search and Rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfillingthe basic humanitarian needs of the affected population. This assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organizations. Effective coordination of disaster assistance is often crucial, particularly when many organizations respond and local emergency management agency (LEMA) capacity has been exceeded by the demand or diminished by the disaster itself. The National Response Framework is a United States government publication that explains responsibilities and expectations of government officials at the local, state, federal, and tribal levels. It provides guidance on Emergency Support Functions which may be integrated in whole or parts to aid in the response and recovery process. On a personal level the response can take the shape either of a shelter in place or an evacuation. Evacuation sign In a shelter-in-place scenario, a family would be prepared to fend for themselves in their home for many days without any form of outside support. In an evacuation, a family leaves the area by automobile or other mode of transportation, taking with them the maximum amount of supplies they can carry, possibly including a tent for shelter. If mechanical transportation is not available, evacuation on foot would ideally include carrying at least three days of supplies and rain-tight bedding, a tarpaulinand a bedroll ofblankets. Donations are often sought during this period, especially for large disasters that overwhelm local capacity. Due to efficiencies of scale, money is often the most cost-effective donation if fraud is avoided. Money is also the most flexible, and if goods are sourced locally then transportation is minimized and the local economy is boosted. Some donors prefer to send gifts in kind, however these items can end up creating issues, rather than helping. One innovation by Occupy Sandy volunteers is to use a donation registry, where families and businesses impacted by the disaster can make specific requests, which remote donors can purchase directly viaa web site. 24 | P a g e
- 25. Medical considerations will vary greatly based on the type of disaster and secondary effects. Survivors may sustain a multitudeof injuries to include lacerations, burns, near drowning, or crush syndrome. 25 | P a g e
- 26. Recovery The recovery phase starts after the immediate threat to human life has subsided. The immediate goal of the recovery phase is to bring the affected area back to normalcy as quickly as possible. During reconstruction it isrecommended to consider the location or construction material of the property. The most extreme home confinement scenarios include war, famine and severe epidemics and may last a year or more. Then recovery will take place inside the home. Planners for these events usually buy bulk foods and appropriate storage and preparation equipment, and eat the food as part of normal life. A simple balanced diet can be constructed from vitamin pills, whole-meal wheat, beans, dried milk, corn, and cooking oil one should add vegetables, fruits, spices and meats, both prepared and fresh-gardened, when possible 26 | P a g e
- 27. Indian farmed forces and the Jammu and Kashmir floods, 2014 In the wake of heavy monsoon rain and flash floods in Jammu and Kashmir(J&K), which has killed over four hundred, and rendered hundreds of thousands homeless, the Indian Armed Forces were deployed in increasing numbers starting September 2, 2014 to conduct search, rescue, relief, relocation, humanitarian assistance and rehabilitation missions in J&K. By September 18, over 200,000 people were rescued from the various parts of Jammu and Kashmir by the Armed forces. The J and K floods, the worst in a century according to Omar Abdullah, the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, paralyzed the state government. Omar Abdullah, responding to public criticism, told the media “I had no government” in the first few days following the floods, as “My secretariat, the police headquarters, the control room, fire services, hospitals, all the infrastructure was underwater.” Adding “I had no cell phone and no connectivity. I am now starting to track down ministers and officers.” The J and K Floods 2014 have been blamed on heavy rainfall, about 8 inches on 4 September alone, on climate change, unplanned and uncontrolled development, encroachment of river banks, lakes, ponds, and 27 | P a g e
- 28. massive loss of wet lands, absence of local government flood forecasting system, and poor governance. The Armed Forces humanitarian assistance mission, in response to J and K floods 2014 was named Mission Sahayata (assistances). Norther Command humanitarian assistance in response to J&K floods 2014 to civil authorities in J&K was named 'Operation MEGH RAHAT'.The Indian Army, Air Force, and the Navy, committed large resources to the assistance mission including over 30,000 troops ( 21,000 in Srinagar, and 9000 in Jammu), 15 engineer task forces, 84 Indian Air Force and Army Aviation Corps fixed wing transport aircraft and helicopters, naval commandos and rescue specialists, and Base Hospital, four field hospitals, over 106 medical detachments. "Operation Megh Rahat", ended on 19 September 2014, but "Operation Sadbhavna", the relief and medical assistance support, according to government press release, will continue in "close synergy with the civil administration and the police" 28 | P a g e
- 29. Disaster management in India The organization, structure, laws, protocol, and arrangements for disaster management at the Federal and State level are outlined in a manual titled Disaster Management in India, and the Disaster Management Act, 2005, which provides for "the effective management of disasters" in India. The Disaster Management Division (DM Division), under the Secretary, Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India, is responsible for “response, relief and preparedness for natural calamities". The Head of Disaster Management Division is G.V.V. Sarma, Joint Secretary. The head of Border management isMs Sneh Lata Kumar, Secretary, and Border Management. The National Emergency Operation Centre (NEOC), is responsible for the preparation of the National Disaster Management Plan for the whole country and to ensure that it is "reviewed and updated annually". The Chief of the Integrated Defense Staff of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, is an ex officio member of the NEC. NEOC is mandated to function twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. The NEOC is responsible for monitoring the disaster or disaster like situation, receive updates from federal Early Warning (EW) Agencies like the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Central Water Commission, and Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment. After processing the information NOEC submits its report and updates to affected States and concerned Central Ministries and organizations. During the monsoon period, it is required to issue daily situation reports. It is not known, whether the NEOC was functioning in prior to the J and K floods 2014, and whether it received the EW from IMD, and reported to the state government. 29 | P a g e
- 30. Command andcontrol Northern Command, along with the Advance Air HQ, located in Udhampur, is responsible for the armed forces humanitarian assistance mission, called Operation Megh [ (मेघ) in English Cloud] Rahat, in the entire J and K. General Officer Commanding in Chief ( GOC-in-C), Northern Command, is Lieutenant General DS Hooda, of 4th Gorkha Rifles. XV Corps also called the ChinarCorps, based in Srinagar, is responsible for the assistance mission in the Kashmir valley. General Officer Commanding (GOC) XV Corps is Lieutenant General Subrata Saha, of the Assam Regiment. XVI Corps also called White Knight Corps, based in Nagrota, is responsible for assistance mission in areas south of the Pir Panjal range. GOC XVI Corps is Lieutenant General Konsam Himalay Singh of the Rajput Regiment. In Delhi, Air Marshal P.P. Reddy, Chief of Integrated DefenseStaff (IDS), who reports to chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, is responsible for coordinating Mission Sahayata, theArmed Forces response to the J and K Floods 2014. 30 | P a g e
