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computer graphics , production of images on computers for use in any medium. Images used in the graphic design of printed material are frequently produced on computers, as are the still and moving images seen in comic strips and animations . The realistic images viewed and manipulated in electronic games and computer simulations could not be created or supported without the enhanced capabilities of modern computer graphics. Computer graphics also are essential to scientific visualization , a discipline that uses images and colours to model complex phenomena such as air currents and electric fields, and to computer-aided engineering and design, in which objects are drawn and analyzed in computer programs. Even the windows-based graphical user interface , now a common means of interacting with innumerable computer programs, is a product of computer graphics.
Images have high information content, both in terms of information theory (i.e., the number of bits required to represent images) and in terms of semantics (i.e., the meaning that images can convey to the viewer). Because of the importance of images in any domain in which complex information is displayed or manipulated, and also because of the high expectations that consumers have of image quality, computer graphics have always placed heavy demands on computer hardware and software .
In the 1960s early computer graphics systems used vector graphics to construct images out of straight line segments, which were combined for display on specialized computer video monitors. Vector graphics is economical in its use of memory, as an entire line segment is specified simply by the coordinates of its endpoints. However, it is inappropriate for highly realistic images, since most images have at least some curved edges, and using all straight lines to draw curved objects results in a noticeable “stair-step” effect.
In the late 1970s and ’80s raster graphics , derived from television technology , became more common, though still limited to expensive graphics workstation computers . Raster graphics represents images by bitmaps stored in computer memory and displayed on a screen composed of tiny pixels . Each pixel is represented by one or more memory bits. One bit per pixel suffices for black-and-white images, while four bits per pixel specify a 16-step gray-scale image. Eight bits per pixel specify an image with 256 colour levels; so-called “true color” requires 24 bits per pixel (specifying more than 16 million colours). At that resolution, or bit depth, a full-screen image requires several megabytes (millions of bytes; 8 bits = 1 byte) of memory. Since the 1990s, raster graphics has become ubiquitous . Personal computers are now commonly equipped with dedicated video memory for holding high-resolution bitmaps.
Although used for display, bitmaps are not appropriate for most computational tasks, which need a three-dimensional representation of the objects composing the image. One standard benchmark for the rendering of computer models into graphical images is the Utah Teapot , created at the University of Utah in 1975. Represented skeletally as a wire-frame image, the Utah Teapot is composed of many small polygons. However, even with hundreds of polygons, the image is not smooth. Smoother representations can be provided by Bezier curves, which have the further advantage of requiring less computer memory. Bezier curves are described by cubic equations; a cubic curve is determined by four points or, equivalently, by two points and the curve’s slopes at those points. Two cubic curves can be smoothly joined by giving them the same slope at the junction. Bezier curves, and related curves known as B-splines, were introduced in computer-aided design programs for the modeling of automobile bodies.
Rendering offers a number of other computational challenges in the pursuit of realism. Objects must be transformed as they rotate or move relative to the observer’s viewpoint. As the viewpoint changes, solid objects must obscure those behind them, and their front surfaces must obscure their rear ones. This technique of “ hidden surface elimination” may be done by extending the pixel attributes to include the “depth” of each pixel in a scene, as determined by the object of which it is a part. Algorithms can then compute which surfaces in a scene are visible and which ones are hidden by others. In computers equipped with specialized graphics cards for electronic games, computer simulations, and other interactive computer applications, these algorithms are executed so quickly that there is no perceptible lag—that is, rendering is achieved in “real time.”
Computer Graphics: Importance of Computer Graphics
Computer has become a powerful tool for the rapid and economical production of pictures. Computer Graphics remains one the most exciting and rapidly growing fields. Old Chinese saying”One picture is worth of thousand words” can be modified in this computer era into “One picture is worth of many kilobytes of data”. It is natural to expect that graphical communication will often be more convenient when computers are utilized for this purpose. This is true because one must represent objects in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces. Computer Graphics has revolutionized almost every computer-based application in science and technology.
Information technology is a trend today. As the volume of information increases, problem of storage arises. As time is money, in the 21st century people doesn’t have the time to read huge number of pages. So this problem is solved by Computer Graphics. . Picture can represent a huge database like bar charts, pie charts etc. suppose, we have to show the performance of some factory related with profit since 1980. One requires large number of pages to store this huge information related with financial, numerical and statistical information. A common man requires a lot of time to understand it. There is an alternative to show or represent this information with the help of graphical tools such as bar chart or pie chart i.e. we can express this data in pictorial forms.