- 31. Rescue mission The J and K Floods, described as a ‘tragedy’, by Lt Gen DS Hooda, Northern Army Commander, “became evident”, on 7 September, 14, the third day of incessant rains, when flood waters breached the banks of Jhelum, and submerged Srinagar, including the Badami Bagh Cantonment, disrupted “ electricity, water supply and civil communications” and flooded the headquarters of XV Corps, which was responsible for “coordinating all rescue operations” The flooding of headquarters XV Corps, and the Srinagar Cantonment, Hooda acknowledged, delayed the army’s rescue operations in Srinagar but “only for a few hours ”. The rescue operations however, did not affect rescue work in “South Kashmir”, the worst affected area in the first three days, and the Jammu region. In Srinagar, where the “Army does not operate” except in the “Badami Bagh Cantonment and the area of the airfield”, the General said the rescue operations were mainly conducted by “Kashmiris” from Srinagar based Jammu & Kashmir Light Infantry Centre. Responding to media reports that locals were discriminated against, he said that it is hardly likely that soldier of Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry would discriminate against the Kashmiris in carrying out the rescue mission 31 | P a g e
- 32. During the first few days the search and rescue operation were hindered by shortage of boats and bad weather. Boats were airlifted from all corners of India, including from far away Tamil Nadu. In the absence of civil boats the army pressed into service its BAUTS, more appropriate for assault river crossings than rescue assistance during floods. By the 11 September, there were 224 army boats and 148 NDRF’s inflatable boats in the affected area conducting rescue and search operations for those who were stranded on roof tops as flood water menacingly swirled around them, Air Force helicopters with IAF Garud Commandos help winch the stranded people to safety. Several hundred were rescued from rood tops. In some cases the Indian Air Force (IAF) commandos had to break through the roof to rescue the trappedpeople. Social media in search and rescue They were just playing Facebook and twitter somewhere in Delhi. The Electricity and Internet Services were out in Kashmir during the flood. The Indian Army, for first time, used social media such as twitter, WhatsApp, a messaging service, and Facebook , in its search and rescue operations, and to collate and feed Person Finder provided by Google to the army’s public information office.According to Indian army’s Major General Shokin Chauhan, who is head of public information office, “a dedicated team of two young officers" are handling the social media “practically around the clock”. An estimated 12,000 people, according to the Indian army official, have been assisted on the basis of reports received over the social media. The Army Commander denied media reports that it had "embedded journalists", and that army has conducted its rescue according to “a hierarchy of importance and influence“, rather than “on the first- seen-first-saved basis”. On the incidents of stone throwing by some people, he said, “the incidents were very few” and “blown out of proportion. Most people rescued were extremely appreciative of the Army's effort”, and that the rescue mission was assisted by “local volunteers who have contributed immensely. Kashmir floods: Come 'hell' or rain, army won't stopuntil lastman is rescued From helicopter sorties to building bridges to tugging makeshift boats through muddied waters. Our jawans have done it all over the last one week to save tens of thousands marooned by the floods in Jammu and Kashmir. 32 | P a g e
- 33. The jawans from the Indian Army, the Air Force and the National Disaster Relief Force braved hostile conditions to pull out 1.3 lakh survivors so far, while the state administration took a backseat. There are nearly four lakh more trapped by the waters in different areas, and the task is still by no means over. 33 | P a g e
- 34. Relief assistance They only helped Indian and Foreign tourists in Kashmir. The numbers are just made up. Water and biscuits (expired in 2008) were dropped on the bridge via helicopter just for the purpose of shooting for news channels. From the start of Mission Sahayata till 10 September, the Armed Forces rescued 1,10,000 persons, and airlifted and distributed 2,24,000 liters of water, 31,500 food packets and ready to eat meals, 375 tons cooked food, 2.6 tons of biscuit, 7 tons baby food, water purifying tablets, 8,200 blankets, 650 tents, to the affected civilian population.Most of this food served was outdated as a result of which people threw stones on the rescue helicopters out of anger. As many as 224 boats of Army and 148 boats of NDRF have been pressed into service.Air transport Because of the massive damage to surface communication, the rescue and relief effort was largely dependent on air transport. Air transport support operations were conducted from air force stations and bases in Delhi, Bhatinda, Chandigarh, Jammu, Srinagar, and Avantipur. Helicopters support operation were conducted from Srinagar, Awantipur, Udhampur, Jammu, Pathankot and Sarsawa. Over 80 aircraft were deployed on the humanitarian assistance mission including 13 Chetak and 5 Advance Light Helicopters of the Army Aviation Corps. On 11 September, the IAF deployed its heavy duty MI-26, called Bheem, the largest helicopter in IAF 34 | P a g e
- 35. inventory, from IAF 12 Wing, Chandigarh, to Avantipur Air Force base, Srinagar, with 12 tons of relief material, for Relief and Rescue Mission, in J and K. Wing Commander G S Tung of 12 Wing said that MI 26 was “ especially designed to meet the heavy lift requirements of the IAF and has a carrying capacity of 30 tonnes”. In the first seven days till the 10 September, the army and IAF flew 1081 sorties, 100 to 120 sorties every day, moving 1411 tons of relief materials. Air transport operations included delivery of six large water filtration plants with a capacity to filter 1,20,000 bottles per day, engineering stores like suction and submersible pumps, generator sets with mobile charging stations, communication equipment for Department of Tele communication and some of private companies like Aircel.It airlifted the Base Transmitting Station of BSNL from Kargil to Srinagar By 18 September 2014, over 80,000 affected people were airlifted including over 28,000 from Srinagar and 52,000 from other flood affected area of J and K, by the IAF, Army, and Civil aircrafts. Navy The Indian Navy Marine Commandos rescued 200 personnel at Haigaon on the Srinagar–Sopore highway, and assisted in rescue efforts near Pantha Chowk, Srinagar. In addition to search and rescue assistance, naval medical team, and Diving Teams were placed on alert, ready to move, at New Delhi, Mumbai and Vishakhapatnam. Medical The armed forces have deployed 80 medical teams. In addition it has set up four field hospitals, one each in Avantipur, Pattan, Anantnag and Old Airfield. Over 20,000 patients have received treated at these facilities. Repair and restoration of communication infrastructure The floods and rain ravaged the roads and road communication severing road communication between Jammu and Srinagar, and Jammu and Poonch, and host of other roads. Restoration of communication was urgent priority task. Initially fivetask forces of Border Roads Organization 35 | P a g e
- 36. (BRO), which included 5700 personnel, were mobilized. By 10 September, the Jammu–Poonch road was cleared, and road traffic between Batote and Kishtwar and Kishtwar - Sinthan Pass was restored By 16 September, the strength of Army Engineers and BRO personnel on road building and bridge construction had increased to 10,0000. Heavy road construction equipment used included 400 bulldozers, excavators and JCBs, and 300 tippers and dumpers, to restore and repair roads damaged in over 1000 places.After opening of the national highway between Jammu and Srinagar, the army, on 16 September, restored communication between Rajouri and Budhal by constructing a 180 feet bailey bridge over Ans River at Kot Ranka on 16 September. Relief camps To complement the rescue work, the Army established 19 relief camps, where the rescued persons were provided food, shelter, and medical assistance. In Srinagar region, camps were at Badami Bagh Cantonment,Avantipur, Old Airfield, Sumbal, Chattargam and Jijamata Mandir. 36 | P a g e