Computer Graphics methods are utilized in Computer Aided Design (CAD) to produce the drawings of certain parts of a machine from any viewing angel. Another area in the field of Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) where by employing computer graphics techniques, one may display the manufacturing layout for a given part and trace the path taken by machine tools for a given manufacturing process. Architects can use computer graphics to produce layout of building and utilized them for Computer-Aided-Design (CAD). Virtual reality can take you one more step to further. Your architect can take you to walk in the simulated building to see and feel how accessible are the light switches and selves and so on.
Many people for different domain of applications use interactive graphics. For example, structural engineering use for efficient design of structures on the basis of the analysis of stress in various elements of the structure. From the survey it is evident that in future, engineers, designers etc, will be using computer graphics quite extensively. There is virtually no area in which graphical displays can not be used to some advantage, and so it is not surprising to find the use of computer graphics so widespread. Today, we find Computer Graphics used routinely in such diverse areas such as science, engineering, medicine, business, industry, government, art, entertainment, advertising, education, training, etc.
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What is computer graphics ? Explain important applications of computer graphics.
Computer Graphics :-
Computer graphics is an art of drawing pictures on computer screens with the help of programming.
It involves computation, creation, manipulation of data.
Computer graphics is a rendering tool for the generation and manipulation of images.
Applications of computer graphics :-
Graphical User Interface (GUI) : Computer graphics tools is used to make GUI.
Computer arts : Computer graphics are used in designing object shapes and specifying object such as cartoon drawing, logo design.
Education and training : Computer generated models of physical financial and economic systems are used as educational aids. Learning with visual aids is fast, easy to understand and cost effective.
Entertainment : Graphics and image processing techniques can be used to transform an object into another object.
Visualization : Visualization is used to convert large data value into patterns, charts, graphs, etc., with the help of computer graphics.
Presentation graphics : With the help of computer graphics large volumes of business data can be presented easily, making it attractive and useful.
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Introduction to Computer Graphics
- Difficulty Level : Medium
- Last Updated : 28 Jan, 2022
Graphics are defined as any sketch or a drawing or a special network that pictorially represents some meaningful information. Computer Graphics is used where a set of images needs to be manipulated or the creation of the image in the form of pixels and is drawn on the computer. Computer Graphics can be used in digital photography, film, entertainment, electronic gadgets, and all other core technologies which are required. It is a vast subject and area in the field of computer science. Computer Graphics can be used in UI design, rendering, geometric objects, animation, and many more. In most areas, computer graphics is an abbreviation of CG. There are several tools used for the implementation of Computer Graphics. The basic is the <graphics.h> header file in Turbo-C, Unity for advanced and even OpenGL can be used for its Implementation. It was invented in 1960 by great researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter from Boeing.
Computer Graphics refers to several things:
- The manipulation and the representation of the image or the data in a graphical manner.
- Various technology is required for the creation and manipulation.
- Digital synthesis and its manipulation.
Types of Computer Graphics
- Raster Graphics: In raster, graphics pixels are used for an image to be drawn. It is also known as a bitmap image in which a sequence of images is into smaller pixels. Basically, a bitmap indicates a large number of pixels together.
- Vector Graphics: In vector graphics, mathematical formulae are used to draw different types of shapes, lines, objects, and so on.
- Computer Graphics are used for an aided design for engineering and architectural system- These are used in electrical automobiles, electro-mechanical, mechanical, electronic devices. For example gears and bolts.
- Computer Art – MS Paint.
- Presentation Graphics – It is used to summarize financial statistical scientific or economic data. For example- Bar chart, Line chart.
- Entertainment- It is used in motion pictures, music videos, television gaming.
- Education and training- It is used to understand the operations of complex systems. It is also used for specialized system such for framing for captains, pilots and so on.
- Visualization- To study trends and patterns.For example- Analyzing satellite photo of earth.
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The Department of Computer Graphics Technology prepares students who are interested in creating and managing the production of computer graphics for a wide range of industry. Students work in computer labs developing their graphics skills, techniques, concepts, and management ability through individual and team-based projects. After successful completion of the pre-technical graphics curriculum, students can select one of several Computer Graphics Technology majors. Or combine aspects of multiple majors into a single customized program of study.