- 37. National disaster response force (NDRF) National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is a force of 12 battalions, organized on paramilitary lines, and manned by persons on deputation from the para-military forces of India. It is headed by O.P. Singh (IPS-1983), with the title of Director General (DG). He is from the Uttar Pradesh cadre, of the Indian Police Service (IPS). He took over as DG of the NDRF on 1 September 2014, a few days before the J and K floods 2014. OP Singh in addition to being DG NDRF is also Additional DG of the Central Industrial Security Force (Airport sector), his current responsibilities. The NDRF is a top heavy organization, which in addition to the DG has an Inspector Generals (IG) and several Deputy IGs. Till 2 September the Disaster Management Division, MHA, had no plans to deploy NDRF in J and K. It was surprised by the floods. A NDRF Officer told the media" We were all caught off guard because there was not a single warning issued by the weather office. The flash floods took us by surprise” NDRF started to arrive in J and K from 6 September on wards. By 9 September there were elements from 5,6, and 7 NDRF Battalions: 5 NDRF Battalion (1 team of 54 personnel), 6 NDRF Battalion (64 personnel )and 7 NDRF Battalion( 370). The total strength of NDRF committed to J and K was 488. On 7 September 7 NDRF battalion had 3 teams in Jammu, 6 teams (244 personnel) in Srinagar. The team in Jammu was engaged in responding to bus stuck under water, and on search and rescue mission in Gharkhal, and Abhor, in Jammu District. On 9 September, 86 personnel ( 3 37 | P a g e
- 38. teams) from 4 NDRF Battalion( CISF), from Arakkonam, in Tamil Nadu, was airlifted from INS Rajali, to Srinagar, to conduct search-cum-rescue operations rescue operations in Nehru Park and Manaswal in Srinagar. The 4 NDRF Be detachment included 24 inflatable boats; with these additions the total of NDRF boats goes up to 148 boats. The NDRF isexpected to stay in J and K for a period of 10 days. 38 | P a g e
- 39. CASE STUDY ON UTTARAKHAND DISASTER Introduction The vulnerable nature of global tourism isone of the major concerns for contingency Management. Disaster management is an important aspect for any tourism destination (Especially in the face of a crisis). The specific contingencies such as war, terrorism, crime waves, epidemic and natural disasters have devastating impacts on any community, region, state or nation.Any potential destination is exposed to one or more of the above threats, which can question the safety of residents, tourists and can hamper the market perception of that destination. Consequently, it is crucial for all destination stakeholders to analyze and develop contingency plans to respond to varying levels of threats. Either a specific episode or a series of those may create a change in the perceptions towards a destination. There are a number of factors which can question the safety and security image of tourist destinations and result in a destination crisis. Some of them are: international war / prolonged demonstrations of internal conflict; terrorism which can affect the tourism sector of the state; crime wave, especially when tourists are targeted (murder, sexual exploitation, theft etc); natural disasters, such as an earthquake, storm or floods, causing damage to urban areas or the natural environment and consequently impacting on the 39 | P a g e
- 40. tourism infrastructure and health concerns related to epidemics and diseases; these may be diseases which impact on humans directly or diseases affecting animals, which create constraints for tourism. These events can cause massive aftermaths, individually or in combination, to create a negative imageon the safety, security or desirability of tourist destinations. Thereby, it poses challenges for the concerned authorities and local communities to examine the ingredients of disaster management strategies. The degrees to which emergency service isinitiated to face crisis can always be critically examined when crisis overrules. Certainly, those factors do not represent the totality of issues which can impact negatively the destination image. However,the concern can extend to analyze how a destination and its tourism industry conduct a marketing campaign to restore its image and recover its market from the damage caused by these events (Varghese, 2012) Thisstudy envisages on the repercussions of Uttarakhand as a destination in the plight of a disaster and provides the various steps that make an effective disaster management plan and it seeks to provide a means of disaster recovery through a systematic approach which will help restoring the destinations success, the paper also goes a step ahead in discussing the marketing strategies and campaigns so as to restore the destinations imagewhich would be tainted due to the devastation and finally recommends the importance if destination management by implementation of Destination Management Organizations(DMOs). 40 | P a g e
- 41. A Case Study of Uttarakhand: At the peak of the monsoon season the northern state of Uttarakhand was face to face with floods caused due to the cloud burst that hitthree of the four famous Char Dham pilgrim sites, “2013 North India floods” leaving tens and thousands of inhabitants as well as pilgrims stranded or swept away due to the floods, and not to mention the damage cause to life, property and business.The famous Char Dham pilgrimage is now discontinued for three years for repair and restoration ("Plan ahead", 2013).The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), in one of its first reports on the Uttarakhand floods, has blamed “climatic conditions combined with haphazard human intervention” in the hillsfor the disaster (“Down To Earth”, 2013). 41 | P a g e
- 42. Besides the natural disaster various other factors have contributed to the downfall of this famous religious/ tourist site. Uttarakhand’s huge potential in tourism lead to the state intapping its potential towards becoming a major tourist and pilgrim destination, also has a hand in this disaster. The uncontrolled rise of tourism inflow into the sate of Uttarakhand, took a toll on the ecology of the state. With Uttarakhand’s proximity to the national capital, the weekend revelers soon found Uttarakhand to be the destination to beat the heat. Plus, the religious tourists found it much easier to travel to-not-so accessible Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and other shrines, all this lead to an unsustainable rise in the number of people traveling to Uttarakhand (Bisht, 2013). As stated by Jacob (2013) during a livetelevision interview on CNN-IBN that, “the number of 'pilgrims' has been steadily increasing, with people from the plains interested in a quick guided tour of the hillsin a vehicle...the local authorities have ignored the carrying capacity and cumulative impact of dams and illegal construction on the fragile Himalayas”. Thissteady rise in tourist inflow resulted in other detrimental issues such as heavy traffic and roadblocks, with tourists routinely complaining about the bad roads and how it affected their travel time, the government resorted to widen the roads so as to accommodate the tourist’s inflow. Considering the fragility of these mountains, Himalayas being the youngest of the mountain ranges in the world with very poor soil stability the roads would routinely cave in or get washed away during monsoons (Bisht, 2013). The risingtourism industry lured the land sharks and they erected multi-storied hotels, flouting all environmental norms.Thousands of such resorts and hotels have mushroomed in thiseco- sensitive zone in the last few years. Some of these hotels were built on banks of several small and big rivers just to give the tourist a bird’s eye view of the pristine river flowing through the valley . The number of hotels has also seen a similar rise in the recent past. For example, Kedarnath Valley has hundreds of such hotels that were vulnerable to these natural calamities. So, when flash floods struck the valley, many of these hotels got swept away and so did the people staying in them (Bisht, 2013). As addressed by Jacob (2013), that “rampant illegal construction of buildings by locals had also contributed to the problems and made a bad situation worse. On top of it all, traffic in the hillshas increased hugely, with the number of vehicles registered in the hillsgoing up sharply. Remember the 42 | P a g e