Animation and Visual Effects
From the latest blockbuster film to the most complex scientific analysis, computer animation brings ideas and concepts to life. When you major in computer animation, you can help provide perspective and context to complex ideas, creating visual representations of new product ideas, big data, cancer cells, and even dancing penguins. Computer animation is everywhere, not only in entertainment but also in education, product and packaging, construction, courtrooms and new applications yet to be discovered. Study in animation and spatial graphics focuses on developing and integrating skills in raster & vector graphic technology, 3D model building, lighting & rendering, storyboarding, and virtual-motion based physical simulation. Students graduating from the program are prepared for production and management level roles as modelers, animators, producers, and technical or art directors in all areas of animation and virtual environment production. Several of our graduates won Oscars for their work on Disney's Big Hero 6. Read about it here .
Construction - Building Information Modeling
With a few keystrokes and construction knowledge, you can create a 3D model for a building and view it from inside or out, from all angles, or even with an extra floor or two.This computer-generated model helps a construction team create detailed documentation and you become an integral member of the team. When you focus your talents on construction graphics (or Building Information Modeling - BIM), you can be part of the next generation of designers revolutionizing the construction industry. This major includes courses in computer graphics, computer technology and programming, and construction materials and methods. Prepares students to be practitioners and managers of computer graphics in the field of architecture, engineering, and construction. The graduate will have the ability to master 3D modeling of architectural concepts as well as communicating or marketing them through the use of animation, interactive multimedia, the web, and video.
Data visualization specialists present complex information in an easy-to-understand format. Their efforts can help identify trends, provide important insights and illustrate impact. They can help highlight tumors in MRI images to track disease progression or visualize air flow over a car to assist designers in making more fuel efficient vehicles. This major at Purdue University focuses on the computer and graphics tools necessary to create accurate and meaningful visualizations for researchers, leaders, decision-makers and the general public.
Game Development and Design
Whether you want to develop the next big indie game, contribute to blockbuster AAA titles, research breakthroughs in virtual reality, or use games to help address society’s most pressing problems, Purdue University’s game studies major has a place for you. CGT at Purdue is a leader in preparing students for careers in computer game development. Alumni have worked at EA Games, Volition Inc., Riot Games, Crystal Dynamics, and many more. The program’s multidisciplinary approach incorporates elements of technology, software engineering, animation, human centered-design, psychology, the humanities, and project management. Using the college’s project-based learning approach, you will work as part of a team to create unique and compelling gaming experiences. These projects will expose you to a variety of skills and talents that mirror industry operations.
UX Design is a process for creating digital products that are easy and fun to use. By placing the user at the center of the design process, we ensure that the products we create meet users’ needs, are easy to learn, and easy to use. Human-Centered Design and Development is used in any type of product with a graphical user interface including web sites, mobile applications, desktop applications, ATM’s, vehicle dashboards, smart watches, and more. Job titles include User experience (UX) designer, usability engineer, information architect, interaction designer, user experience architect, user experience researcher. Most UX courses are taught in studio environments, where students are actively engaged working on projects. The major has a series of Experience Studios where students work on client projects. By the time they graduate, UX students will have 3.5 years of working experience on real client projects. UX jobs are some of the top-25 in demand, high paying jobs in the US.
Digital Enterprise Systems
Digital Enterprise Systems (DES) prepares students to be practitioners and managers of computer graphics to support the engineering design and manufacturing processes. Use the latest computer technology to design anything, from automobiles and aircraft to hip joints and heart-lung machines.From initial design sketches through the manufacturing process, you will build, test and implement products in a virtual environment. You will work primarily with product lifecycle management (PLM) software tools for simulation, computer-aided design (CAD), and product data management (PDM). You will have the opportunity to work in industry and be an integral part of teams that implement and utilize these technologies. PLM integration specialists are knowledgeable and skilled in wireframe, surface, and parametric 3D solid modeling, industrial graphics standards, and in database management strategies. The curriculum combines lab-based technical skills with classroom-based knowledge to prepare graduates who are able to contribute immediately and effectively to those employers who are engineering design graphics and database users, service providers, or consultants.
Web Programming and Design
Before most web sites and mobile applications are launched, there is a huge amount of planning, programming and testing that takes place. From design elements to databases, and from business logic to browser compatibility, web programming and design requires a broad base of knowledge and experience. As a web programming and design major at Purdue University, you will work in teams and individually to learn how to create products that are functional, secure, and user-friendly. From PHP and open source MySQL to the Microsoft and ASP environments, you will gain a broad spectrum of programming capabilities and concepts that will allow you to prosper and adapt in this constantly changing industry.
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