- 43. hillsare delicate and unstable, so it takes little to set off landslides. More infrastructure has in fact worsened the situation since much of it is poorly made and constructed by people who have no idea of building in the hills”. All the above factors has had a crucial role to play in the disaster, but as the report provisioned by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) showed that not only was the disaster aggravated due to rise tourism but also blame lands in the faults of the State Disaster Management Authority which was formed in 2007, but never was a meeting convened nor were there any rules, regulations, policies or guidelines framed, "the state disaster management plan was under preparation and actionable programmes were not prepared for various disasters," the report says. Going to show that the state was unprepared to face a sudden crisis, furthermore as Varma (2013) stated, “citing examples of the mismanagement by the Uttarakhand government, the CAG said that although the Geological Survey of India had identified 101 villages as 'vulnerable' in June 2008, the state government did not take any measures for their rehabilitation till date”. Besides this there are also allegations against the government based onthe construction of several dams along the river, which is as good as handing out an invitation to disasters, as Jacob (2013) reflects on the same, “illegal construction - of buildings and dams...the government has sanctioned an absurd number of hydro electric power projects that actually overlap with each other”. All this only goes to show the state and in turn the nation’s lack of competency, lack of planning and absences of political accountability is evidently seen through this extensive damage. To highlight the main factors that aggravated the disaster are as follows: the unregulated tourist inflow; the absence of an early warning mechanism as the CAG report mentions “The communication system was inadequate.”( As cited in "Plan ahead", 2013,); a lack of trained medical staff at hospitals; the climatic conditions the India Meteorological Department (IMD) had issued advance warnings predicting extreme weather conditions in Uttarakhand before the flash-floods though no appropriate action was taken ("Warning had been," 2013) and finally the fact that the state had no action plan in case a disaster struck. "Plan ahead" (2013), states that “Disasters are not learning processes. The authorities willhave to do all they can to ensure against such recurrences...the starting point is for the 43 | P a g e
- 44. State Disaster Management Authority to put place a disaster management plan”. Thus, unforeseen disasters calls for having an effective disaster management planin place and for the State Disaster ManagementAuthority to prepare actionable programmes to deal with disasters. One such action plan isas suggested below, willhelp in restoring the destinations success. Steps in DisasterManagement:- One of the many means of avoiding extensive damage caused by disasters is bybeing well prepared to face them. So as to ready the state of Uttarakhand with ways of combating unexpected disasters, an effective disaster management plan is to be implemented. The following are some of the steps that can be taken toward framing a disaster management plan. The Pre-DisasterStage: Thisstage focuses on minimizing the damage to life,property and environment isthat before the disaster strikes and at the prohibition stage, various schemes are drafted for controlling the losses to livesand property to minimize the effects of disaster. There are 44 | P a g e
- 45. several techniques to embark upon this stage where the disaster has not occurred, wherein there is a call for being better prepared and to have an effective of warning mechanism prior to the disaster. Preparedness It refers to the readiness, on the governmental, social and personal levels, to effectively face the disaster that has already visited and it includes practical disaster-layouts. Here, the local residents along with the state officials need to be sensitized regarding the measures to be taken when faced by a crisis, such as landslides, floods, earthquakes etc. So in case of such emergencies they can take necessary action. The Warning of Disaster It isvery crucial that immediately after receiving slightest hintof a disaster, the information about its advent reaches the entire danger-prone area. In the case of Uttarakhand it was seen that the State Disaster Management Authority did not have a scheme so as to curtail the disaster nor were the warnings issued by the meteorology department taken seriously. Response and Relief Measures: Thisincludes a wide range of activities including the erection of control booths, action according to the action-plan drafted, the broadcasting of danger notice. Post the disaster various relief measures were initiated by the authorities in forms of rescue missions by the Indian Armed Forces, so as to rescue victims and provide rehabilitation and in monetary terms to reconstruct thedestination The Post – DisasterStage: Whilerestoring the state to normalcy, it is also equally necessary to ensure that if, unfortunately, the disaster revisits, the extent of damage islesser. Restoration includes assistance, rehabilitation and reconstruction. “In addition to this,many protective steps will be taken to prevent if same calamity recurs in any case. It is decided to keep a track of the pilgrims – Indian as well as foreigners. Moreover, this timeefforts willbe made to handle 45 | P a g e
- 46. thingsthoroughly and systematically” returns ("Char Dham yatra", 2013,para.3). Revival / Resurrection: In revival, the focus is on the erection of facilities of greater competence than those built in pre-disaster stage. Erection of new buildings, taking ultra care of durability while erecting various essential facilities – are some illustrations of revival activities. During this stage care isto be taken to see to it that building do not encroach nature and that they are built in a sustainable manner.The government has curtailed the Char Dham yatra for three years for the purpose of repair and restoration as quoted by B.D. Singh, chief executive officer of the Badrinath - Kedarnath Temple Committee told IANS (2013), that the chances of reviving the pilgrimage "for the next few years" was grim, "what we are seeing is very painful and unbelievable," he said. "We don't expect the Char Dham Yatra to resume in the next three years." . A survivorclaims that there is nothing left In Kedarnath except for the temple, which now willtake these three years to restore, as from the building to the roads were washed away in the flood (IAN, 2013). Thus thisstage willrequire thisample timeto plan appropriately for the revival of this holydestination. Development: The reconstruction of the affected region and bringing back people’s lives to normalcy is a pretty long process – especially because of the existence of severe financial constraints.The government is taking initiative to raise fundfrom both the public and private fronts. To facilitate the above various funds and relief funds are raised throughout the country to mention a few the donations sent to Doctors For You, Uttaranchal Daivee Aapada Peedith Sahayata Samiti, Uttarakhand relief fund, individuals contributions and relief funds such as the Chief Ministers relief fund, Prime Ministers relief fundetc. all have come to aid the state of Uttarakhand.Besides thisthe chance of the Char Dham Yatra to resume excluding Kedarnath isalso expected by the end of 30th September, 2013 so as to help the locals who survived solely on tourism returns ("Char Dham yatra," 2013). An apt means of ensuring that the destination thrives in spite of being in a crisisis through the adoption of an effective means to restore the destination post the disaster. The following approach showcases a step by step means in destination restoration. Thiscan be an 46 | P a g e
- 47. example of how Uttarakhand can be restored to its former glory. A Systematic Approach - Improves Destination Restoration Success To assist planners in conducting cost-effective monitoring for destination restoration, techniques can be developed consistingof four components, following which is the brief explanation regarding the four components: planning, construction and implementation, assessment of performance and management of the system. Planning: The key element in planning the restoration project would require: conceptual modeling, site assessments, and cost estimation. A conceptual model details the structural aspects of the system that must be developed to meet the goals. Whereas as site assessment is essential where the site lacks the characteristics necessary to reach performance goals, the restoration project willlikely fail.Thus in the case of Kedarnath an assessment of the 47 | P a g e
- 48. destination must be made prior to any constructions made. Also cost estimation is to be made to the end of the planning stage. Restoration managers must account for land acquisition, engineering design, and construction, among other factors. Construction andImplementation: Projects that require less physical restructuring of the site are more likely to develop successfully without human intervention. Projects requiring more engineering to massively rework the site often have a higher degree of uncertainty. These factors are to address while restoring the disaster hitregions of Uttarakhand. Assessmentof Performance: Post-implementation monitoring should focus on a parameter indicative ofthe original goal. There are numerous low-cost ways to effectively monitor a restoration project. Withinthe span of the three years there is a need for continuous assessment to see to it that the destination isbeing restored as per the action plan and no deviations occur. Management of theSystem: Restoration management plans should be modified according to the principles of adaptive management, which isnothing but decision making in times of uncertainty, where policies and practices are altered according to learning from outcomes. Thereby restoration policy can be understood well, depending on the application of alterations so as to accommodate changes if necessary. Thisis further explained through the means of the following diagram. 48 | P a g e
- 49. “Applying the continual evaluation process of adaptive successful restoration projects” (Beirman, 2003)” ADAPTIVE MANAGEME NT PLA N AC T MONITO R EVALUA TE 49 | P a g e
- 50. Conclusion Five days of heavy rain in the Kashmir valley has had a devastating impact. Almost 400 confirmed deaths so far across India and Pakistan, 600,000 people stranded and the number of roads, bridges, schools and buildings damaged too great even to start counting. For Jammu and Kashmir, this is their worst flood in 100 years, according to the chief minister Omar Abdullah. However for the rest of India, mega floods of this type are becoming ‘the new normal’. However, an extreme weather event only becomes a disaster when it hits assets and causes loss of life and livelihood. Even if climate change was not a factor, scientists tell us that disasters are getting more destructive as people are more exposed to floods and other such events Preparing for a disaster does not just mean putting in place early warning systems and protocols for evacuations. Preparedness is fundamental to the way we plan and do development. Development should protect against the risk of disasters, rather than increasing the risk. This requires understanding and acting upon disaster risk in plans and decisions. Identifying risk and mitigating it is not always straightforward. For example, in Leh district in Jammu and Kashmir, the planting of trees on the edge of streams –to tackle climate change — actually exacerbated the impact of the 2010 flash floods, because the trees fell into the streams forming dams which when they broke proved disastrous. This is a classic case of why addressing climate change and disaster risk cannot beseparated. Rather than leaving it as theory, there are opportunities now to build the risk of flooding and other natural disasters into future development programs in the Himalayas and throughout India. Investing in development that also reduces disaster risk willhelp break the cycle oftragedy UTTARAKHAND DISASTER: The highlight ison the tourism disasters vulnerability of the tourist trade to unforeseen events which also signifies the principles of disaster management, the content also elaborates on how to pro-actively deal with the potential for future crisis related to tourism, steps in disaster management would give a brief overview about the various stages involved in disaster management. Further discussion in this paper leads to a systematic approach – 50 | P a g e
- 51. which improves destination restoration techniques and also describes about the reasons for the collapse of tourism destination areas and enumerating on the aspects of an ideal area development, with relation toUttarakhand. In terms the losses faced by the tourism industry, due to the disaster are extensive as said by an official to Madhav (2013) that, “speaking on the possible losses…the season accounted for 30 per cent (around Rs 3,500 crore) of the tourism sector's annual earnings. Due to the calamity, they were witnessing 99 per cent cancellations from the affected travelers and from pre-bookings.”. Thus when the Char Dham yatra has been cancelled for three year the possible losses can be imagined. So through the implementation of destination management and the several disaster management techniques, such losses can be avoided and the credibility of a destination restored. 51 | P a g e
- 52. BIBLOGRAPHY Books:- M.comPart 1 S.M. book OXFORD dictionary Notes & journal:- Dr. Bindi Varghese& Neha Itty Jose Paul case study OnUttarakhand Disaster Websites:- www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.slideshare.com www.hindustantimes.com www.economictimes.com www.blog.wsj.com 52 | P a g e
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- Earth Science
Protection Against Earthquake
Earthquake is one of the major natural disasters. Every year it causes a huge loss of life and property all around the world. Proper strategies and awareness about disaster management is the need of the hour. This will protect us from the losses and help to cope up with these hazards. However, in order to reduce the destruction caused by these occurrences the disaster management committee has laid some safety measures.
What is an Earthquake?
What Causes an Earthquake?
Earthquakes are caused due to sudden tectonic movements in the earth’s crust. When the tectonic plates slide over one another, there is a cause of orogeny which results in earthquakes and volcanoes. These disturbances cause vibrations that spread in all directions. As there is a relative motion of these plates, there is stress built up, which breaks by releasing the stored energy known as shock waves.
To learn about the project on disaster management of Class 9, below is the link:
- How to make a Volcano
What to do During an Earthquake?
Before the disaster:.
- Connections of gas lines and appliances must be made flexible.
- An earthquake readiness plan must be kept ready, including locating a shelter house, canned food and up to date first aid kit, gallons of water, dust masks, goggles, firefighting equipment, a torch, and a working battery-operated radio.
- Architects and structural engineers must be consulted before laying the foundation of buildings in earthquake-prone areas. Also the building must be manufactured as per the rules and regulations laid by the disaster management committee.
- Awareness must be spread among friends and family members about the above-mentioned measures.
Interested to learn about other disasters, below is the link:
- Volcano Eruption
Dos and Dont’s:
- One must stay indoors until the shaking stops and it’s officially announced that it is safe to exit.
- One must stay away from bookcases, furniture, and heavy appliances that may fall.
- The shelter must be under a table or bed, and hold on to a post or any other fixture.
- If one is outdoors, the shelter must be taken in a clear stop away from buildings, trees, and power lines.
After the disaster:
The following are the measures that must be undertaken after the calamity is over.
- First aid kits must be used to tend to persons with minor injuries such as bleeding and bruises. Whereas seriously injured individuals must not be moved until they are out of danger and proper medical help has arrived.
- If the person is not breathing, rescue breathing must be administered. If the person has no pulse, CPR must be given.
- Tumbling shelves and falling items must be taken care of and damaged walls made of bricks must be avoided.
- Main gas valves must be checked for leaks. The main power switch must be turned off if there is a possibility of damage. Broken appliances must be unplugged until the damage is repaired.
- One must stay away from downed power lines and any object or appliance in contact with it.
What are the Effects of an Earthquake?
Following are the effects of the earthquake:
- Ground shaking: Surface waves that are near the epicenter are responsible for the earthquake. The intensity of ground shaking depends on the duration, local geology, and distance.
- Damage to a man-made structure.
- An outbreak of fire and spilling of hazardous chemicals.
What is the difference between Seismograph and Richter scale?
Following is the table explaining the difference between Seismograph and Richter scale:
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
Where do earthquakes occur.
An earthquake can occur anywhere on the earth but most of the time it occurs near the tectonic plates that have active faults.
What is a seismograph?
The seismograph is an instrument that is used to measure and record the details related to earthquakes like force, duration, etc.
What is an earthquake zone?
An earthquake zone is defined as the zone on the earth’s surface around which the majority of earthquakes occur. It is also known as the seismic zone or earthquake belts.
What are earthquake zones in India?
There are a total of 5 earthquake zones in India, and they are:
- Zone 5: Highly prone to earthquakes. Punjab, Kashmir, and North-East India.
- Zone 4: Parts of Delhi, Jammu, Bihar, and Indo-Gangetic basin.
- Zone 3: Moderate damage risk. Western Himalayan plains, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- Zone 2 and 1: Low damage risk.
What is meant by Earthquake?
An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth’s surface due to the sudden release of energy in the earth’s crust.
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Disaster Management Project for Class 9 – Complete Guide
Written By Avinash Sharan
Class 9 | projects 9, 11 comment(s), 10th may 2020, disaster management project.
It is mandatory to do a Disaster Management project for class 9 students every year.
According to CBSE, students studying in class IX have to submit a handwritten project on Disaster Management.
Topics will be provided by the school. The topic may be Natural Disasters or Man-Made disasters.
The purpose of giving this Disaster Management project to class 9 students is to make them prepared for any disaster.
Further, they can also spread awareness to the mass about the precautions to be taken at the time of National/Local Disasters.
Are you looking for a project on Tsunamis? Simply click the link https://shapingminds.in/project-on-tsunami/
To get the latest project on Sustainable Developmen t, click on the link.
Things to be kept in mind while doing the project
Follow cbse guidelines strictly..
- Firstly, USE A-4 size file paper (one side ruled)
- Secondly, Use blue or black ink to write your project.
- Thirdly, design the cover page in such a way that it reflects your topic.
- Fourthly, write the Topic of the project, Name, Class, and Sec, and Roll no. on the cover page in bold letters.
- Use the bottom space for your Name, Class, and sec, Roll no.
- However, the project work should not be less than 15 pages (including the cover page)
- Be ready for Viva or written assignments based on your project.
- Utilize summer vacation / Lockdown time to complete your project.
- Lastly, do not use plastic covers.
SEQUENCE OF PAGES: DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROJECT
will be your cover page with topics like
TOPIC: COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN INDIA and then show your creativity in designing the page.
Page No. 2:
Acknowledgment: (what should be written) see an example below.
From the core of my heart, I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me, for I have completed my project effectively and moreover on time. I am overwhelmed in all humility and grateful to acknowledge my depth to all those who helped me to put these ideas well. equally grateful to my ( NAME OF SUBJECT TEACHER ) for giving me moral support and guidance in doing this project. It would be an injustice if I do not thank my parents who helped me a lot in collecting data, pictures, and continuous help and support. With their able guidance, encouragement, and support, I could complete my project on time.
( Name of the student)
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11 Points To Include In Your Industrial Disaster Management Project
11 Points You Must Include In Your Disaster Management Project On Climate Change
This page will be of Index as given in every textbook where the name of the chapters in the sequence is given along with page numbers. For example…….
i) Introduction: pg 4.
ii) How the disaster takes place…………pg 5
iii) Preparedness before disaster………….pg 6
iv) Preparedness during disaster………..pg 7 & 8
v) Preparedness after disaster…………….pg 9 & 10.
Page No.4 & 5:
a short description of COVID-19 and a brief history of how it spread. Take the help of Newspapers or the Internet. (minimum 2 pages i.e. pg 4 & 5):
Read about the seven most frequently asked questions on International Date Line
Introduction – A brief History of COVID 19
Coronavirus actually belongs to the Coronaviridae family. It represents crown-like spikes on the outer surface of the virus, therefore, it was named as coronavirus. This virus is minute in size and causes the acute respiratory syndrome. These viruses were thought to infect only animals until the world witnessed a severe outbreak caused by SARS in Guangdong, China.
At the end of 2019, Wuhan- a fast-emerging business hub of China experienced an outbreak of coronavirus, killing more than 1800 and infected our 70 thousand individuals in just a span of 50 days. Health officials are still tracing the exact source of this new coronavirus, early findings (hypothesis) thought it may be linked to s seafood market in Wuhan. However, the first reported case came on 1st December, which had no link to the seafood market. Therefore, investigations are going on to find the exact reason for the originating and spread of COVID-19.
In 2003, an outbreak of SARS stands for the severe acute respiratory syndrome. An outbreak of SARS started in China and spread to other countries before ending in 2004. Coronavirus also known as COVID-19 seems to spread faster than the 2003 SARS and also may cause severe illness.
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses named the virus as SARS- CoV 19 and the disease COVID-19.
IF YOU ARE IN CLASS IX, THE FOLLOWING LINKS MAY BE HELPFUL TO YOU
Clear And Unbiased Facts About Project On Global Warming
Project On Tsunami: 13 Pages You Must Include In Your Disaster Management Project
Page No. 6 & 7
Mention the causes and symptoms:
Coronavirus typically affect the respiratory tracts of birds and mammals including humans. Doctors associate them with common cold, Bronchitis, Pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome.
The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. The risk of catching COVID-19 from someone with no symptoms at all is very low.
However, many people with COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms. This is particularly true at the early stages of the disease. It is therefore possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for example, just a mild cough and does not feel ill.
Researchers in China found that the most common symptoms among people who had COVID-19 include:
Loss of appetite
Shortness of breath and Mucus.
However, these symptoms usually begin 2 to 14 days after you come into contact with the virus.
There may be other symptoms as well such as sore throat, headache vomiting etc.
If you have any of these symptoms then
i) isolate yourself.
ii) stay away from others as much as possible.
iii) stay in a closed room and use a separate soap, towel, clothes, handkerchief and if possible toilet and bathroom.
If you are below 10 years of age or above 50 years of age with diabetes, blood pressure, weakness etc., then you are at a high risk of complications.
Therefore, immediately call your doctor and seek immediate medical help.
Page No. 8:
Extent of damage : On this page you have to mention about the extent of damage done in different countries. Take the help of newspapers or internet for latest information. You can also show the spread of this virus in different countries on the world map with different colours.
Steps taken by the government to combat this disaster: You may explain:
i) Lock down
ii) Precautions to be taken during lock down period like social distancing, sanitizing hands etc.
Very Important for TERM II (Case study based questions)
TERM II CLASS IX – GEOGRAPHY WORKSHEET ON CLIMATE – SOLVED
Case Study Based Questions From Natural Vegetation And Wildlife – Term II (SOLVED)
Page No 10 & 11
Contribution of people who are involved in combating this disaster. In this page you can mention about the role of Doctors, Nurses, Police, people involved in maintaining cleanliness etc. in details along with images, drawings, pictures, newspaper cuttings etc on the left side of your page.
Page No. 12
what lessons have you learnt from this disaster.
Page No 13 INCLUDE DO’S AND DONT’S IN YOUR DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROJECT
HEADING: Do’s and dont’s for next time to avoid such disasters.
Mention about a few things which can be done everyday to protect yourself from this disaster in points.
Similarly Mention about a few things which you should not do to protect yourself from this disaster in points.
Page No. 14:
Bibliography: A bibliography usually contains about the websites you visited, the newspapers name from where you have collected the data or pictures, etc. Whichever book, magazine, shops or websites you have visited, you must mention about that.
Page No. 15:
Keep the last page of your project for teacher’s remarks and grade/marks.
6. Lastly, go for spiral bound cover and submit your project.
Just invest 1 day and 13 pages to complete your project on Tsunami as per CBSE norms.
THERE IS NO RULE FOR NUMBER OF PAGES BUT IT SHOULD NOT BE LESS THAN 15. YOU MAY ADD FEW MORE PAGES ALSO IF YOU WANT.
Follow Guidelines of CBSE strictly on Disaster Management Project.
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Do You Want To Do A Project On Man Made Disaster, Then Click On The Given Link.
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Thank you ji
Thanku it really helps me
Bro you helped me alot
Thank you once again. Avinash Sharan.
I want disaster management on earthquake
very good this helped me in making my project
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Disaster Management Project for Class 9 & 10 PDF Download
The Disaster Management Act was passed by the Lok Sabha on 28 Nov 2005 and by the Rajya Sabha on 12 Dec 2005. On 1 June 2016, Narendra Modi, the PM of India, launched the Disaster management plan
Table of Contents
Disaster Management Project
According to the United Nations, a disaster is a major disruption of a community or society’s ability to function that involves extensive affects on people, property, the economy, or the environment and beyond the capacity of the affected community or society to deal using its own resources.
Disaster management is the process by which we “prepare for, respond to and learn from the effects of big failures”. It is how we cope with the human, material, economic, or environmental impacts of a given disaster. Disasters can have human causes, despite the fact that nature frequently causes them. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies defines a disaster as when a risk affects individuals who are already weak.
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Disaster Management Act, 2005 for Class 9 & 10
The Lok Sabha enacted the Disaster Management Act on November 28, 2005, and the Rajya Sabha did it on December 12, 2005. On January 9, 2006, the Indian President gave his approval. The Act mandates the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), whose chairman shall be the Prime Minister of India. At any given moment, the NDMA can only have nine members total, including the vice-chairperson. The NDMA members are appointed for a five-year term. On 27 September 2005, the NDMA was formally established in accordance with Section 3(1) of the Disaster Management Act after being first established on 30 May 2005 by executive order. The NDMA is in charge of “setting down the rules, plans, and procedures for disaster management” as well as making sure that disaster responses are swift and efficient. It is tasked with establishing “guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the national Plans” in accordance with Section 6 of the Act.
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The Disaster Management Act of 2005 acknowledges Disaster Management as a crucial process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and implementing measures which are necessary for-
- Prevention of the threat of any disaster
- Reduction of risk of any disaster or its consequences
- Readiness to deal with any disaster
- Promptness in dealing with a disaster
- Assessing the severity of the effects of any disaster
- Rescue and relief
- Rehabilitation and Reconstruction
Read more: Consumer Awareness in India Project for Class 10
Disaster Management Cycle
Organizations and people use the disaster management cycle, which consists of a sequence of processes, to plan for, contain, and mitigate unforeseen disasters. These could include unforeseen property damage, natural disasters, or other occurrences that put other people’s lives in peril. After the initial crisis has passed, the disaster management cycle assists everyone in minimising the effects of unforeseen events and recovering as much resources as possible. A disaster management cycle aids persons affected by disasters by assisting in their reconstruction, regrouping, and recovery.
The PDF of the Disaster Management project for class 10 is given below so that candidates can download it
- Disaster Management
Disaster Management Definition
The practice of efficiently anticipating and responding to calamities is known as disaster management. In order to reduce the damage caused by disasters, resources must be strategically organised. The management of the duties associated with catastrophe prevention, readiness, response, and recovery also entails a systematic approach.
What is Disaster?
A huge disruption that occurs over a short or long period of time and can be caused by either nature or man is referred to as a disaster. Disasters can result in hardships for people, things, the economy, or the environment that are greater than what the affected society can bear. According to data, India as a whole is susceptible to 30 different types of disasters, which would have a long-term impact on macroeconomic performance and the capacity for economic, social, and human growth.
Disaster Management Agencies in India
Some agencies are involved in disaster management that we study below in detail
- National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):- The National Disaster Management Authority, or the NDMA, is an apex body for disaster management, governed by the Prime Minister of India. It is charge of the supervision, direction, and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
- National Executive Committee (NEC):- The NEC is composed of high-profile ministerial members from the government of India that consist of the Union Home Secretary as Chairperson, and the Secretaries to the Government of India (GoI)like Ministries/Departments of Agriculture, Atomic Energy, Defence, Drinking Water Supply, Environment and Forests, etc. The NEC covers the National Plan for Disaster Management as per the National Policy on Disaster Management.
- State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA):- The Chief Minister of the respective state is the head of the SDMA.The State Government has a State Executive Committee (SEC) which assists the State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) on Disaster Management.
- District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA):- The DDMA is headed by the District Collector, Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate depending on the situation, with the elected representatives of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson. The DDMA ensures that the guidelines framed by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all the departments of the State Government at the District level and the local authorities in the District.
- Local Authorities:- Local authorities would include Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Municipalities, District and Cantonment 11 Institutional and Legal Arrangements Boards, and Town Planning Authorities which control and manage civic services.
Must read: Simple Electric Motor Project and Diagram for Class 10
Disasters Management Project -Types
There are two types of disaster
- Natural Disaster Management Projects
- Man-made Disaster Management Projects
Natural Disasters Management Projects
The disasters which are caused by nature are termed natural disasters. For examples: earthquakes, floods, droughts, etc.
Man-made Disasters Management Projects
The disasters which are the results of human activities are known as man-made disasters. For examples: road accidents, and terrorist attacks.
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Habitat ready: disaster preparedness for homeowners.
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground caused by two chunks of earth’s crust sliding past one another. Although earthquakes are short-lived, usually not lasting more than a minute, they can leave behind incredible damage.
Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning, but identifying potential hazards and planning can reduce the threat of damage, injuries and loss of life.
Before an earthquake
- Review your family preparedness plan .
- Establish a family communications plan .
- Assemble an earthquake kit .
- Store breakable items in low, closed cabinets, and fasten shelves securely to walls.
- Hang heavy items, such as pictures and mirrors, away from beds and couches.
- Secure and brace overhead light fixtures.
- Repair any deep cracks in walls, ceilings and foundations.
- Store pesticides and flammable products in closed cabinets and on bottom shelves.
- Repair defective electrical wiring, water or gas connections.
- Under sturdy furniture, such as a heavy table or desk.
- Against an inside wall or under a door frame.
- Away from glass or where heavy furniture could fall over.
- In the open, away from buildings, retaining walls, trees, overpasses, and power or telephone lines.
Additional considerations for COVID-19
- Unless you live in a mandatory evacuation zone, it is recommended that you make a plan to shelter-in-place in your home, if it is safe to do so.
- If you live in a mandatory evacuation zone, make a plan with friends or family to shelter with them where you will be safer and more comfortable.
- Only evacuate to shelters if you are unable to shelter at home or with family or friends. Note that your regular shelter may not be open this year. Check with local authorities for the latest information about public shelters.
- If you need to go to a disaster shelter, follow CDC recommendations for staying safe and healthy in a public disaster shelter during the COVID-19 pandemic.
During an earthquake
- Drop down onto your hands and knees.
- Take cover in a safe place and hold on.
- If you are in bed, stay there and cover your head and neck with a pillow.
- If you are in the kitchen, quickly try to turn off the stove, if possible.
- Stay away from pictures, windows, light fixtures or anything that could fall and break.
- Move into the open, away from buildings, street lights, poles and utility wires.
- Get down low and stay there until the shaking stops.
- Stop quickly, and stay in the vehicle.
- Move to a clear area away from buildings, trees, utility wires and overpasses.
- Once the shaking has stopped, proceed with caution, avoiding bridges or ramps that might have been damaged by the quake.
- If you are in a mountainous area, keep in mind the possibility of landslides and debris flows .
- Similarly, if you are on the coast, be aware that tsunamis are often associated with earthquakes .
After an earthquake
- Be prepared for aftershocks. Although smaller than the main shock, aftershocks can cause additional damage and bring weakened structures down. Aftershocks can occur in the first hours, days, weeks or even months after the quake.
- Listen to a radio or TV for updated information.
- When the shaking stops, look around. If there is a clear path out, leave the building and head for an open area.
- Avoid making phone calls except in serious emergencies.
- Help injured or trapped people. Do not move seriously injured people unless they are in immediate danger of death or further injury. Call for help.
- Stay out of damaged homes, and follow the directions of emergency officials.
- Check for damage to the walls, roof, foundation, electrical
- system and water lines.
- Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches or other flammable
- liquids immediately.
- Leave the house if you smell gas or chemical fumes.
- Notify your insurance company if your home is damaged.
- Do not return home until officials declare it is safe. If the house presents major structural damages or is partially destroyed, evacuate.
Additional considerations for COVID-19
- You should continue to use preventive actions like washing your hands and wearing a face covering during clean up or when returning home.
- It may take longer than usual to restore power and water if they are out. Take steps to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning if you use a generator.
- If you are injured or ill, contact your medical provider for treatment recommendations. Keep wounds clean to prevent infection. Remember, accessing medical care may be more difficult than usual during the pandemic.
- Dealing with disasters can cause stress and strong emotions, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is natural to feel anxiety, grief, and worry. Coping with these feelings and getting help when you need it will help you, your family and your community recover.
- People with preexisting mental health conditions should continue with their treatment and be aware of new or worsening symptoms. Additional information can be found at the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration page.
- When you check on neighbors and friends, be sure to follow social distancing recommendations (staying at least 6 feet, about two arms’ length, from others) and other CDC recommendations to protect yourself and others.
- If you are sick and need medical attention , contact your healthcare provider for further care instructions and shelter-in-place, if possible. If you are experiencing a medical emergency, call 9-1-1 and let the operator know if you have, or think you might have, COVID-19. If possible, put on a cloth face covering before help arrives. If staying at a shelter or public facility, alert shelter staff immediately so they can call a local hospital or clinic.
- American Red Cross: Earthquake safety
- Federal Emergency Management Agency
- Ready.gov: Earthquake safety
- CDC.gov: Earthquakes
Current earthquake information
- U.S. Geological Survey
Disasters can strike at any moment, with little notice. In order to protect your home and family, it is important to be prepared.
Landslides and debris flows
Landslides and debris flows are caused by a number of factors, such as earthquakes, heavy rain, volcanic eruptions and poor land management. Because landslides and debris flows occur quickly and with little notice, it is essential to be prepared.
A tsunami is a series of large ocean waves created by major earthquakes, underwater volcanic activity or landslides into the ocean. It may take a tsunami hours or mere minutes to reach shore, so it is important to be well-prepared and know how to respond quickly and effectively.
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